Enrico De Nicola
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Enrico De Nicola
|1st President of Italy|
1 January 1948 – 12 May 1948
|Prime Minister||Alcide De Gasperi|
|Preceded by||Umberto II (King of Italy)|
Title last held by Napoleon Bonaparte under the Italian Republic (Napoleonic)
|Succeeded by||Luigi Einaudi|
|Provisional Head of State of Italy|
28 June 1946 – 1 January 1948
|Prime Minister||Alcide De Gasperi|
|Preceded by||Position established|
|Succeeded by||Position abolished|
|President of the Constitutional Court|
23 January 1956 – 26 March 1957
|Preceded by||Position created|
|Succeeded by||Gaetano Azzariti|
|President of the Senate of the Republic|
28 April 1951 – 24 June 1952
|Preceded by||Ivanoe Bonomi|
|Succeeded by||Giuseppe Paratore|
|President of the Chamber of Deputies|
26 June 1920 – 25 January 1924
|Monarch||Vittorio Emanuele III|
|Preceded by||Vittorio Emanuele Orlando|
|Succeeded by||Alfredo Rocco|
|Born||9 November 1877|
Naples, Campania, Kingdom of Italy
|Died||1 October 1959 (aged 81)|
Torre del Greco, Campania, Italy
|Political party||Italian Liberal Party|
|Alma mater||University of Naples Federico II|
Enrico De Nicola, [enˈriːko de niˈkɔːla] (listen); 9 November 1877 – 1 October 1959) was an Italian jurist, journalist, politician, and provisional Head of State of republican Italy from 1946 to 1948. Afterwards, he became the first President of Italy on 1 January 1948.(Italian pronunciation:
Enrico De Nicola was born in Naples and became famous as a penal lawyer. He studied law in the University of Naples, graduating in 1896. As a Liberal he was elected a deputy for the first time in 1909 and, from 1913 to 1921, he filled minor governmental posts until the advent of fascism, when he retired from political life. He served as Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies in the Giolitti government (November 1913-March 1914) and Under-Secretary of State for the Treasury in the Orlando cabinet (January–June 1919). On 26 June 1920, he was elected speaker of the Chamber of Deputies, holding office until January 1924. He was appointed senator by King Victor Emmanuel III in 1929, but he refused to take his seat and never took part in the workings of the Assembly.
He returned to his law practice, only taking an interest in politics again after the fall of Italian Fascism. After Benito Mussolini's fall from power in 1943, king Victor Emmanuel tried to extricate the monarchy from its collaboration with the Fascist regime; De Nicola was perhaps the most influential mediator in the ensuing transition. The king's son Umberto acquired a new title of "Lieutenant-General of the Realm" and took over most of the functions of the sovereign. Victor Emanuel later abdicated; Umberto became king as Umberto II and a Constitutional Referendum was held, won by republicans. A new Constituent Assembly was elected, and prime minister Alcide de Gasperi became acting head of state for a few weeks when Umberto II was exiled and left Italy. The Constituent Assembly then elected De Nicola Provisional Head of State on 28 June 1946, with 80% of the votes, at the first round of voting. Giulio Andreotti later recalled that De Nicola — a man of great modesty — was not sure whether to accept the nomination, and underwent frequent changes of mind in the face of repeated insistence by all the major political leaders. Andreotti recalled that the journalist Manlio Lupinacci then issued an appeal to De Nicola in the pages of Il Giornale d'Italia: "Your Excellency, please, decide to decide if you can accept to accept...."
On 25 June 1947, De Nicola resigned from the post, citing health reasons, but the Constituent Assembly immediately re-elected him again the following day, having recognized in his act signs of nobility and humility. After the Italian Constitution took effect, he was formally named the "President of the Italian Republic" on 1 January 1948. He finally refused to be a candidate for the first constitutional election the following May, in which Luigi Einaudi was elected to the Quirinale, the formal seat of the Italian presidency.
His other political titles included President of the Italian Chamber of Deputies, Temporary Chief of the Italian State and President of the Italian Senate.
- Lentz, Harris M., ed. (4 February 2014). Heads of States and Governments Since 1945. Routledge. p. 436. ISBN 9781134264902.
- Favor, Lesli J. (2004). Italy: a primary source cultural guide. The Rosen Publishing Group. pp. 36. ISBN 0-8239-3839-5.
- "Enrico De Nicola - Italian President". World Presidents Database.
- Sergio, S. M. "Elogio dell'Avvocato" (in Italian). Pironti. Archived from the original on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 26 January 2012.
- B. Vespa, Storia d'Italia da Mussolini a Berlusconi, p. 32 (in Italian)
- Cristina Mascheroni, Enrico De Nicola, Infobergamo (2006)  (in Italian) Accessed 26 January 2012
- "Le onorificenze della Repubblica Italiana". www.quirinale.it.
- "Biography of De Nicola, Enrico - Archontology.org". www.archontology.org.
- Andrea Jelardi, Enrico De Nicola. Il presidente galantuomo, Kairòs, Naples (2009). (in Italian)
Vittorio Emanuele Orlando
| President of the Chamber of Deputies
|New office|| President of Italy
| President of the Senate
|New office|| President of the Constitutional Court