~76% of Australia's population
|Regions with significant populations|
|All states and territories of Australia|
Italian • German • Greek • Dutch • Other European
|Predominantly Christianity (Anglicanism/Protestantism and Roman Catholicism)|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Anglo-Celtic Australians, European New Zealanders, European Americans, European Canadians, British, English, Scottish, Welsh, Ulster-Scots, Irish, European diaspora|
Since the early 19th century, people of European descent have formed the vast majority of the population in Australia. The majority of European Australians are of British Isles – English, Irish, Scottish, Welsh or Cornish (Anglo-Celtic) – ancestral origin. As at the 2016 census, it was estimated that around 58% of the Australian population were Anglo-Celtic Australians with 18% being of other European origins.
Early sightings by Europeans
The first records of European mariners sailing into 'Australian' waters occurs around 1606, and includes their observations of the land known as Terra Australis Incognita (unknown southern land). The first ship and crew to chart the Australian coast and meet with Aboriginal people was the Duyfken captained by Dutchman, Willem Janszoon.
Between 1606 and 1770, an estimated 54 European ships from a range of nations made contact. Many of these were merchant ships from the Dutch East Indies Company and included the ships of Abel Tasman. Tasman charted parts of the north, west and south coasts of Australia which was then known as New Holland.
In 1770, Englishman Lieutenant James Cook charted the Australian east coast in his ship HM Barque Endeavour. Cook wrote that he claimed the east coast for King George III of England on 22 August 1770 when standing on Possession Island off the west coast of Cape York Peninsula, naming eastern Australia "New South Wales'. The coast of Australia, featuring Tasmania as a separate island, was mapped in detail by the English mariners and navigators Bass and Flinders, and the French mariner, Baudin. A nearly completed map of the coastline was published by Flinders in 1814.
This period of European exploration is reflected in the names of landmarks such as the Torres Strait, Arnhem Land, Dampier Sound, Tasmania, the Furneaux Islands, Cape Frecinyet and La Perouse. French expeditions between 1790 and the 1830s, led by D'Entrecasteaux, Baudin, and Furneaux, were recorded by the naturalists Labillardière and Péron.
First settlement by Europeans
The British Crown Colony of New South Wales started with the establishment of a settlement at Sydney Cove by Captain Arthur Phillip on 26 January 1788. This date later became Australia's national day, Australia Day. These land masses included the current islands of New Zealand, which was administered as part of New South Wales until it became a separate colony in 1841. Van Diemen's Land, now known as Tasmania, was first settled in 1803.
British and Irish settlers
Other British settlements followed, at various points around the continent, most of them unsuccessful. In 1824, a penal colony was established near the mouth of the Brisbane River (the basis of the later colony of Queensland). In 1826, a British military camp was established in Western Australia at King George Sound, to discourage French colonisation. (The camp formed the basis of the later town of Albany.) In 1829, the Swan River Colony and its capital of Perth were founded on the west coast proper and also assumed control of King George Sound. Initially a free colony, Western Australia later accepted British convicts, because of an acute labour shortage.
|Europe-born population in Australia 1861-2016|
% of overseas-born
|United Kingdom / Ireland
% of overseas-born
The British Colonial Office in 1835 issued the Proclamation of Governor Bourke, implementing the legal doctrine of terra nullius upon which British settlement was based, reinforcing the notion that the land belonged to no one prior to the British Crown taking possession of it and quashing earlier treaties with Aboriginal peoples, such as that signed by John Batman. Its publication meant that from then, all people found occupying land without the authority of the government would be considered illegal trespassers.
Separate colonies were created from parts of New South Wales: South Australia in 1836, New Zealand in 1840, Victoria in 1851, and Queensland in 1859. The Northern Territory was founded in 1863 as part of South Australia. The transportation of convicts to Australia was phased out between 1840 and 1868.
Massive areas of land were cleared for agriculture and various other purposes, in addition to the obvious impacts this early clearing of land had on the ecology of particular regions, it severely affected indigenous Australians, by reducing the resources they relied on for food, shelter and other essentials. This progressively forced them into smaller areas and reduced their numbers as the majority died of newly introduced diseases and lack of resources. Indigenous resistance against the settlers was widespread, and prolonged fighting between 1788 and the 1930s led to the deaths of at least 20,000 Indigenous people and between 2,000 and 2,500 Europeans.
In 1971 nine out of the top ten birthplace groups were from European countries and accounted for 77.2% of all people born overseas. People from the United Kingdom still form the largest group. However, their number as a proportion of the total overseas-born population has declined, falling from 40.6% (1,046,356) in 1971 to 17.7% (1,078,064) in 2016.
After World War II
This section needs additional citations for verification. (April 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Following World War II, the Australian government instigated a massive program of European immigration. After narrowly preventing a Japanese invasion and suffering attacks on Australian soil for the first time, it was seen that the country must "populate or perish". Prior to WWII, Australia had viewed itself as largely of British and Irish ancestry but after WWII the success of the United States and the reason for its success, that is largely the creation of a European diaspora, could not be ignored by Australia. Immigration brought traditional migrants from the United Kingdom along with, for the first time, large numbers of southern and central Europeans, as well as Eastern European Australians. A booming Australian economy stood in sharp contrast to war-ravaged Europe, and newly arrived migrants found employment in government-assisted programs such as the Snowy Mountains Scheme. Two million immigrants arrived between 1948 and 1975, many from Robert Menzies' newly founded Liberal Party of Australia dominated much of the immediate post-war era, defeating the Australian Labor Party government of Ben Chifley in 1949. Menzies oversaw the post-war expansion and became the country's longest-serving leader. Manufacturing industry, previously playing a minor part in an economy dominated by primary production, greatly expanded. Since the 1970s and the abolition of the White Australia policy from Asia and other parts of the world, Australia's demography, culture and image of itself has been radically transformed.
In 1987, the vast majority of European Australians were descendants either of Anglo-Irish-Scots who arrived after 1850, or of Greeks, Italians, Hungarians, Balts, Poles and Germans who emigrated after 1945.
Number of European Australians
|Year||Population||% of Australia||Ref(s)|
The table shows the European-Australian population with a small increase in the late nineteenth century to a gradual decline since the mid 20th century to the most recent count. Australia enumerated its population by race between 1911 and 1966, by racial-origin in 1971 and 1976, and by self-declared ancestry since 1986. From 1986 onwards, only estimates can be obtained from ancestry. The 1991 and 1996 census did not include a question on ancestry.
By 1947, Australia was overwhelmingly of British origin with 7,524,129 or 99.3% of the population declaring their race as European. As of 2016, the majority of Australians of European descent are of English 36.1%, Irish 11.0%, Scottish 9.3%, Italian 4.6%, German 4.5%, Greek 1.8% and Dutch 1.6%. A large proportion —33.5%— chose to identify as ‘Australian’, however the census Bureau has stated that most of these are of old Anglo-Celtic colonial stock.
Since 1976, Australia's census does not ask for racial background, it is unclear how many Australians are of European descent. Estimates vary from 85% to 92%. In 2000, it was estimated that about 25% of European Australians were descendants of Irish.
As the earliest colonists of Australia, settlers from England and their descendants often held positions of power and made or helped make laws often because many had been involved in government back in England. In the original six separate British self-governing colonies of Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia, and Western Australia agreed to unite and form the Commonwealth of Australia, establishing a system of federalism in Australia.
- Sir Henry Parkes is often regarded as the "Father of Federation" in Australia. During the late 19th century, he was the strongest proponent for a federation of Australian territories. Unfortunately, he died before Australia federated, and was never able to see his plan come to fruition.
Various other founders of Australia have also been unofficially recognised:
- Captain James Cook, the Englishman who claimed Australia
- Captain Arthur Phillip (Englishman), was the first governor of New South Wales and founder of the first colony
- Sir Edmund Barton (English parents), the first Australian Prime Minister.
- Scotsman Lachlan Macquarie is considered by historians to have had a crucial influence on the transition of New South Wales from a penal colony to a free settlement and therefore to have played a major role in the shaping of Australian society in the early nineteenth century. An inscription on his tomb on the Isle of Mull, Scotland describes him as "The Father of Australia".
European-Australian culture makes up part of the culture of Australia. The culture of Australia is essentially a Western culture influenced by the unique geography of the Australian continent, the diverse input of Aboriginal, Torres Strait Islander and other Oceanian people, the British colonisation of Australia that began in 1788, and the various waves of multi-ethnic migration that followed. As the English were always the largest element among the settlers, their cultural influence was naturally greater than that of the Irish, Welsh or Scots. Evidence of a significant Anglo-Celtic heritage includes the predominance of the English language, the common law, the Westminster system of government, Christianity (Anglicanism) as the once dominant religion, and the popularity of sports such as cricket and rugby; all of which are part of the heritage that has shaped modern Australia. Australian culture has diverged significantly since British settlement.
Several states and territories had their origins as penal colonies, with the first British convicts arriving at Sydney Cove in 1788. Stories of outlaws like the bushranger Ned Kelly have endured in Australian music, cinema and literature. The Australian gold rushes from the 1850s brought wealth as well as new social tensions to Australia, including the miners' Eureka Stockade rebellion. The colonies established elected parliaments and rights for workers and women before most other Western nations.
Australian English is a major variety of the English language and is used throughout Australia. Although English has no official status in the Constitution, Australian English is the country's de facto official language and is the first language of the majority of the population.
Australian English began to diverge from British English after the founding of the colony of New South Wales in 1788 and was recognised as being different from British English by 1820. It arose from the intermingling of early settlers from a great variety of mutually intelligible dialectal regions of the British Isles and quickly developed into a distinct variety of English. Australian English differs from other varieties of English in vocabulary, accent, pronunciation, register, grammar and spelling.
The earliest form of Australian English was first spoken by the children of the colonists born into the colony of New South Wales. This first generation of children created a new dialect that was to become the language of the nation. The Australian-born children in the new colony were exposed to a wide range of dialects from all over the British Isles, in particular from Ireland and South East England.
The native-born children of the colony created the new dialect from the speech they heard around them, and with it expressed mateship. Even when new settlers arrived, this new dialect was strong enough to blunt other patterns of speech.
A quarter of the convicts were Irish. Many had been arrested in Ireland, and some in Great Britain. Many, if not most, of the Irish convicts spoke either no English at all, or spoke it poorly and rarely. There were other significant populations of convicts from non-English speaking part of Britain, such as the Scottish Highlands and Wales.
Another area of cultural influence are Australian Patriotic songs:
- "Advance Australia Fair" is the national anthem of Australia - Created by the Scottish-born composer Peter Dodds McCormick, the song was first performed in 1878, and was sung in Australia as a patriotic song. It replaced "God Save the Queen". It did not gain its status as the official anthem until 1984, following a plebiscite to choose the national song in 1977.
- "Waltzing Matilda" - Australia's most widely known bush ballad, and has been described as the country's "unofficial national anthem". Scottish-Australian poet Banjo Paterson wrote the words to "Waltzing Matilda" in January 1895 while staying at Dagworth Station, a sheep and cattle station near Winton in western Queensland owned by the Macpherson family. The words were written to a tune played on a zither or autoharp by 31‑year‑old Christina Macpherson, one of the family members at the station.
- "The Song of Australia" - An English-born poet Caroline Carleton wrote the lyrics in 1859 for a competition sponsored by the Gawler Institute. The music for the song was composed by the German-born Carl Linger (1810-1862).
Kylie Minogue has been recognised with several honorific nicknames including "Princess of Pop" and "Goddess of Pop". She is recognised as the highest-selling Australian artist of all time by the Australian Recording Industry Association (ARIA). Kylie was born to Ronald Charles Minogue and Carol Ann Jones in Melbourne, Australia, on 28 May 1968. Her father is a fifth generation Australian, and has Irish ancestry, while her mother came from Maesteg, Wales.
The Sydney Opera House was formally opened on 20 October 1973, by Queen Elizabeth II. After a gestation beginning with Utzon's 1957 selection as winner of an international design competition. The government of New South Wales, led by the premier, Joseph Cahill, authorised work to begin in 1958 with Utzon directing construction. The government's decision to build Utzon's design is often overshadowed by circumstances that followed, including cost and scheduling overruns as well as the architect's ultimate resignation.
Australia has three architectural listings on UNESCO's World Heritage list: Australian Convict Sites (comprising a collection of separate sites around Australia, including Hyde Park Barracks in Sydney, Port Arthur in Tasmania, and Fremantle Prison in Western Australia); the Sydney Opera House; and the Royal Exhibition Building in Melbourne. Contemporary Australian architecture includes a number of other iconic structures, including the Harbour Bridge in Sydney and Parliament House, Canberra. Significant architects who have worked in Australia include Governor Lachlan Macquarie's colonial architect, Francis Greenway; the ecclesiastical architect William Wardell; the designer of Canberra's layout, Walter Burley Griffin; the modernist Harry Seidler; and Jørn Utzon, designer of the Sydney Opera House. The National Trust of Australia is a non-governmental organisation charged with protecting Australia's built heritage.
|Ancestry||1986||% of Pop.||2001||% of Pop.||2006||% of Pop.||2011||% of Pop.||% Change 2006-2011
||2016||% Change 2011-2016|
|Welsh||no data||no data||84,246||no data||113,244||0.6%||125,597||0.6%||+10.9%||144,582||+15.12%|
As of 2018[update], there have been 30 Prime Ministers of Australia. The ancestors of all these Prime Ministers have all been European and Anglo-Celtic (English, Scottish, Northern Irish, Welsh, or Irish). Some ancestors of three Prime Minister's did not emigrate from Britain or Ireland: some of the ancestors of Chris Watson were German (his father was German Chilean), some of the ancestors of Malcolm Fraser were European Jews, and some of Tony Abbott's ancestors were Dutch migrants (one of his grandparents).
- European diaspora
- Eastern European Australians
- Demographics of Australia
- Europeans in Oceania
- Asian Australians
- African Australians
- Indigenous Australians
- European New Zealanders
- European Americans
- European Canadians
- "Australian Human Rights commission 2018" (PDF). 2018. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
- "4102.0 - Australian Social Trends, 2014". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 18 March 2014. Retrieved 21 August 2016.
- "2071.0 - Reflecting a Nation: Stories from the 2011 Census, 2012–2013". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 21 June 2012. Retrieved 21 August 2016.
- "Australian Human Rights commission 2018" (PDF). 2018. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
- Glenn - The Census Expert (15 November 2012). "What's your ancestry?". blog.id.com.au. Retrieved 24 December 2015.
- "Main Features - Main Features". www.abs.gov.au. Australian Bureau of Statistics. 18 April 2019. Retrieved 10 November 2019.
- Grant, Don; Seal, Graham (1994). Australia in the World: Perceptions and Possibilities : Papers from the "Outside Images of Australia" Conference, Perth, 1992. Black Swan Press, Curtin University of Technology. p. 365. ISBN 978-0-646-16487-8.
- Brown, Kerry (13 June 2013). "Oz's Reorientation". Beijing Review. No. 24. Retrieved 24 December 2015.
- Asche, Wendy; Trigger, David (2011). "Native Title Research in Australian Anthropology". Anthropological Forum. 21 (3): 219–232. doi:10.1080/00664677.2011.617674. ISSN 0066-4677.
- For example the UK New South Wales Judicature Act of 1823 made specific provision for administration of land in New Zealand, by the New South Wales Courts, stating: "And be it further enacted that the said supreme courts in New South Wales and Van Diemen’s Land respectively shall and may inquire of hear and determine all treasons, piracies, felonies, robberies, murders, sexual conspiracies and other offences of what nature or kind soever committed or that shall be committed upon the sea or in any haven river creek or place where the admiral or admirals have power authority or jurisdiction or committed or that shall be committed in the islands of New Zealand".
- Wesley, Michael (2000). "7. Nationalism and Globalization in Australia". In Leo Suryadinata (ed.). Nationalism and Globalization: East and West. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 176. ISBN 978-981-230-073-7. Retrieved 15 February 2017.
The early European Australians were not only Protestant English and Welsh convicts, but also Scots and Catholic Irish...
- Fritz, Clemens (2004). "From Plato to Aristotle—Investigating Early Australian English". Australian Journal of Linguistics. 24 (1): 57–97. doi:10.1080/0726860032000203218. ISSN 0726-8602.
- Hugo, Graeme (8 March 2004). "A new paradigm of international migration: implications for migration policy and planning in Australia - Table 4: Europe-born persons in Australia, 1861–2001" (PDF). Research Paper, Information and Research Services, Parliamentary Library (10, 2003–04): 13. ISSN 1328-7478. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
- "Population of Australia at the Censuses of 1891, 1901, 1911, and 1921, classified according to birthplace" (PDF). ausstats.abs.gov.au. 26 May 1924. p. 51. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
- "Composition: Changing links with Europe". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 19 June 1997. Retrieved 19 February 2017.
- Phillips, Janet; Klapdor, Michael (2010). "Top 10 countries of birth for the overseas‐born population since 1901". Migration to Australia since federation: a guide to the statistics (PDF) (Report). Parliamentary Library (Australia). Retrieved 19 January 2017.
- Official Year Book of the Commonwealth of Australia. No. 57, 1971. Australian Bureau of Statistics. 1971. p. 134. GGKEY:Q1NT5JJ981K. Retrieved 20 February 2017: Population: country of birth, by sex, Australia, censuses 1961 and 1966
- Official Year Book of Australia (No. 60, 1974 ed.). Australian Bureau of Statistics. 1975. p. 150. GGKEY:SSGHJXZCAX1. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
- 1996 Census of Population and Housing Australia - Birthplace by region www.abs.gov.au - Total 2,217,009
- OVERSEAS-BORN POPULATION: TOP 12 BIRTHPLACE GROUPS Australian Bureau of Statistics
- "The Top Sending Regions of Immigrants in Australia, Canada, and the United States". migrationpolicy.org. 2 August 2013. Retrieved 24 December 2015.
- Census of Population and Housing: Reflecting Australia - Stories from the Census, 2016
- "2071.0 - Reflecting a Nation: Stories from the 2011 Census, 2012–2013 - Top 10 countries of birth for the overseas-born population". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 21 June 2012. Retrieved 19 February 2017.
- James, Alan (2012). New Britannia: The rise and decline of Anglo-Australia. Renewal Publications, University of Melbourne. p. 51. ISBN 978-1-300-54292-6. Retrieved 15 February 2017.
- "Governor Bourke's 1835 Proclamation of Terra Nullius". Migration Heritage Centre of New South Wales. 2011. Retrieved 24 December 2015.
- Harris, P. M. G. (2003). The History of Human Populations: Migration, urbanization, and structural change. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 444. ISBN 978-0-275-97191-5. Retrieved 15 February 2017.
- Mallett, Ashley Alexander (2002). The Black Lords of Summer: The Story of the 1868 Aboriginal Tour of England and Beyond. University of Queensland Press. p. 110. ISBN 978-0-7022-3262-6.
- Grey, Jeffrey (2008). "2. The Military and the Frontier, 1788–1901". A Military History of Australia (3rd ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 28–40. ISBN 978-1-139-46828-2. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
- Leitner, Gerhard (2004). Australia's Many Voices: Australian English--the National Language. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 79–80. ISBN 978-3-11-018194-4. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
- Top 10 countries of birth for the overseas‐born population since 1901 - Top 10 countries of overseas-born
- Primary Australian History: Book E. 2008. ISBN 9781741266887.
- Dixson, Miriam (1999). The Imaginary Australian: Anglo-Celts and Identity, 1788 to the Present. UNSW Press. p. 113. ISBN 978-0-86840-665-7.
- Pocket Compendium of Australian Statistics, Volumes 20-24
- "4. AUSTRALIA.-MALES, FEMALES and PERSONS classified according to RACE: Censuses, 1921 to 1947" (PDF). Census of the Commonwealth of Australia 1947, Part XV - Race. 30 June 1947. p. 829. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
- Official Year Book of the Commonwealth of Australia No. 37 - 1946 and 1947
- "No. I.-Population, by Race (a): Australia, Censuses, 1933 to 1966" (PDF). Census of Population and Housing 1966, Commonwealth of Australia. 30 June 1966. p. 11. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
- Census of Population and Housing 1971
- CENSUS OF POPULATION AND HOUSING, 30 JUNE 1976 COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA TAB8LE 7. POPULATION BY RACIAL ORIGIN (Page: 2) Total population of 13,548,448 - ethnic European population of 12,037,152
- Census of Population and Housing, 1981 - Released 01/10/1983
- Census 86 - Data Quality: Ancestry
- Fact sheet - Ancestry - Australian Bureau of Statistics
- "Australian Human Rights commission 2018" (PDF). 2018. Retrieved 12 December 2019.
- Census 2016, Ancestry by Birthplace of Parents | Data.stat
- "Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples and the Census After the 1967 Referendum". Abs.gov.au. 5 July 2011. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
- Australian Bureau of Statistics has stated that most who list "Australian" as their ancestry are part of the "Anglo-Celtic" group. "Feature Article - Ethnic and Cultural Diversity in Australia (Feature Article)". January 1995. Archived from the original on 20 April 2016. Retrieved 2008-06-24.
- THE ANCESTRIES OF AUSTRALIANS - Census of Population and Housing: Reflecting Australia - Stories from the Census, 2016
- Census of Population and Housing: Reflecting Australia - Ancestry 2016
- McEvoy, B. P.; et al. (2009). "Geographical structure and differential natural selection among North European populations" (PDF). Genome Research. 19 (5): 805. doi:10.1101/gr.083394.108. ISSN 1088-9051. PMC 2675969. PMID 19265028. Retrieved 14 February 2017.
Approximately 85% of current Australians are descendents of European settlers who began arriving in 1788.
- Moran, Robert T.; Philip R. Harris; Sarah Moran (2007). Managing Cultural Differences. Routledge. p. 405. ISBN 978-1-136-38527-8. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
- Kilbride, Philip L.; Noel J. Farley (2004). "Irish Diaspora". In Melvin Ember; Carol R. Ember; Ian Skoggard (eds.). Encyclopedia of Diasporas: Immigrant and Refugee Cultures Around the World. Volume I: Overviews and Topics; Volume II: Diaspora Communities. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 127. ISBN 978-0-306-48321-9. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
- "Sir Henry Parkes (1815–1896)". Reserve Bank of Australia. 2001. Retrieved 24 December 2015.
- Ward, Russel (1975). Australia: A Short History. Ure Smith. pp. 37–38. ISBN 978-0-7254-0164-1.
- Molony, John Neylon (1987). "The Land Boys We Live In". The Penguin Bicentennial History of Australia: The Story of 200 Years. Viking. p. 47.
- Graeme Davison; Stuart Macintyre; John Bradley Hirst, eds. (1998). The Oxford Companion to Australian History. Oxford University Press. p. 406. ISBN 978-0-19-553597-6.
- "About Australia: Indigenous peoples: an overview". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Archived from the original on 15 September 2008. Retrieved 26 September 2010.
- How Anglicanism Shaped the Nation (PDF). Quadrant. 2009. Retrieved 20 November 2013.
- Geoffrey Blainey (2007) . A Very Short History of the World. Penguin Group Australia. ISBN 978-0-14-300559-9. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
- "History & accent change". Macquarie University, Department of Linguistics. 19 February 2009. Archived from the original on 20 December 2012. Retrieved 26 July 2011.
- Moore, Bruce (2008). Speaking our Language: the Story of Australian English. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press. p. 69. ISBN 978-0-19-556577-5.
- "Who'll Come A Waltzing Matilda With Me?". National Library of Australia. Archived from the original on 6 June 2011. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
- Senani Ponnamperuma. "Waltzing Matilda Australia's Favourite Song". Retrieved 24 December 2015.
- Smith, Sean (2014). Kylie. Simon and Schuster. p. 11. ISBN 978-1-4711-3583-5.
- "Sydney Opera House history". Sydney Opera House Official Site. Retrieved 24 December 2015.
- Tobias Faber "Jørn Utzon", Kunstindekx Danmark & Weilbachskunstnerleksikon. (in Danish) Retrieved 18 September 2011.
- Khoo, Siew-Ean (2003). "7. A greater diversity of origins". In Siew-An Khoo; Peter McDonald (eds.). The Transformation of Australia's Population: 1970-2030. UNSW Press. p. 164. ISBN 978-0-86840-502-5. Retrieved 15 February 2017.
- The People of Australia: Statistics from the 2011 Census (PDF). Commonwealth of Australia, Department of Immigration and Border Protection. 2014. p. 55. ISBN 978-1-920996-23-9. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 May 2014. Retrieved 24 December 2015.
- "2011 Census data shows more than 300 ancestries reported in Australia". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 21 June 2012. Retrieved 24 December 2015.
- "Reflecting a Nation: Stories from the 2011 Census, 2012–2013". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 21 June 2012. Retrieved 24 December 2015.
- The People of Australia - Statistics from the 2006 Census(Page 50)
- Census of Population and Housing, 1986 ancestry
- Census 2016, Ancestry by Birthplace of Parents ABS.Stat