Executive Office of the President of the United States

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Executive Office of the President
Seal of the Executive Office of the President of the United States 2014.svg
Seal of the Executive Office of the President
Flag of the Executive Office of the President of the United States.svg
Flag of the Executive Office of the President
Agency overview
Formed July 1, 1939; 78 years ago (1939-07-01)
Headquarters White House
Employees About 4,000
Agency executive
Parent agency United States federal government
Website Executive Office of the President

The Executive Office of the President of the United States (EOPOTUS or EOP) consists of the immediate staff of the President of the United States and multiple levels of support staff reporting to the President. With the increase in technological and global advancement, the size of the White House staff has increased to include an array of policy experts to effectively address various fields of the modern day.

The Executive Office is overseen by the White House Chief of Staff.[1]

History[edit]

In 1939, during Franklin D. Roosevelt's second term in office, the foundations of the modern White House staff were created. Based on the recommendations of a presidentially commissioned panel of political science and public administration experts that was known as the Brownlow Committee, Roosevelt was able to get Congress to approve the Reorganization Act of 1939. The Act led to Reorganization Plan No. 1,[2] which created the EOP,[3] which reported directly to the president. The EOP encompassed two subunits at its outset: the White House Office (WHO) and the Bureau of the Budget, the predecessor to today's Office of Management and Budget, which had been created in 1921 and originally located in the Treasury Department. It absorbed most of the functions of the National Emergency Council.[4] Initially, the new staff system appeared more ambitious on paper than in practice; the increase in the size of the staff was quite modest at the start. But it laid the groundwork for the large and organizationally complex White House staff that would emerge during the presidencies of Roosevelt's successors.[5]

Roosevelt's efforts are also notable in contrast to those of his predecessors in office. During the nineteenth century, presidents had few staff resources. Thomas Jefferson had one messenger and one secretary at his disposal, both of whose salaries were paid by the president personally. It was not until 1857 that Congress appropriated money ($2,500) for the hiring of one clerk. By Ulysses S. Grant's presidency (1869–1877), the staff had grown to three. By 1900, the White House staff included one "secretary to the president" (then the title of the president's chief aide), two assistant secretaries, two executive clerks, a stenographer, and seven other office personnel. Under Warren G. Harding, the size of the staff expanded to thirty-one, although most were clerical positions. During Herbert Hoover's presidency, two additional secretaries to the president were added by Congress, one of whom Hoover designated as his Press Secretary. From 1933 to 1939, even as he greatly expanded the scope of the federal government's policies and powers in response to the Great Depression, Roosevelt muddled through: his "brains trust" of top advisers were often appointed to vacant positions in agencies and departments, whence they drew their salaries since the White House lacked statutory or budgetary authority to create new staff positions. Ballpark estimates indicate some 2,000 to 2,500 persons serve in EOP staff positions with policy-making responsibilities, with a budget of $300 to $400 million (George W. Bush's budget request for Fiscal Year 2005 was for $341 million in support of 1,850 personnel).[6]

Organization[edit]

Senior staff within the Executive Office of the President have the title Assistant to the President, second-level staff have the title Deputy Assistant to the President, and third-level staff have the title Special Assistant to the President.

The core White House staff appointments, and most EOP officials generally, are not required to be confirmed by the U.S. Senate, although there are a handful of exceptions (e.g., the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, the Chair and members of the Council of Economic Advisers, and the United States Trade Representative).

The information in the following table is current as of July 31, 2017. Only principal executives are listed; for subordinate officers, see individual office pages.

Agency Principal executive Incumbent
White House Office White House Chief of Staff John F. Kelly
National Security Council Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs H. R. McMaster
Council of Economic Advisers Chair of the Council of Economic Advisers Kevin Hassett
Council on Environmental Quality Managing Director of the Council on Environmental Quality Vacant
Executive Residence Staff and Operations White House Chief Usher Timothy Harleth[7]
Office of Administration Director of the Office of Administration Marcia Lee Kelly
Office of Management and Budget Director of the Office of Management and Budget Mick Mulvaney
Office of National Drug Control Policy Director of National Drug Control Policy Richard Baum (Acting)
Office of Science and Technology Policy Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy Vacant
Office of the United States Trade Representative United States Trade Representative Robert Lighthizer
Office of the Vice President of the United States Chief of Staff to The Vice President Nick Ayers
Office of the Counselor to the President Senior Counselor to the President Kellyanne Conway

White House Offices[edit]

Note: The White House Office (including its various offices listed below) is a sub-unit of the Executive Office of the President (EOP). The various agencies of the EOP are listed above.

Budget history[edit]

Year Budget
2017 $709 million[8]
2016 $692 million[9]
2015 $676 million[10]
2014 $624 million[11]
2013 $650 million[12]
2012 $640 million[13]
2011 $708 million[14]
2010 $772 million[15]
2009 $728 million[16]
2008 $682 million[17]
2007 $2956 million[18]
2006 $5379 million[19]
2005 $7686 million[20]
2004 $3349 million[21]
2003 $386 million[22]
2002 $451 million[23]
2001 $246 million[24]
2000 $283 million[25]
1999 $417 million[26]
1998 $237 million[27]
1997 $221 million[28]
1996 $202 million[29]
1995 $215 million[30]
1994 $231 million[31]
1993 $194 million[32]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hartnett, Cass (November 6, 2017). "Library Guides: United States Federal Government Resources: The Executive Office of the President". guides.lib.uw.edu. Retrieved 2017-11-09. 
  2. ^ Roosevelt, Franklin D. (April 25, 1939). "Message to Congress on the Reorganization Act". John T. Woolley and Gerhard Peters. The American Presidency Project. Santa Barbara: University of California. Retrieved May 6, 2011. 
  3. ^ Mosher, Frederick C. (1975). American Public Administration: Past, Present, Future (2nd ed.). Birmingham: University of Alabama Press. ISBN 0-8173-4829-8. 
  4. ^ Roosevelt, Franklin D. (May 9, 1939). "Message to Congress on Plan II to Implement the Reorganization Act". John T. Woolley and Gerhard Peters. The American Presidency Project. Santa Barbara: University of California. Retrieved May 6, 2011. The plan provides for the abolition of the National Emergency Council and the transfer to the Executive Office of the President of all its functions with the exception of the film and radio activities which go to the Office of Education. 
  5. ^ Relyea, Harold C. (March 17, 2008). "The Executive Office of the President: An Historical Overview" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved April 14, 2008. 
  6. ^ Burke, John P. "Administration of the White House". Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia. Archived from the original on November 17, 2010. Retrieved June 6, 2009. 
  7. ^ Bennett, Kate (June 23, 2017). "Trump family hires familiar face as chief usher". CNN. 
  8. ^ "FY 2017 Omnibus Summary – Financial Services and General Government Appropriations" (PDF). House Appropriations Committee. May 1, 2017. Retrieved May 1, 2017. 
  9. ^ "Appropriations Committee Releases Fiscal Year 2016 Financial Services Bill". House Appropriations Committee. May 24, 2016. Retrieved May 1, 2017. 
  10. ^ "Appropriations Committee Releases Fiscal Year 2015 Financial Services Bill". House Appropriations Committee. July 16, 2014. Retrieved May 1, 2017. 
  11. ^ "Appropriations Committee Releases Fiscal Year 2014 Financial Services Bill". House Appropriations Committee. July 17, 2013. Retrieved May 1, 2017. 
  12. ^ "Appropriations Committee Releases Fiscal Year 2013 Financial Services Bill". House Appropriations Committee. June 5, 2012. Retrieved May 1, 2017. 
  13. ^ "Appropriations Committee Releases Fiscal Year 2012 Financial Services Bill". House Appropriations Committee. June 15, 2011. Retrieved May 1, 2017. 
  14. ^ "Financial Services and General Government (FSGG): FY2011 Appropriations". Congressional Research Service. July 11, 2011. Retrieved May 1, 2017. 
  15. ^ "Financial Services and General Government (FSGG): FY2010 Appropriations" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. February 4, 2010. Retrieved May 1, 2017. 
  16. ^ "Financial Services and General Government (FSGG): FY2009 Appropriations" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. May 12, 2009. Retrieved May 1, 2017. 
  17. ^ "Financial Services and General Government (FSGG): FY2008 Appropriations". Congressional Research Service. December 20, 2007. Retrieved May 1, 2017. 
  18. ^ "Historical Tables, Table 4.1—OUTLAYS BY AGENCY: 1962–2022". OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET. January 20, 2017. Retrieved September 25, 2017. 
  19. ^ "Historical Tables, Table 4.1—OUTLAYS BY AGENCY: 1962–2022". OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET. January 20, 2017. Retrieved September 25, 2017. 
  20. ^ "Historical Tables, Table 4.1—OUTLAYS BY AGENCY: 1962–2022". OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET. January 20, 2017. Retrieved September 25, 2017. 
  21. ^ "Historical Tables, Table 4.1—OUTLAYS BY AGENCY: 1962–2022". OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET. January 20, 2017. Retrieved September 25, 2017. 
  22. ^ "Historical Tables, Table 4.1—OUTLAYS BY AGENCY: 1962–2022". OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET. January 20, 2017. Retrieved September 25, 2017. 
  23. ^ "Historical Tables, Table 4.1—OUTLAYS BY AGENCY: 1962–2022". OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET. January 20, 2017. Retrieved September 25, 2017. 
  24. ^ "Historical Tables, Table 4.1—OUTLAYS BY AGENCY: 1962–2022". OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET. January 20, 2017. Retrieved September 25, 2017. 
  25. ^ "Historical Tables, Table 4.1—OUTLAYS BY AGENCY: 1962–2022". OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET. January 20, 2017. Retrieved September 25, 2017. 
  26. ^ "Historical Tables, Table 4.1—OUTLAYS BY AGENCY: 1962–2022". OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET. January 20, 2017. Retrieved September 25, 2017. 
  27. ^ "Historical Tables, Table 4.1—OUTLAYS BY AGENCY: 1962–2022". OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET. January 20, 2017. Retrieved September 25, 2017. 
  28. ^ "Historical Tables, Table 4.1—OUTLAYS BY AGENCY: 1962–2022". OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET. January 20, 2017. Retrieved September 25, 2017. 
  29. ^ "Historical Tables, Table 4.1—OUTLAYS BY AGENCY: 1962–2022". OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET. January 20, 2017. Retrieved September 25, 2017. 
  30. ^ "Historical Tables, Table 4.1—OUTLAYS BY AGENCY: 1962–2022". OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET. January 20, 2017. Retrieved September 25, 2017. 
  31. ^ "Historical Tables, Table 4.1—OUTLAYS BY AGENCY: 1962–2022". OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET. January 20, 2017. Retrieved September 25, 2017. 
  32. ^ "Historical Tables, Table 4.1—OUTLAYS BY AGENCY: 1962–2022". OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET. January 20, 2017. Retrieved September 25, 2017. 

External links[edit]