3D model (JSmol)
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
|Molar mass||186.04 g/mol|
|Appearance||light orange powder|
|Density||1.107 g/cm3 (0 °C), 1.490 g/cm3 (20 °C)|
|Melting point||172.5 °C (342.5 °F; 445.6 K)|
|Boiling point||249 °C (480 °F; 522 K)|
|Insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents|
|log P||2.04050 |
|D5d / D5h|
|No Permanent Dipole moment due to rapid Cp rotations|
|Main hazards||Very hazardous in case of ingestion. Hazardous in case of skin contact (irritant), of eye contact (irritant), of inhalation|
|NFPA 704 (fire diamond)|
|NIOSH (US health exposure limits):|
|TWA 15 mg/m3 (total) TWA 5 mg/m3 (resp)|
|TWA 10 mg/m3 (total) TWA 5 mg/m3 (resp)|
IDLH (Immediate danger)
|cobaltocene, nickelocene, chromocene, ruthenocene, osmocene, plumbocene|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ?)(|
Ferrocene is an organometallic compound with the formula Fe(C
2. The molecule consists of two cyclopentadienyl rings bound on opposite sides of a central iron atom. It is an orange solid with a camphor-like odor, that sublimes above room temperature, and is soluble in most organic solvents. It is remarkable for its stability: it is unaffected by air, water, strong bases, and can be heated to 400 °C without decomposition. In oxidizing conditions it can reversibly react with strong acids to form the ferrocenium cation Fe(C
- 1 History
- 2 Structure and bonding
- 3 Synthesis
- 4 Properties
- 5 Reactions
- 6 Stereochemistry of substituted ferrocenes
- 7 Applications of ferrocene and its derivatives
- 8 Derivatives and variations
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
Ferrocene was discovered by accident—thrice. The first known synthesis may have been made in the late 1940s by unknown researchers at Union Carbide, who tried to pass hot cyclopentadiene vapor through an iron pipe. The vapor reacted with the pipe wall, creating a "yellow sludge" that clogged the pipe. Years later, a sample of the sludge that had been saved was obtained and analyzed by E.Brimm, shortly after reading Kealy and Pauson's article, and was found to consist of ferrocene.
The second time was around 1950, when S. Miller, J. Tebboth, and J. Tremaine, researchers at British Oxygen, were attempting to synthesize amines from hydrocarbons and nitrogen in a modification of the Haber process. When they tried to react cyclopentadiene with nitrogen at 300 °C, at atmospheric pressure, they were disappointed to see the hydrocarbon react with some source of iron, yielding ferrocene. While they too observed its remarkable stability, they put the observation aside and did not publish it until after Pauson reported his findings. In fact, Kealy and Pauson were provided with a sample by Miller et al., who confirmed that the products were the same compound.
In 1951, Peter L. Pauson and Thomas J. Kealy at Duquesne University attempted to prepare fulvalene ((C
2) by oxidative dimerization of cyclopentadiene (C
6). To that end, they reacted the Grignard compound cyclopentadienyl magnesium bromide in diethyl ether with ferric chloride as an oxidizer. However, instead of the expected fulvalene, they obtained a light orange powder of "remarkable stability", with the formula C
Determining the structure
Pauson and Kealy conjectured that the compound had two cyclopentadienyl groups, each with a single covalent bond from the saturated carbon atom to the iron atom. However, that structure was inconsistent with then-existing bonding models and did not explain the unexpected stability of the compound, and chemists struggled to find the correct structure.
The structure was deduced and reported independently by three groups in 1952:
- Woodward and Wilkinson of the Imperial College London deduced it by observing that ferrocene underwent reactions typical of aromatic compounds such as benzene
- E. Fischer of the Munich Technical University deduced the structure (which he called "double cone") and also began synthesising other metallocenes such as nickelocene and cobaltocene.
- P. F. Eiland and R. Pepinsky confirmed the structure through X-ray crystallography and later by NMR.
Understanding the structure
The "sandwich" structure of ferrocene was shockingly novel, and required new theory to explain. Application of molecular orbital theory with the assumption of a Fe2+ centre between two cyclopentadienide anions C
5 resulted in the successful Dewar-Chatt-Duncanson model, allowing correct prediction of the geometry of the molecule as well as explaining its remarkable stability.
Ferrocene was not the first organometallic compound known. Zeise's salt K[PtCl
4)] · H2O was reported in 1831, Mond's discovery of Ni(CO)4 occurred in 1888, and organolithium compounds were developed in the 1930s. However, it can be argued that it was ferrocene's discovery that began organometallic chemistry as a separate area of chemistry. It also led to an explosion of interest in compounds of d-block metals with hydrocarbons.
The discovery was considered so significant that Wilkinson and Fischer shared the 1973 Nobel Prize for Chemistry "for their pioneering work, performed independently, on the chemistry of the organometallic, so called sandwich compounds".
Structure and bonding
Mössbauer spectroscopy indicates that the iron center in ferrocene should be assigned the +2 oxidation state. Each cyclopentadienyl (Cp) ring should then be allocated a single negative charge. Thus ferrocene could be described as iron(II) bis(cyclopentadienide), Fe2+[C
The number of π-electrons on each ring is then six, which makes it aromatic according to Hückel's rule. These twelve π-electrons are then shared with the metal via covalent bonding. Since Fe2+ has six d-electrons, the complex attains an 18-electron configuration, which accounts for its stability. In modern notation, this sandwich structural model of the ferrocene molecule is denoted as Fe(η5
The carbon–carbon bond distances around each five-membered ring are all 1.40 Å, and the Fe–C bond distances are all 2.04 Å. From room temperature down to 164K, X-ray crystallography yields the monoclinic space group; the cyclopentadienide rings are a staggered conformation, resulting in a centrosymmetric molecule, with symmetry group D5d. However, Below 110 K, ferrocene crystallizes in an orthorhombic crystal lattice in which the Cp rings are ordered and eclipsed, so that the molecule has symmetry group D5h. In the gas phase, electron diffraction and computational studies show that the Cp rings are eclipsed.
The Cp rings rotate with a low barrier about the Cp(centroid)–Fe–Cp(centroid) axis, as observed by measurements on substituted derivatives of ferrocene using 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. For example, methylferrocene (CH3C5H4FeC5H5) exhibits a singlet for the C5H5 ring.
Via Grignard reagent
The first reported syntheses of ferrocene were nearly simultaneous. Pauson and Kealy synthesised ferrocene using iron(III) chloride and a Grignard reagent, cyclopentadienyl magnesium bromide. Iron(III) chloride is suspended in anhydrous diethyl ether and added to the Grignard reagent. A redox reaction occurs, forming the cyclopentadienyl radical and iron(II) ions. Dihydrofulvalene is produced by radical-radical recombination while the iron(II) reacts with the Grignard reagent to form ferrocene. Oxidation of dihydrofulvalene to fulvalene with iron(III), the outcome sought by Kealy and Pauson, does not occur.
The other early synthesis of ferrocene was by Miller et al., who reacted metallic iron directly with gas-phase cyclopentadiene at elevated temperature. An approach using iron pentacarbonyl was also reported.
- Fe(CO)5 + 2 C5H6(g) → Fe(C5H5)2 + 5 CO(g) + H2(g)
Via alkali cyclopentadienide
More efficient preparative methods are generally a modification of the original transmetalation sequence using either commercially available sodium cyclopentadienide or freshly cracked cyclopentadiene deprotonated with potassium hydroxide and reacted with anhydrous iron(II) chloride in ethereal solvents.
Modern modifications of Pauson and Kealy's original Grignard approach are known:
- Using sodium cyclopentadienide: 2 NaC5H5 + FeCl2 → Fe(C5H5)2 + 2 NaCl
- Using freshly-cracked cyclopentadiene: FeCl2·4H2O + 2 C5H6 + 2 KOH → Fe(C5H5)2 + 2 KCl + 6 H2O
- Using an iron(II) salt with a Grignard reagent: 2 C5H5MgBr + FeCl2 → Fe(C5H5)2 + 2 MgBrCl
- 2 C5H6 + 2 (CH3CH2)2NH + FeCl2 → Fe(C5H5)2 + 2 (CH3CH2)2NH2Cl
- FeCl2 + Mn(C5H5)2 → MnCl2 + Fe(C5H5)2
Ferrocene is an air-stable orange solid with a camphor-like odor. As expected for a symmetric, uncharged species, ferrocene is soluble in normal organic solvents, such as benzene, but is insoluble in water. It is stable to temperatures as high as 400 °C.
Ferrocene readily sublimes, especially upon heating in a vacuum. Its vapor pressure is about 1 Pa at 25 °C, 10 Pa at 50 °C, 100 Pa at at 80 °C, 1000 Pa at 116 °C, and 10,000 Pa (nearly 0.1 atm) at 162 °C.
Ferrocene undergoes many reactions characteristic of aromatic compounds, enabling the preparation of substituted derivatives. A common undergraduate experiment is the Friedel–Crafts reaction of ferrocene with acetic anhydride (or acetyl chloride) in the presence of phosphoric acid as a catalyst.
Protonation of ferrocene allows isolation of [Cp2FeH]PF6.
In the presence of aluminium chloride Me2NPCl2 and ferrocene react to give ferrocenyl dichlorophosphine, whereas treatment with phenyldichlorophosphine under similar conditions forms P,P-diferrocenyl-P-phenyl phosphine.
Ferrocene reacts with butyllithium to give 1,1′-dilithioferrocene, which is a versatile nucleophile. Tert-Butyllithium produces monolithioferrocene. Dilithioferrocene reacts with S8, chlorophosphines, and chlorosilanes. The strained compounds undergo ring-opening polymerization.
Redox chemistry – the ferrocenium ion
Ferrocene undergoes a one-electron oxidation at around 0.5 V versus a saturated calomel electrode (SCE). This reversible oxidation has been used as standard in electrochemistry as Fc+/Fc = 0.40 V versus the standard hydrogen electrode. Ferrocenium tetrafluoroborate is a common reagent.
Substituents on the cyclopentadienyl ligands alters the redox potential in the expected way: electron-withdrawing groups such as a carboxylic acid shift the potential in the anodic direction (i.e. made more positive), whereas electron-releasing groups such as methyl groups shift the potential in the cathodic direction (more negative). Thus, decamethylferrocene is much more easily oxidised than ferrocene and can even be oxidised to the corresponding dication. Ferrocene is often used as an internal standard for calibrating redox potentials in non-aqueous electrochemistry.
Stereochemistry of substituted ferrocenes
Disubstituted ferrocenes can exist as either 1,2-, 1,3- or 1,1′- isomers, none of which are interconvertible. Ferrocenes that are asymmetrically disubstituted on one ring are chiral – for example [CpFe(EtC5H3Me)]. This planar chirality arises despite no single atom being a stereogenic centre. The substituted ferrocene shown at right (a 4-(dimethylamino)pyridine derivative) has been shown to be effective when used for the kinetic resolution of racemic secondary alcohols.
Applications of ferrocene and its derivatives
Ferrocene and its numerous derivatives have no large-scale applications, but have many niche uses that exploit the unusual structure (ligand scaffolds, pharmaceutical candidates), robustness (anti-knock formulations, precursors to materials), and redox (reagents and redox standards).
As a ligand scaffold
Chiral ferrocenyl phosphines are employed as ligands for transition-metal catalyzed reactions. Some of them have found industrial applications in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals. For example, the diphosphine 1,1′-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene (dppf) is a valued for palladium-coupling reactions and Josiphos ligand is useful for hydrogenation catalysis. They are named after the technician who made the first one, Josi Puleo.
Ferrocene and its derivatives are antiknock agents used in the fuel for petrol engines; they are safer than tetraethyllead, previously used. Petrol additive solutions containing ferrocene can be added to unleaded petrol to enable its use in vintage cars designed to run on leaded petrol. The iron-containing deposits formed from ferrocene can form a conductive coating on the spark plug surfaces. What is more, ferrocene polyglycol copolymers, prepared by effecting a polycondensation reaction between a ferrocene derivative and a substituted dihydroxy alcohol, has especially promising applications as a component of rocket propellants. In particular, these copolymers provide the rocket propellants with heat stability, serving as a propellant binder and controlling the burn rate of the propellant.
In a similar light, ferrocene also has been found to be effective at reducing the smoke and sulfur trioxide produced when burning coal. The addition by any practical means, impregnating the coal or simply adding ferrocene to the combustion chamber, can significantly cut down the amount of these undesirable byproducts, even with a small amount of the metal cyclopentadienyl compound.
Ferrocene derivatives have been investigated as drugs. Only one drug has entered clinic trials, Ferroquine (7-chloro-N-(2-((dimethylamino)methyl)ferrocenyl)quinolin-4-amine), an antimalarial. Ferrocene-containing polymer-based drug delivery systems have been investigated.
The anticancer activity of ferrocene derivatives was first investigated in the late 1970s, when derivatives bearing amine or amide groups were tested against lymphocytic leukemia. Some ferrocenium salts exhibit anticancer activity, but no compound has seen evaluation in the clinic. In particular, ferrocene derivatives have strong inhibitory activity against human lung cancer cell line A549, colorectal cancer cell line HCT116, and breast cancer cell line MCF-7. An experimental drug was reported which is a ferrocenyl version of tamoxifen. The idea is that the tamoxifen will bind to the estrogen binding sites, resulting in cytotoxicity.
Derivatives and variations
Carbon atoms can be replaced by heteroatoms as illustrated by Fe(η5-C5Me5)(η5-P5) and Fe(η5-C5H5)(η5-C4H4N) ("azaferrocene"). Azaferrocene arises from decarbonylation of Fe(η5-C5H5)(CO)2(η1-pyrrole) in cyclohexane. This compound on boiling under reflux in benzene is converted to ferrocene.
Because of the ease of substitution, many structurally unusual ferrocene derivatives have been prepared. For example, the penta(ferrocenyl)cyclopentadienyl ligand, features a cyclopentadienyl anion derivatized with five ferrocene substituents.
In hexaferrocenylbenzene, C6[(η5-C5H4)Fe(η5-C5H5)]6, all six positions on a benzene molecule have ferrocenyl substituents (R). X-ray diffraction analysis of this compound confirms that the cyclopentadienyl ligands are not co-planar with the benzene core but have alternating dihedral angles of +30° and −80°. Due to steric crowding the ferrocenyls are slightly bent with angles of 177° and have elongated C-Fe bonds. The quaternary cyclopentadienyl carbon atoms are also pyramidalized. Also, the benzene core has a chair conformation with dihedral angles of 14° and displays bond length alternation between 142.7 pm and 141.1 pm, both indications of steric crowding of the substituents.
The synthesis of hexaferrocenylbenzene has been reported using Negishi coupling of hexaiodidobenzene and diferrocenylzinc, using tris(dibenzylideneacetone)dipalladium(0) as catalyst, in tetrahydrofuran:
Ferrocene, a precursor to iron nanoparticles, can be used as a catalyst for the production of carbon nanotubes. The vinylferrocene can be made by a Wittig reaction of the aldehyde, a phosphonium salt, and sodium hydroxide. The vinyl ferrocene can be converted into a polymer (polyvinylferrocene, PVFc), a ferrocenyl version of polystyrene (the phenyl groups are replaced with ferrocenyl groups). Another polyferrocene which can be formed is poly(2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl ferrocenecarboxylate), PFcMA. In addition to using organic polymer backbones, these pendant ferrocene units have been attached to inorganic backbones such as polysiloxanes, polyphosphazenes, and polyphosphinoboranes, (–PH(R)–BH2–)n, and the resulting materials exhibit unusual physical and electronic properties relating to the ferrocene / ferrocinium redox couple. Both PVFc and PFcMA have been tethered onto silica wafers and the wettability measured when the polymer chains are uncharged and when the ferrocene moieties are oxidised to produce positively charged groups. The contact angle with water on the PFcMA-coated wafers was 70° smaller following oxidation, while in the case of PVFc the decrease was 30°, and the switching of wettability is reversible. In the PFcMA case, the effect of lengthening the chains and hence introducing more ferrocene groups is significantly larger reductions in the contact angle upon oxidation.
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