Foreign relations of Ecuador

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This article deals with the diplomatic affairs, foreign policy and international relations of Ecuador.

Ecuador is a founding member of the UN and a member of many of its specialized agencies; it is also a member of the OAS. Is also a member of many regional groups, including the Rio Group, the Latin American Economic System, the Latin American Energy Organization, the Latin American Integration Association, and the Andean Pact.[1]

Ecuador's principal foreign-policy objectives have traditionally included defense of its territory from both external aggression and internal subversion as well as support for the objectives of the UN and the OAS. Although Ecuador's foreign relations were traditionally centered on the United States, Ecuador's membership in the OPEC in the 1970s and 1980s allowed Ecuadorian leaders to exercise somewhat greater foreign policy autonomy. Ecuador's foreign policy goals under the Borja government in the late 1980s were more diversified than those of the Febres Cordero administration, which closely identified with the United States. For example, Ecuador was more active in its relations with the Third World, multilateral organizations, Western Europe, and socialist countries.[2]

Ecuador has offered humanitarianian aid to many countries and a supporter of the United Nations and is now contributing troops in the UN mission in Haiti. Ecuador has also been an elective member of the UN Security Council.

In Antarctica, Ecuador has maintained a peaceful research station for scientific study in the British-claimed territory and is a member nation of the Antarctica Treaty.

Domestic politics[edit]

The Presidency of Rafael Correa in the early 21st century saw a radical change in the country's foreign policy. Traditional ties with the United States grew more acrimonious and there were increased ties with the governments of Russia and Iran.[3]

Relations by country[edit]

Country Formal Relations B Notes
 Armenia May 20, 1997

Both countries established diplomatic relations on May 20, 1997.[4]

 Argentina
 Australia

A number of Australia–Ecuador bilateral treaties have been agreed between the two countries – such as extradition.

  • Australia is accredited to Ecuador from its embassy in Santiago, Chile.
  • Ecuador has an embassy in Canberra.
 Belarus
  • Belarus has an embassy in Quito.
  • Ecuador is accredited to Belarus from its embassy in Moscow, Russia.
 Belize October 14, 1999
 Bolivia
  • Bolivia has an embassy in Quito.
  • Ecuador has an embassy in La Paz.
 Canada
  • Canada has an embassy in Quito.
  • Ecuador has an embassy in Ottawa.
 Chile
  • Chile has an embassy in Quito.
  • Ecuador has an embassy in Santiago.
 China February 1, 1980 See China–Ecuador relations

Formal relations started on 1980-01-02 and seven months later China set up its embassy in Ecuador. In July 1981, Ecuador set up its embassy in China. Sino-Ecuadorian relations have been advancing smoothly. The two sides maintain high-level political contacts and exchanges in trade, economic progress, science, technology, culture and education. In international affairs, the two countries understand and support each other.

In September 2012, the two nations signed a Commercial and Security Agreement to allow Ecuador to sell easily seafood, cocoa and bananas in China, with the Chinese agreeing to ease tariffs on further food items. In the same period China established an $80 million line of credit for Ecuador with the EximBank to help Ecuador build a road to the re-sited Quito airport.[6]

 Colombia See Colombia–Ecuador relations

Ecuador's President Rafael Correa withdrew his government's ambassador in Bogotá, Colombia, and ordered troops to the country's border following a Colombian raid against leftist rebels inside Ecuador March 2, 2008.[7] The Colombian director of national police claimed three captured computers from the deceased FARC rebel leader Raúl Reyes document "tremendously revealing" and "very grave" links between Ecuador and Colombian rebels.March 2, 2008.[8] However, Colombia's actions were condemned across the board by all South American nations, with only the US supporting Colombia. For example, Brazil's foreign minister, Celso Amorim, condemned the Colombian incursion into Ecuador.[8] Furthermore, he suggested that Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez recently gave the leftist Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia $300 million.[8] Ecuador's president Rafael Correa said March 3, 2008 that a deal to release political prisoners—including former Colombian Sen. Ingrid Betancourt—was nearly complete before the March 1, 2008 Colombian raid into his country.[8] Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez on March 5, 2008 called the announced movement of Colombian forces in Ecuador a "war crime," and joined Ecuador's president Rafael Correa in demanding international condemnation of the cross-border attack.[5] The presidents of Colombia, Venezuela and Ecuador March 7, 2008 signed a declaration to end a crisis sparked when Colombian troops killed a rebel leader and 21 others inside Ecuadoran territory (2008 Andean diplomatic crisis).[9]

 Egypt
  • Ecuador has an embassy in Cairo.
  • Egypt has an embassy in Quito.
 Guyana July 2, 1974
 India See Ecuador–India relations

On November 16, 2008, the Foreign Minister of Ecuador Maria Isabel Salvador met her counterpart, Pranab Mukherjee, with a close relationship in oil and defence between these geographically distant countries high on the agenda. On the oil front, the new government in Ecuador has reversed the earlier revenue-sharing arrangements with western oil companies and is now keen on striking new partnerships with state-owned ONGC Videsh of India. In the defence sector, Ecuador became the first country to sign a contract for purchasing the Indian made Dhruv helicopters of which one will be for use by its President. The Embassy has expanded its setup with the appointment of a Military Attache and prospects appear bright for more defence exports as Ecuador has agreed to be the servicing hub in South America for Indian defence equipment.[11]

 Iran See Ecuador–Iran relations

Ecuador has maintained trade relations with Iran. In December 2008, Iran's Supreme National Security Council Secretary Saeed Jalili visited Ecuador. Alongside president Rafael Correa he called for greater "South–South" co-operation, a term denoting greater exchange of resources, technology, and knowledge between the global South.[12] Iranian president Ahmadinejad also attended the inauguration of President Correa in January 2007.[13]

 Japan August 26, 1918 See Ecuador–Japan relations
  • Ecuador has an embassy in Tokyo.
  • Japan has an embassy in Quito.
 Malaysia See Ecuador–Malaysia relations

Relations with Malaysia covers on political, commercial, cultural and social activities.[14] Both countries are the members of Non-Aligned Movement.[15] Ecuador trade value with Malaysia are worth about US$15 million.[15][16]

 Mexico June 1830 See Ecuador–Mexico relations
 New Zealand
  • Ecuador is accredited to New Zealand from its embassy in Canberra, Australia.
  • New Zealand is accredited to Ecuador from its embassy in Santiago, Chile.
 Pakistan

Pakistan is enjoying deep rooted diplomatic, political and economic relations with other Latin American countries. Islamabad considers Ecuador significant to Pakistan's growing demands of opening up new avenues of cooperation and investment opportunities for businessmen. Both the countries have identity of views on the issue of UN reforms and expansion of the Security Council.

 Palestine 2010

Ecuador recognized the State of Palestine in 2010.[19]

 Paraguay
  • Ecuador has an embassy in Asuncion.
  • Paraguay has an embassy in Quito.
 Peru

The Paquisha War was a brief military clash that took place between January and February 1981 between Ecuador and Peru over the control of three watchposts. Since the 1990s, Ecuadoran foreign policy has been focused on the country's border dispute with Peru, an issue that has festered since independence. The boundary dispute led to the Cenepa War between Ecuador and Peru in early 1995; after a peace agreement brokered by the four Guarantors of the Rio Protocol (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and the United States), the Military Observers Mission to Ecuador-Peru (MOMEP) was set up to monitor the zone. In 1998, Presidents Jamil Mahuad of Ecuador and Alberto Fujimori of Peru signed a comprehensive settlement over control of the disputed zone.

 Poland
  • Ecuador is accredited to Poland from its embassy in Vienna, Austria.
  • Poland is accredited to Ecuador from its embassy in Lima, Peru.
 Russia See Ecuador–Russia relations
  • Ecuador has an embassy in Moscow.
  • Russia has an embassy in Quito.
 South Korea October 5, 1962
  • Ecuador has an embassy in Seoul.
  • South Korea has an embassy in Quito.
 Spain 1840 See Ecuador–Spain relations
 Sweden
  • Ecuador has an embassy in Stockholm.[22]
  • Sweden has a consulate in Quito.[23]
 United Kingdom

Relations between the United Kingdom and Ecuador were traditionally regarded as "low-key but cordial", especially before the election of Rafael Correa; the Prince of Wales and Duchess of Cornwall visited the country in 2009, as part of a tour celebrating the bicentenary of Charles Darwin. President Correa visited London in the same year, speaking mostly in English at the London School of Economics about the changes his government was making.[24]

In 2012, relations became strained when Julian Assange, founder of the WikiLeaks website, entered the Ecuadorian embassy in London and sought asylum. Assange had lost legal appeals against his extradition to Sweden where he wanted for questioning about alleged sexual assault and rape, but while within the embassy he was on diplomatic territory and beyond the reach of the British police.[25] The United Kingdom Foreign and Commonwealth Office delivered a note to the Ecuadorian government in Quito reminding them of the provisions of the Diplomatic and Consular Premises Act 1987 which allow the British government to withdraw recognition of diplomatic protection from embassies; the move was interpreted as a hostile act by Ecuador, with Foreign Minister Ricardo Patiño stating that this "explicit threat" would be met with "appropriate responses in accordance with international law".[26] Assange was granted diplomatic asylum on August 16, 2012, with Foreign Minister Patiño stating that Assange's fears of political persecution were "legitimate".[27] Finally, President Lenín Moreno revoked Assange's asylum in April 2019. In reaction, the British Foreign Secretary, Jeremy Hunt, thanked Moreno cooperation to "ensure Assange faces justice".[28]

 United States See Ecuador–United States relations

The United States and Ecuador used to maintain close ties based on mutual interests in maintaining democratic institutions; combating cannabis and cocaine; building trade, investment, and financial ties; cooperating in fostering Ecuador's economic development; and participating in inter-American organizations. Ties were further strengthened by the presence of an estimated 150,000–200,000 Ecuadorians living in the United States and by 24,000 U.S. citizens visiting Ecuador annually, and by approximately 15,000 U.S. citizens residing in Ecuador. The United States assisted Ecuador's economic development directly through the Agency for International Development (USAID) program in Ecuador and through multilateral organizations such as the Inter-American Development Bank and the World Bank. In addition, the U.S. Peace Corps operates a sizable program in Ecuador. More than 100 U.S. companies are doing business in Ecuador. The relations have deteriorated greatly in recent years, since Rafael Correa came to power in Ecuador.

  • Ecuador has an embassy in Washington, D.C. and several consulates throughout the country.
  • United States has an embassy in Quito.
 Uruguay See Ecuador–Uruguay relations
  • Ecuador has an embassy in Montevideo.
  • Uruguay has an embassy in Quito.
 Venezuela See Ecuador–Venezuela relations

Diplomatic ties trace back to the Spanish colonization of the Americas. With the independence both countries united under the Gran Colombia along with New Granada (then Colombia and Panama).

After the dissolution of the Gran Colombia, Ecuador named Don Pedro Gual as plenipotentiary minister with the main task of resolving the debt acquired while part of the Gran Colombia union as well as to establish diplomatic relations with the New Granada and Venezuela. On August 4, 1852 Venezuela sent a diplomatic delegation in Quito and named José Julián Ponce as finance administrator.

The relations remained cordial and entered into a second period between 1910 and 1963 with two diplomatic incidents occurring in 1928 and 1955. Ecuador and Venezuela strengthened ties in politics, diplomacy and military.

  • Ecuador has an embassy in Caracas.
  • Venezuela has an embassy in Quito.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ United States Department of State
  2. ^ http://countrystudies.us/ecuador/76.htm
  3. ^ [1]
  4. ^ [2]
  5. ^ [3]
  6. ^ "Ecuador and China Sign a Commercial and Security Agreement". Cuenca News Digest. Cuenca, Ecuador. September 30, 2012.
  7. ^ "Ecuador pulls diplomat from Bogota". CNN. March 2, 2008. Retrieved May 2, 2010.
  8. ^ a b c d . CNN https://web.archive.org/web/20080921213512/http://edition.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/americas/03/03/ecuador.colombia/index.html. Archived from the original on September 21, 2008. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  9. ^ . CNN https://web.archive.org/web/20081010205741/http://edition.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/americas/03/07/samerica.summit/index.html. Archived from the original on October 10, 2008. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  10. ^ [4]
  11. ^ "India to boost oil, defence ties with Ecuador". The Hindu. Chennai, India. November 18, 2008.
  12. ^ "Correa calls Iran-Ecuador ties strategic". Tehran Times. December 8, 2008.
  13. ^ "Ecuador swears in new president". BBC News. January 16, 2007.
  14. ^ "EMBASSY OF ECUADOR IN MALAYSIA STRENGTHENS BILATERAL RELATIONS". Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores Ecuador. December 2, 2011. Archived from the original on June 15, 2013. Retrieved January 7, 2013.
  15. ^ a b "Malaysia, Ecuador can expand trade, says Raja Muda Perlis". New Straits Times. July 3, 2012. Archived from the original on July 19, 2012. Retrieved January 7, 2013.
  16. ^ New Straits Times Ecuador's petite envoy holds sway September 19, 2012 "Clearly, relations between Ecuador and Malaysia are on an upward trend, which may possibly see a change in the trade balance which is"
  17. ^ Embassy of Ecuador in Mexico City (in Spanish)
  18. ^ Embassy of Mexico in Quito (in Spanish)
  19. ^ "Ecuador latest Latin country to recognize Palestine". Radio France Internationale. December 25, 2010. Retrieved December 29, 2010.
  20. ^ Embassy of Ecuador in Spain (in Spanish)
  21. ^ Embassy of Spain in Ecuador (in Spanish)
  22. ^ Ecuadorian embassy in Stockholm
  23. ^ Swedish consulate in Quito
  24. ^ Borger, Julian (June 20, 2012). "Ecuador: Latin American country no friend of the US". The Guardian. London.
  25. ^ Addley, Esther; Woolf, Beatrice (June 19, 2012). "Assange seeks refuge at Ecuador 's embassy". The Guardian. London. p. 1. Assange has not been charged with any crime in Sweden
  26. ^ Pearse, Damien (August 16, 2012). "Julian Assange can be arrested in Ecuador embassy, UK warns". The Guardian. London.
  27. ^ "Julian Assange: Ecuador grants Wikileaks founder asylum". BBC News. August 16, 2012.
  28. ^ "Jeremy Hunt on Twitter". April 11, 2019. Retrieved April 11, 2019.