Forest management

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Forest management is a branch of forestry concerned with overall administrative, legal, economic, and social aspects, as well as scientific and technical aspects, such as silviculture, protection, and forest regulation. This includes management for timber, aesthetics, recreation, urban values, water, wildlife, inland and nearshore fisheries, wood products, plant genetic resources, and other forest resource values.[1] Management objectives can be for conservation, utilisation, or a mixture of the two. Techniques include timber extraction, planting and replanting of different species, building and maintenance of roads and pathways through forests, and preventing fire.

Definition[edit]

The forest is a natural system that can supply different products and services. Forests supply water, mitigate climate change, provide habitats for wildlife including many pollinators which are essential for sustainable food production, provide timber and fuelwood, serve as a source of non-wood forest products including food and medicine, and contribute to rural livelihoods.[2]

The working of this system is influenced by the natural environment: climate, topography, soil, etc., and also by human activity. The actions of humans in forests constitute forest management.[citation needed] In developed societies, this management tends to be elaborated and planned in order to achieve the objectives that are considered desirable.[citation needed]

Some forests have been and are managed to obtain traditional forest products such as firewood, fiber for paper, and timber, with little thinking for other products and services. Nevertheless, as a result of the progression of environmental awareness, management of forests for multiple use is becoming more common.[3]

Public input and awareness[edit]

There has been increased public awareness of natural resource policy, including forest management.[citation needed] Public concern regarding forest management may have shifted from the extraction of timber for earning money for the economy, to the preservation of additional forest resources, including wildlife and old growth forest, protecting biodiversity, watershed management, and recreation. Increased environmental awareness may contribute to an increased public mistrust of forest management professionals.[4] But it can also lead to greater understanding about what professionals do for forests for nature conservation and ecological services. The importance of taking care of the forests for ecological as well as economical sustainable reasons has been shown in the TV show Ax Men.

Many tools like GIS and photogrammetry[5][6] modelling have been developed to improve forest inventory and management planning.[7] Since 1953, the volume of standing trees in the United States has increased by 90% due to sustainable forest management.[8]

Wildlife considerations[edit]

The abundance and diversity of birds, mammals, amphibians and other wildlife are affected by strategies and types of forest management.[9]

Management intensity[edit]

Forest management varies in intensity from a leave alone, natural situation to a highly intensive regime with silvicultural interventions. Forest Management is generally increased in intensity to achieve either economic criteria (increased timber yields, non-timber forest products, ecosystem services) or ecological criteria (species recovery, fostering of rare species, carbon sequestration).[10]

Proportion of forest area with long-term management plans, by region, 2020[11]

Most of the forests in Europe have management plans; on the other hand, management plans exist for less than 25 percent of forests in Africa and less than 20 percent in South America. The area of forest under management plans is increasing in all regions – globally, it has increased by 233 million ha since 2000, reaching 2.05 billion ha in 2020.[12]


See also[edit]

Sources[edit]

Definition of Free Cultural Works logo notext.svg This article incorporates text from a free content work. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 License statement/permission on Wikimedia Commons. Text taken from Global Forest Resources Assessment 2020 Key findings, FAO, FAO. To learn how to add open license text to Wikipedia articles, please see this how-to page. For information on reusing text from Wikipedia, please see the terms of use.

Definition of Free Cultural Works logo notext.svg This article incorporates text from a free content work. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO License statement/permission on Wikimedia Commons. Text taken from The State of the World’s Forests 2020. Forests, biodiversity and people – In brief, FAO & UNEP, FAO & UNEP. To learn how to add open license text to Wikipedia articles, please see this how-to page. For information on reusing text from Wikipedia, please see the terms of use.

References[edit]

Deforestation and increased road-building in the Amazon Rainforest are a significant concern because of increased human encroachment upon wild areas, increased resource extraction and further threats to biodiversity.
  1. ^ "Glossary of Forestry Terms in British Columbia" (PDF). Ministry of Forests and Range (Canada). March 2008. Retrieved 2009-04-06.
  2. ^ The State of the World’s Forests 2020. Forests, biodiversity and people – In brief. Rome: FAO & UNEP. 2020. ISBN 978-92-5-132707-4.
  3. ^ Young, Raymond (1982). Introduction to Forest Science. John Wiley & sons. p. 207. ISBN 978-0471064381.
  4. ^ Shindler, Bruce; Lori A. Cramer (January 1999). "Shifting Public Values for Forest Management: Making Sense of Wicked Problems". Western Journal of Applied Forestry. 14 (1): 28–34. doi:10.1093/wjaf/14.1.28. ISSN 0885-6095. Retrieved 2008-08-25.
  5. ^ I. Balenovich, A. Seletkovich, et al. Comparison of Classical Terrestrial and Photogrammetric Method in Creating Management Division. FORMEC. Croatia 2012. pp. 1-13.
  6. ^ I. Balenović, D. Vuletić, et al. Digital Photogrammetry – State of the Art and Potential for Application in Forest Management in Croatia. SEEFOR. South-East European Forestry. #2, 2011. pp. 81–93.
  7. ^ Mozgeris, G. (2008) “The continuous field view of representing forest geographically: from cartographic representation towards improved management planning”. S.A.P.I.EN.S. 1 (2)
  8. ^ The Value of Hardwood Floors
  9. ^ * Philip Joseph Burton. 2003. Towards sustainable management of the boreal forest 1039 pages
  10. ^ Classification of Forest Management Approaches: A New Conceptual Framework and Its Applicability to European Forestry Philipp S. Duncker 1, Susana M. Barreiro 2, Geerten M. Hengeveld 3, Torgny Lind 4, William L. Mason 5, Slawomir Ambrozy 6 and Heinrich Spiecker 1|http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol17/iss4/art51/
  11. ^ Global Forest Resources Assessment 2020 – Key findings. Rome: FAO. 2020. doi:10.4060/ca8753en. ISBN 978-92-5-132581-0.
  12. ^ Global Forest Resources Assessment 2020 – Key findings. Rome: FAO. 2020. doi:10.4060/ca8753en. ISBN 978-92-5-132581-0.