General Electric T31

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General Electric T31, Presidential Gallery, National Museum USAF.jpg
A T31 in the Presidential Gallery of the National Museum of the United States Air Force
Type Turboprop
National origin United States
Manufacturer General Electric
First run May 1945
Major applications Consolidated Vultee XP-81
Ryan XF2R Dark Shark
Number built 28

The General Electric T31 (company designation TG-100) was the first turboprop engine designed and built in the United States.

Design and development[edit]

The TG-100 benefited from the Anglo/American technology exchange with one of its designers, Glenn Warren, stating that one of the most important British contributions was the concept of multiple combustion cans.[1] The GE axial compressor design was directly influenced by NACA with their 8-stage compressor.[1] NACA had developed the theory and designed and tested the compressor.[2] The General Electric XT31 was first used in the experimental Consolidated Vultee XP-81.[3] The XP-81 first flew in December 1945, the first aircraft to use a combination of turboprop and turbojet power.

The XC-113, with T31 in the No. 2 position

The T31 engine was the first American turboprop engine to power an aircraft.[4] It made its initial flight in the Consolidated Vultee XP-81 on 21 December 1945. The T31 was mounted in the nose; an Allison J33 turbojet engine mounted in the rear fuselage provided added thrust. The T31 was also used on the Navy XF2R-1, similarly powered by a turboprop/turbojet engine combination. The engine was to have been flown experimentally on a Curtiss XC-113 (a converted Curtiss C-46), but the experiment was abandoned after the XC-113 was involved in a ground accident. Only 28 T31s were built; none were used in production aircraft, but improved production turboprop engines were developed from the technology pioneered by the T31.

A derivative of the T31, the General Electric TG-110, given the military designation T41, was ordered but subsequently cancelled.


Specification (XT31)[edit]

A T31 at Presidential Gallery, National Museum of the United States Air Force

Data from World Encyclopaedia of Aero Engines 5th Ed.[5]

General characteristics

  • Type: Turboprop
  • Length:
  • Diameter:
  • Dry weight: 1,980 lb (900 kg)


  • Compressor: 14-stage axial
  • Combustors: 8 can combustion chambers
  • Turbine: axial single-stage
  • Fuel type: Kerosene
  • Oil system: pressure spray


  • Maximum power output: 2,300 hp (1,700 kW) (shp) (design) at 13,000 rpm. (1,145 propeller rpm)
  • Residual thrust: 600 lbf (2.7 kN)
  • Reduction gear ratio: 0.0881:1
  • Power-to-weight ratio: 1.162 hp/lb (1.910 kW/kg)

See also[edit]

Related development

Comparable engines

Related lists


  1. ^ a b Dawson, Virginia P. SP-4306 Engines and Innovation: Lewis Laboratory and American Propulsion Technology ch3: Jet Propulsion: Too Little, Too Late (htm). NASA. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  2. ^ Sinnette, John T. Jr.; Schey, Oscar W.; King, J. Austin (1943). "Report 758:Performance of 8-stage axial comptressor designed on the basis of airfoil theory" (pdf). NACA. NACA.
  3. ^ Wegg, John. General Dynamics aircraft and their predecessors. Naval Institute Press. pp. 178–180. ISBN 0-87021-233-8.
  4. ^ "General Electric T31". National Museum of the US Air Force™. 5 October 2013. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  5. ^ Gunston, Bill (2006). World Encyclopaedia of Aero Engines (5th ed.). Stroud: Sutton Publishing. pp. 79–80. ISBN 978-0-7509-4479-3.