General Medical Council
|Headquarters||Regent's Place |
350 Euston Road
The General Medical Council (GMC) is a public body that maintains the official register of medical practitioners within the United Kingdom. Its chief responsibility is to "protect, promote and maintain the health and safety of the public" by controlling entry to the register, and suspending or removing members when necessary. It also sets the standards for medical schools in the UK. Membership of the register confers substantial privileges under Part VI of the Medical Act 1983. It is a criminal offence to make a false claim of membership. The GMC is supported by fees paid by its members, and it became a registered charity in 2001.
The Medical Act 1858 established the General Council of Medical Education and Registration of the United Kingdom as a statutory body. Initially its members were elected by the members of the profession, and enjoyed widespread confidence from the profession.
All the GMC's functions derive from a statutory requirement for the establishment and maintenance of a register, which is the definitive list of doctors as provisionally or fully "registered medical practitioners", within the public sector in Britain. The GMC controls entry to the List of Registered Medical Practitioners ("the medical register"). The Medical Act 1983 (amended) notes that, "The main objective of the General Council in exercising their functions is to protect, promote and maintain the health and safety of the public."
Secondly, the GMC regulates and sets the standards for medical schools in the UK, and liaises with other nations' medical and university regulatory bodies over medical schools overseas, leading to some qualifications being mutually recognised. Since 2010, it has also regulated postgraduate medical education.
Thirdly, the GMC is responsible for a licensing and revalidation system for all practising doctors in the UK, separate from the registration system, which was given legal effect by order of the Privy Council[dubious ][vague] on 3 December 2012.
Activities and powers
Due to the principle of autonomy and law of consent there is no legislative restriction on who can treat patients or provide medical or health-related services. In other words, it is not a criminal offence to provide what would be considered medical assistance or treatment to another person – and not just in an emergency. This is in contrast with the position in respect of animals, where it is a criminal offence under the Veterinary Surgeons Act 1966 for someone who is not a registered veterinary surgeon (or in certain more limited circumstances a registered veterinary nurse) to provide treatment (save in an emergency) to an animal they do not own.
Parliament, since the enactment of the 1858 Act, has conferred on the GMC powers to grant various legal benefits and responsibilities to those medical practitioners who are registered with the GMC - a public body and association, as described, of the Medical Act of 1983, by Mr Justice Burnett in British Medical Association v General Medical Council.
Registration brings with it the privileges, as they are described, set out in Part 6 of the Act. In reality, they comprise prohibitions for all those not registered. Section 46 prohibits any person from recovering in a court of law any charge rendered for medical advice, attendance or surgery unless he is registered. Section 47 provides that only those registered can act as physicians, surgeons or medical officers in any NHS hospital, prison, in the armed forces or other public institutions. Section 48 invalidates certificates, such as sick notes or prescriptions, if signed by someone who is unregistered. Section 49 imposes penalties via criminal offences for pretending to be a registered medical practitioner.
Through which, by an Order in the Privy Council, the GMC describes "The main objective of the General Council in exercising their functions is to protect, promote and maintain the health and safety of the public".
The GMC is funded by annual fees required from those wishing to remain registered and fees for examinations. Fees for registration have risen significantly in the last few years: 2007 fees = £290, 2008 fees = £390, 2009 fees = £410, 2010 fees = £420, 2011 fees = £420, with a 50% discount for doctors earning under £32,000.
In 2011, following the Command Paper "Enabling Excellence-Autonomy and Accountability for Healthcare Workers, Social Workers and Social Care Workers", registration fees were reduced by the GMC in accordance with the Government's strategy for reforming and simplifying the system for regulating healthcare workers in the UK and social workers and social care workers in England and requiring that  "[A]t a time of pay restraint in both the public and private sectors, the burden of fees on individual registrants needs to be minimised."
Registering doctors in the UK
The GMC maintains a register of medical practitioners. However, no law expressly prohibits any unregistered or unqualified person from practicing most types of medicine or even surgery. A criminal offence is committed only when such a person deliberately and falsely represents himself as being a registered practitioner or as having a medical qualification. The rationale of the criminal law is that people should be free to opt for any form of advice or treatment, however bizarre…
Registration with the GMC confers a number of privileges and duties. GMC registration may be either provisional or full. Provisional registration is granted to those who have completed medical school and enter their first year (F1) of medical training; this may be converted into full registration upon satisfactory completion of the first year of postgraduate training. In the past, a third type of registration ("limited registration") was granted to doctors who had graduated outside the UK and who had completed the Professional and Linguistic Assessment Board examination but who were yet to complete a period of work in the UK. Limited registration was abolished on 19 October 2007 and now international medical graduates can apply for provisional or full registration depending on their level of experience – they still have to meet the GMC's requirement for knowledge and skills and for English language.
The GMC administers the Professional and Linguistic Assessment Board test (PLAB), which has to be sat by non-European Union overseas doctors before they may practice medicine in the UK as a registered doctor.
A registered practitioner found to have committed some offences can be removed from ("struck off") the Medical Register.
Licensing and revalidating doctors in the UK
The GMC is now empowered to license and regularly revalidate the practice of doctors in the UK. When the licensing scheme was introduced in 2009, 13,500 (6.1%) of registered doctors chose not to be licensed. Unlicensed but registered doctors are likely to be non-practising lecturers, managers, or practising overseas, or retired. Whereas all registered doctors in the UK were offered a one-off automatic practise licence in November 2009, since December 2012 no licence will be automatically revalidated, but will be subject to a revalidation process every five years. No doctor may now be registered for the first time without also being issued a licence to practice, although a licensed doctor may give up their licence if they choose. No unlicensed but registered doctor in the UK is subject to revalidation. However, unlicensed but registered doctors in the UK are still subject to fitness-to-practice proceedings, and required to follow the GMC's good medical practice guidance.
Setting standards of good medical practice
The GMC sets standards of professional and ethical conduct that doctors in the UK are required to follow. The main guidance that the GMC provides for doctors is called Good Medical Practice. This outlines the standard of professional conduct that the public expects from its doctors and provides principles that underpin the GMC's fitness-to-practise decisions. Originally written in 1995, a revised edition came into force in November 2006, and another with effect from 22 April 2013. The content of Good Medical Practice has been rearranged into four domains of duties. Their most significant change is the replacement of a duty to, "Act without delay if you have good reason to believe that you or a colleague may be putting patients at risk," to a new duty to, "Take prompt action if you think that patient safety, dignity or comfort is being compromised". Alongside the guidance booklet are a range of explanatory guidelines, including a new one about the use of social media. The GMC also provides additional guidance for doctors on specific ethical topics, such as treating patients under the age of 18, end-of-life care, and conflicts of interest.
The GMC regulates medical education and training in the United Kingdom. It runs 'quality assurance' programmes for UK medical schools and postgraduate deaneries to ensure that the necessary standards and outcomes are achieved.
In February 2008 the then Secretary of State for Health, Alan Johnson, agreed with recommendations of the Tooke Report which advised that the Postgraduate Medical Education and Training Board should be assimilated into the GMC. Whilst recognising the achievements made by PMETB, Professor John Tooke concluded that regulation needed to be combined into one body; that there should be one organisation that looked after what he called 'the continuum of medical education', from the moment someone chooses a career in medicine until the point that they retire. The merger, which took effect on 1 April 2010, was welcomed by both PMETB and the GMC.
Concerns about doctors
A registered medical practitioner may be referred to the GMC if there are doubts about their fitness to practise in the UK. These are divided into concerns about health and other concerns about ability or behaviour. In the past these issues were dealt with separately and differently, but now pass through a single fitness-to-practise process. The GMC has powers to issue advice or warnings to doctors, accept undertakings from them, or refer them to a fitness-to-practise panel. The GMC's fitness-to-practise panels can accept undertakings from a doctor, issue warnings, impose conditions on a doctor's practice, suspend a doctor, or remove them from the medical register ('struck off'). The GMC is concerned with ensuring that doctors are safe to practise. Its role is not, for example, to fine doctors or to compensate patients following problems. The outcomes of hearings are made available on the GMC website. It has however been repeatedly established that the GMC does treat doctors who are not white, or specifically Black and Ethnic minorities differently. Black and ethnic minority doctors are complained about more, investigated more frequently, issued the most severe punishment more frequently, and are least represented in all aspects of governance in the GMC - a reflection of the wider country.
Gaining registration with the GMC (whether provisional or full) also allows the registrant to fit and utilise green flashing lights to their car. Such lights can be used when attending a medical emergency to alert other road users to their presents and intentions. They can also make a doctors car more visible if they have stopped at an accident scene. They do not confer exemptions to road traffic legislations.
The GMC is also accountable to the Parliament of the United Kingdom through the Health Select Committee. In its first report on the GMC, the Committee described the GMC as "a high-performing medical regulator", but called for some changes to fitness-to-practice rules and practices, including allowing the GMC the right to appeal sentences of its panels.
In the 2000s, the GMC implemented wide-ranging reforms of its organisation and procedures. In part, such moves followed the Shipman killings. They followed a direction set by the UK government in its white paper, Trust, Assurance and Safety. In 2001 freemasonry was added to the register of interests of council members that the GMC published. One of the key changes was to reduce the size of the Council itself, and changing its composition to an equal number of medical and lay members, rather than the majority being doctors. Legislation passed in December 2002 allowed changes in the composition of the Council from the following year, with the number of members reducing from 104 to 35, increasing the proportion of lay members.
In July 2011, the GMC accepted further changes that would separate its presentation of fitness-to-practise cases from their adjudication, which would become the responsibility of a new body, the Medical Practitioners Tribunal Service. The GMC had previously been criticised for combining these two roles in a single organization.
A forthcoming reform to medical registration is the introduction of revalidation of doctors, more similar to the periodic process common in American states, in which the professional is expected to prove his or her professional development and skills. Revalidation is scheduled to start in 2012.
On 16 February 2011, the Secretary of State for Health, Andrew Lansley, made a Written Ministerial Statement in the Justice section entitled 'Health Care Workers, Social Workers and Social Care Workers' in which he said:
I have today laid before Parliament a Command Paper, "Enabling Excellence-Autonomy and Accountability for Healthcare Workers, Social Workers and Social Care Workers" (Cm 8008) setting out the Government's proposals for how the system for regulating health care workers across the United Kingdom and social workers in England should be reformed.
Within the Command Paper:-
Should any regulators wish to propose mergers with other regulatory bodies to reduce costs as part of this work, the Government will view these proposals sympathetically. If the sector itself is unable to identify and secure significant cost reductions over the next three years, and contain registration fees, then the Government will revisit the issue of consolidating the sector into a more cost-effective configuration.
Sir Liam Donaldson, a former chief medical officer had recently told the Mid Staffordshire Foundation Trust public inquiry that he had been involved in discussions about the Nursing and Midwifery Council merging with the General Medical Council, but proponents had "backed off" from the idea and the Council for Healthcare Regulatory Excellence was created instead to share best practice. Sir Liam said the CHRE had been "reasonably successful" but it would be "worth looking at the possibility of a merger" between the GMC and NMC.
Self-regulation and handling of complaints
Concern has resulted from several studies that suggest that the GMC's handling of complaints appears to differ depending on race or overseas qualifications, but it has been argued that this might be due to indirect factors.
The mortality and morbidity among doctors going through GMC procedures has attracted attention. In 2003/4 between 4 and 5% of doctors undergoing fitness to practice scrutiny died. In response to a request for information in accordance with the Freedom of Information Act 2000, the GMC revealed that 68 doctors had died recently whilst undergoing a fitness to practice investigation,
In an internal report, "Doctors Who Commit Suicide While Under GMC Fitness to Practise Investigation", the GMC identified 114 doctors, with a median age of 45, who had died during the previous eight years, and had an open and disclosed GMC case at the time of death, and in which 28 had committed suicide and recommended 'emotional resilience' training for doctors.
The Health and Safety Executive's provisional figure for the number of workers fatally injured in 2013/14 was 133, and corresponds to a rate of fatal injury of 0.44 deaths per 100 000 workers. According to the recent Horsfall review, the number of deaths of doctors under GMC procedures in the eight years between 2005 and 2013 accounted for more than 10% of the country's death rate at work of the entire UK workforce, annually and consistently. No other organisation besides the GMC had come anywhere near this occupational fatality rate.
We already spend up to one billion pounds regulating doctors. We are one of the most over-regulated professions around and there will always be people who fall through. If we pile on more and more regulation, we will never win.
This is the second death of a doctor that has come before me over the last 2 years where a GMC investigation into the doctor’s practice has been found to play a part.
Academics at King's College London researched the effects of increased regulatory transparency on the medical profession and found significant unintended consequences. As doctors reacted anxiously to regulation and media headlines, they practised more defensively.
The GMC was registered as a charity with the Charity Commission of England and Wales on 9 November 2001. The Commissioners having considered the court and the Commission's jurisdiction to consider an organisation's status, which had previously been considered by the courts, in issues of charitable status.
Charities do not normally have to pay income tax or corporation tax, capital gains tax or stamp duty. Following the granting of charitable status the GMC obtained tax relief backdated to 1 April 1994. Charities pay no more than 20% of normal business rates on the buildings they use and occupy. The GMC received confirmation of 80% business rates relief effective from April 1995.
The GMC was most heavily criticised by Dame Janet Smith as part of her inquiry into the issues arising from the case of Dr Harold Shipman. "Expediency," says Dame Janet, "replaced principle." Dame Janet maintained that the GMC failed to deal properly with Fitness to Practise (FTP) cases, particularly involving established and respected doctors.
In response to the Shipman report, Sir Liam Donaldson, the then Chief Medical Officer, published a report titled Good doctors, safer patients, which appeared in 2006. Donaldson echoed concerns about GMC FTP procedures and other functions of the Council. In his view, complaints were dealt with in a haphazard manner, the GMC caused distress to doctors over trivial complaints while tolerating poor practice in other cases. He accused the Council of being "secretive, tolerant of sub-standard practice and dominated by the professional interest, rather than that of the patient". Former President of the General Medical Council, Sir Donald Irvine, called for the current Council to be disbanded and re-formed with new members.
In July 2010 the GMC was severely criticized in an open letter in the British Medical Journal by Professionals Against Child Abuse for the decision to include Penny Mellor on the GMC's Expert Group on Child Protection. According to the letter, Penny Mellor had been convicted and imprisoned for conspiring to abduct a child, and had led protracted hostile campaigns including false allegations against doctors and other professionals involved in child protection cases. She had also campaigned against Sir Roy Meadow and Professor David Southall, who were erased from the medical register by the GMC but subsequently re-instated after court rulings. Penny Mellor subsequently resigned from the Expert Group.
In March 2012, the High Court of England and Wales overturned a 2010 decision by the GMC to strike pediatric gastroenterologist John Walker-Smith off the medical register for serious professional misconduct. In his ruling, the presiding judge criticized what he said were the GMC's "inadequate and superficial reasoning and, in a number of instances, a wrong conclusion," and stated, "It would be a misfortune if this were to happen again."
Junior doctors contract
Controversy arose in July 2016 when the General Medical Council announced it would be appointing Charlie Massey as its new CEO. Massey had been an adviser to health secretary Jeremy Hunt on the controversial Junior doctors contract, which had led to several days of industrial action by doctors over concerns about feasibility and patient safety. Many doctors felt this reflected a clear conflict of interest and signed a petition to the medical council for transparency in its appointment process. The medical council issued a response claiming that they were still an independent body. Massey had also signally failed to distinguish himself in front of the Public Accounts Committee of Parliament.
The Council is composed of six medical professionals and six lay members. The current Chair of the General Medical Council is Dame Clare Marx, the first woman to be chair of the GMC. The current chief executive and registrar is Charlie Massey.
The first woman was elected to the GMC in 1933, however the candidate (Christine Murrell) died before she could take her seat. It was not until 1955 that Janet Aitken was elected and took her seat. Now no one on the council is elected: they are all appointed.
Other regulators of healthcare professionals
The Professional Standards Authority for Health and Social Care (PSA), is an independent body accountable to the UK Parliament, with the remit to promote the health and well-being of patients and the public in the regulation of health professionals. But the PSA does not have legal power to investigate complaints about regulators. It advises the four UK government health departments on issues relating to the regulation of health professionals; scrutinising and overseeing the work of the nine regulatory bodies:-
- Health and Care Professions Council (regulates other health professions in the UK)
- Nursing and Midwifery Council (regulates nurses and midwives)
- General Optical Council
- General Dental Council
- General Chiropractic Council
- General Osteopathic Council
- General Pharmaceutical Council
- Pharmaceutical Society of Northern Ireland
- General Medical Council
In response to the Government's recent proposals the Council for Healthcare Regulatory Excellence has made a call for ideas in their December 2011 paper 'Cost effectiveness and efficiency in health professional regulation' for 'right-touch regulation' described as being
based on a careful assessment of risk, which is targeted and proportionate, which provides a framework in which professionalism can flourish and organisational excellence can be achieved.
- "General Medical Council". Charity Commission for England and Wales. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
- Finch, Ernest (November 1958). "The centenary of the General Council of Medical Education and Registration of the United Kingdom (The General Medical Council) 1858-1958 in relation to medical education". Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. 23 (5): 321–331. PMC 2413715. PMID 13595529.
- "About us: Legislation: Medical Act 1983". General Medical Council. Archived from the original on 21 December 2014. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
- "Statutory Instruments 2012 No. 2685. Health Care and Associated Professions. Doctors. The General Medical Council (Licence to Practise and Revalidation) Regulations Order of Council 2012". National Archives. Archived from the original on 11 May 2013. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
- Grubb A, Laing J, McHale J (2011). Principles of Medical Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 88. ISBN 978-0-19-954440-0.
- MR JUSTICE BURNETT. "British Medical Association, R (on the application of) v General Medical Council  EWHC 2602 (Admin) (3 October 2008)". bailii.org. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- "The Medical Act 1983 (Amendment) Order 2002" (PDF). legislation.gov.uk. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 May 2018. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- "Registration and licensing: Fees". General Medical Council. Archived from the original on 15 July 2015. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
- GMC website – press release – Fees cut for newly qualified doctors Archived 12 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine
- Enabling Excellence Autonomy and Accountability for Healthcare Workers, Social Workers and Social Care Workers - para 1.7 Archived 5 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- Cave, Emma; Brazier, Margaret (2007). Medicine, patients and the law. New York: Penguin Books. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-14-103020-3.
- "The privileges and duties of doctors: UK statutes". General Medical Council. Archived from the original on 23 February 2015. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
- "Doctors who hold provisional registration and want to apply for full registration". General Medical Council. Archived from the original on 20 October 2017. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
- "Applying for registration as an International Medical Graduate". General Medical Council. Archived from the original on 5 November 2017. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 6 February 2010. Retrieved 7 April 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) - GMC website.
- "Understanding a doctor's registration: A guide for patients and carers" (PDF). General Medical Council. November 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 3 July 2014.
- "Registration and licensing: Revalidation". General Medical Council. Archived from the original on 9 February 2015. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 November 2012. Retrieved 7 April 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) - GMC website - overseas regulators briefing.
- Good Medical Practice Archived 28 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine - GMC website.
- "Ethical guidance". gmc-uk.org. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- "Education and training". General Medical Council. Archived from the original on 5 February 2018. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
- "Aspiring to excellence: Tooke Report" (PDF). MMC Inquiry 2008. January 2008. p. 145. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 June 2014. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
- "News: PMETB merger goes ahead". General Medical Council. 31 March 2010. Archived from the original on 21 December 2014. Retrieved 20 December 2014.
- Transitional arrangements Archived 9 April 2006 at the Wayback Machine - FAQ on GMC website.
- GMC website – Fitness to Practise panels Archived 17 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- "Raise a concern about a doctor". gmc-uk.org. Archived from the original on 20 October 2017. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- "Home". www.gmc-uk.org. Archived from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- "Matt Prior: green light means go... doesn't it?". Autocar. Retrieved 14 March 2021.
- Darren.Polley (12 August 2016). "Car Modifications". Suffolk Constabulary. Retrieved 14 March 2021.
- Mallinson, Tom (6 October 2020). "Does driving using a Green Beacon reduce emergency response times in a rural setting?". www.rrh.org.au. Retrieved 14 March 2021.
- "Road Accidents (RTA) - Attending as a Passing Doctor". patient.info. Retrieved 14 March 2021.
- CHRE website – Final fitness to practise decisions Archived 6 October 2010 at the Wayback Machine
- "Health Committee publishes reports on healthcare regulators". United Kingdom Parliament. 26 April 2011. Archived from the original on 15 July 2014. Retrieved 3 July 2014.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 October 2011. Retrieved 27 October 2011.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "GMC names freemason members". BBC News. 4 April 2001. Archived from the original on 26 March 2009.
- http://www.gmc-uk.org/news/1517.asp[permanent dead link] GMC press release - GMC Council appointments
- Dyer, Clare (10 May 2003). "New slimmed down GMC takes shape". BMJ. 326 (7397): 1002. doi:10.1136/bmj.326.7397.1002/a. PMC 1169350.
- "GMC could get new powers to challenge fitness to practise rulings". Pulse. 20 July 2011. Retrieved 25 October 2015.
- "GMC to retain adjudication on fitness to practise - Hospital Dr". hospitaldr.co.uk. 9 December 2010. Archived from the original on 24 September 2017. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- GMC website – Revalidation date set for 2012 Archived 18 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine
- "Health Care Workers, Social Workers and Social Care Workers: 16 Feb 2011: Hansard Written Answers - TheyWorkForYou". TheyWorkForYou. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- "Enabling Excellence Autonomy and Accountability for Healthcare Workers, Social Workers and Social Care Workers" (PDF). dh.gov.uk. Archived (PDF) from the original on 31 October 2012. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- "Nurses see patients as 'diseased objects'". nursingtimes.net. Archived from the original on 14 March 2016. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- Bowers, Simon (2 August 2000). "GMC cleared of race bias charge". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 21 December 2014. Retrieved 21 December 2014.
- "Home - GMC" (PDF). gmc-uk.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- "Deaths during GMC investigation - 4 February 2011". whatdotheyknow.com. Archived from the original on 6 March 2016. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- GMC Internal review embargoed until 14 December 2014 Archived 3 January 2015 at the Wayback Machine
- "GMC to introduce 'emotional resilience' training after finding 28 doctors under investigation committed suicide". pulsetoday.co.uk. Archived from the original on 15 November 2017. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- "Suicides by doctors under investigation by GMC - a Freedom of Information request to General Medical Council". whatdotheyknow.com. 13 August 2016. Archived from the original on 10 May 2017. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- HSE: Health and safety statistics Archived 5 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine
- "HSE: Timeline". www.hse.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 11 August 2017. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- "Gerada warning on 'over-regulation' after documentary secretly films GP consultations". Pulse. 4 October 2011. Archived from the original on 15 November 2017. Retrieved 3 July 2014.
- "Reports to Prevent Future Deaths". www.judiciary.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 9 March 2018. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- "Date of report: 13 February 2014 Ref: 2014-0063 Deceased name: John Davies Coroners name: Dr Fiona Wilcox Coroners Area: London Inner (West) Category: Other related deaths" (PDF). judiciary.gov.uk. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- McGivern, Gerry; Fischer, Michael D. (2010). "Medical regulation, spectacular transparency and the blame business". Journal of Health, Organization and Management. 24 (6): 597–610. doi:10.1108/14777261011088683. PMID 21155435.
- McGivern, Gerry; Fischer, Michael Daniel (1 February 2012). "Reactivity and reactions to regulatory transparency in medicine, psychotherapy and counselling" (PDF). Social Science & Medicine. 74 (3): 289–296. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.09.035. PMID 22104085.
- "Application for registration as a charity by the General Medical Council - 2 April 2001" (PDF). Charity Commission. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 February 2016. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
- "Council 21-22 May 2002 To consider Implications of Charitable Status" (PDF). General Medical Council. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
- "Our Annual Report 2014" (PDF). General Medical Council. p. 63. Retrieved 22 February 2016.
- Shipman inquiry. Safeguarding patients: lessons from the past—proposals for the future. 5th report, 2004. Online version Archived 19 September 2006 at the Wayback Machine.
- Donaldson, L. Good doctors, safer patients: Proposals to strengthen the system to assure and improve the performance of doctors and to protect the safety of patients; a report by the Chief Medical Officer Archived 19 September 2006 at the Wayback Machine. Department of Health, 2006-07-14. Accessed 2006-09-17.
- Irvine, Donald (September 2006). "Good doctors: safer patients—the Chief Medical Officer's prescription for regulating doctors". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 99 (9): 430–432. doi:10.1258/jrsm.99.9.430. PMC 1557883. PMID 16946375. Archived from the original on 20 December 2014.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 23 August 2011. Retrieved 14 May 2011.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Press Association (7 March 2012). "MMR row: high court rules doctor should not have been struck off". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 25 October 2015.
- John Aston (7 March 2012). "MMR doctor John Walker-Smith wins High Court appeal". The Independent. Archived from the original on 21 October 2015. Retrieved 3 November 2015.
- Nagesh, Ashitha (16 July 2016). "Doctors embroiled in another dispute over one of Jeremy Hunt's aides". Metro. Archived from the original on 25 September 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
- Campbell, Denis (22 August 2016). "Secret documents reveal official concerns over 'seven-day NHS' plans". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 28 October 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
- Stephenson, Terence (19 September 2016). "Response to petition regarding GMC appointments and impartiality". www.gmc-uk.org. General Medical Council UK. Archived from the original on 3 January 2017. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
- "Council members". General Medical Council. Archived from the original on 7 February 2018. Retrieved 11 June 2018.
- Anonymous. "Who we are". Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 17 January 2020.
- Anonymous. "Charlie Massey – Chief Executive and Registrar". www.gmc-uk.org. General Medical Council UK. Archived from the original on 11 December 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
- Scott, Jean M (March 1988). "Women and the GMC: The Struggle for Representation". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 81 (3): 164–166. doi:10.1177/014107688808100315. ISSN 0141-0768. PMC 1291513. PMID 3282068.
- [permanent dead link]
- - Cost effectiveness and efficiency in health professional regulation (December 2011) Archived 26 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- MacAlister, D. Introductory Address on the General Medical Council (lecture, 1906)