Global Affairs Canada
|Affaires mondiales Canada|
as Department of External Affairs
|Type||Department responsible for|
|Annual budget||$7.1 billion CAD (2018–19)|
|Deputy Ministers responsible|
Global Affairs Canada (GAC; French: Affaires mondiales Canada, AMC; incorporated as the Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development), is the department of the Government of Canada that manages Canada's diplomatic and consular relations, encourages Canadian international trade, and leads Canada's international development and humanitarian assistance. It is also responsible for maintaining Canadian government offices abroad with diplomatic and consular status on behalf of all government departments.
The department has undergone numerous name changes and re-organizations since its founding in 1909. Originally established as the Department of External Affairs, the department has also been known as Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada, and Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada throughout its lifetime.
The current leadership of GAC is provided by three ministers:
- the Minister of Foreign Affairs (currently Marc Garneau) — responsible for foreign policy matters and the department overall (as the senior minister in the department).
- the Minister of International Development (currently Karina Gould) — responsible for international development, poverty reduction, and humanitarian assistance.
- the Minister of Small Business, Export Promotion and International Trade (currently Mary Ng) — responsible for matters of international trade
Origins (early 20th century)
Global Affairs Canada was first founded as the Department of External Affairs on 1 June 1909. The word foreign was deliberately avoided by dominions of the Commonwealth and thus, because the department was founded while Canada's foreign policy was still controlled by the United Kingdom, the term was avoided by Canada as well.
During and after World War I, however, Canada assumed progressively greater control over its foreign relations, with its full autonomy in this field being confirmed by the Statute of Westminster in 1931. Still, for historical reasons, the name External Affairs was retained.
The Department of Trade and Commerce, which included the Trade Commissioner Service, was created in 1892 and was combined with the Department of Industry in 1969 to form the Department of Industry Trade and Commerce (ITC).:454–7 Both External Affairs and ITC maintained networks of offices abroad, with varying degrees of coordination among them. The Department of Citizenship and Immigration also had offices abroad, in some cases dating back to Confederation.
In the 1970s and early 1980s, there were growing efforts to ensure coordination among all Canadian government offices outside Canada and to strengthen the leadership role and authority of heads of post (ambassadors, high commissioners, consuls general) over all Canadian government staff in their areas of accreditation. This led to a 1979 decision by Prime Minister Joe Clark to consolidate the various streams of the Canadian Foreign Service, including the "political" (traditional diplomatic) stream, the Trade Commissioner Service, and the Immigration Foreign Service.
This was followed by a decision in February 1982 by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau to combine External Affairs and International Trade into a single department, initially as the Department of External Affairs and then as External Affairs and International Trade. The change was reflected in a new Department of External Affairs Act passed in 1983.:230 The 1982 merger was part of larger reorganization of government that also combined the Industry component of ITC with the Department of Regional Economic Expansion.
Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade (1993–95)
The department's name was changed to the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade (DFAIT) in 1993, formalized by an Act of Parliament in 1995, about 60 years after Canada had gained control over its foreign policy (1931). DFAIT maintained two separate ministers: the Minister of Foreign Affairs, with lead responsibility for the portfolio, and the Minister of International Trade. The Minister for International Cooperation, who was responsible for agencies such as the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), also fell under DFAIT. Moreover, the responsibilities of DFAIT would include Canadian relations with Commonwealth nations—though such nations are not considered 'foreign' to one another.
CIDA was formally established in 1968, although a preceding External Aid Office was created as a branch of the External Affairs Department in 1960,:198–9 building on roots that go back to the Colombo Plan in the early 1950s.
Recent developments (21st century)
Through an administrative separation of the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, two separate departments named Foreign Affairs Canada (FAC) and International Trade Canada (ITCan), respectively, were created in December 2003. However, legislation to formally abolish DFAIT and provide a statutory basis for the separate departments failed to pass a first vote in the House of Commons on 15 February 2005. The government, nonetheless, maintained the administrative separation of the two departments despite neither having been established through an Act of Parliament.
In early 2006, under the new government of Prime Minister Stephen Harper, Foreign Affairs Canada and International Trade Canada were re-joined to again form a single department known as Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada.
In 2013, included within the Conservative government's omnibus budget bill, An Act to implement certain provisions of the budget tabled in Parliament on March 21, 2013 and other measures (or Bill C-60), was a section that would fold the Canadian International Development Agency into the department, creating the Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development (DFATD). The bill received royal assent on 26 June 2013.
On 4 November 2015, the Prime Minister Justin Trudeau's new Liberal government modified the name of the department again. While the legal name of the department remains the Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development, its public designation (applied title) under the Federal Identity Program is Global Affairs Canada. Despite the change to the applied title of the department, the senior minister responsible is called the Minister of Foreign Affairs, rather than "Minister of Global Affairs".
Functions and structure
Ministers and parliamentary secretaries to ministers are elected members of the House of Commons and accountable to Parliament. Ministers are also members of the cabinet and privy council (and thus entitled to use the prefix "the Honourable"). The current leadership of GAC is provided by three ministers, each with their own responsibilities.
The Minister of Foreign Affairs (currently Marc Garneau) is the senior minister in the department, with responsibility for foreign policy matters as well as the department overall. This ministerial portfolio includes:
- Asia Pacific Foundation of Canada
- International Joint Commission
- Permanent Joint Board on Defense
- Roosevelt Campobello International Park Commission
- Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Business Advisory Council
- Development finance institutions
- International Development Research Centre (IDRC)
The Minister of Small Business, Export Promotion and International Trade (currently Mary Ng) is responsible for international development, poverty reduction, and humanitarian assistance. This ministerial portfolio includes:
- Business Development Bank of Canada
- Canadian Commercial Corporation (CCC)
- Export Development Canada (EDC)
- Invest in Canada
- Office of the Extractive Sector Corporate Social Responsibility Counsellor
- Trade Commissioner Service
Current departmental structure
- Minister of Foreign Affairs – Marc Garneau
- Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Foreign Affairs – Rob Oliphant
- Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs – Marta Morgan
- Associate Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs – Christopher MacLennan
- North America
- Latin America and the Caribbean
- Europe, Middle East and the Maghreb
- Asia & Africa
- Associate Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs – Christopher MacLennan
- Minister of International Development – Karina Gould
- Minister of Small Business, Export Promotion and International Trade – Mary Ng
- Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Small Business, Export Promotion and International Trade – Rachel Bendayan
- Deputy Minister of International Trade – John Hannaford
Branches of Global Affairs each have their own Assistant Deputy Minister, who report to all three deputy ministers:
- Strategic Planning and Policy
- Consular, Security and Emergency Management Branch
- Global Issues
- International Security
- International Business Development, Investment & Innovation
- Trade Policy & Negotiation
- International Platform
- Legal Advisor
- Human Resources
- Corporate Finance and Operations
- Crown corporations:
- shared-governance corporations (responsibility of Foreign Affairs minister):
- international organizations:
The change of terminology from external affairs to foreign affairs recognized, albeit belatedly, a shift that had occurred many years before.
At the time that the external affairs portfolio was created in 1909, Canada was a self-governing dominion in the British Empire and did not have an independent foreign policy. The term external affairs avoided the question of whether a colony or dominion—self-governing and hence sovereign in some respects—could, by definition, have foreign affairs. Implicitly, since the department was responsible for affairs with both Commonwealth and non-Commonwealth countries, all external relations were of a type, even when the head of state was shared with other nations.
Under section 132 of the British North America Act, 1867, the federal government had authority to conduct and implement relations with other parts of the British Empire, which were not considered foreign lands. The United Kingdom and other colonial powers still routinely divided their conduct of overseas policy into foreign affairs (e.g. the Foreign Office) and domestic or colonial affairs (the Colonial Office or Dominion Office, which were later reorganized and combined into one department: the Foreign and Commonwealth Office). Canadian interests outside the empire (e.g. between Canada and its non-empire neighbours, the United States, Russia, St. Pierre and Miquelon, and Greenland) were under the purview of the UK Foreign Office. Informally, however, Canada had had relations with the United States in particular, with trade and other relationships pre-dating Confederation.
Canada's management of its own foreign relations evolved over time, with key milestones including: the First World War (at the conclusion of which Canada was a signatory of the Treaty of Versailles and a member of the League of Nations); the Balfour Declaration; increased direct conduct of bilateral matters with the United States (where Canada had its own representatives since at least 1927); and finally, the Statute of Westminster and the Second World War. In terms of Canada's commercial relations, the first trade commissioner, John Short Larke, was named following a successful trade delegation to Australia led by Canada's first minister of trade and commerce, Mackenzie Bowell.
The Statute of Westminster clarified that Canada (and certain other dominions, such as Australia and New Zealand) were primarily responsible for, among other things, the conduct of their own foreign affairs. After World War II, Canada was a founding member of the United Nations and participant in its own right in post-war settlement talks and other international fora, and in most respects the conduct of foreign affairs was no longer colonial.
Over the years after the Second World War, a number of other historical traditions were slowly abolished or brought into accordance with reality, such as the practice of Canadian ambassadors presenting diplomatic credentials signed by the monarch of Canada (including, on occasion, credentials written in French as an official language of Canada); Canadian ambassadors now present credentials signed by the governor general of Canada as representative of the Canadian monarch. Other traditions remain, such as the exchange of high commissioners, instead of ambassadors, between Commonwealth countries. (High commissioners present credentials from the head of government [the prime minister], as the head of state was historically shared, and would not accredit a representative to one's self.) Nonetheless, by the time the change in terminology was effected in 1993, Canada's foreign affairs had been conducted separately from the United Kingdom in most significant respects for the entire post-war period, or over 60 years since the Statute of Westminster.
This process was paralleled in other areas over this period, including the establishment of Canada's own supreme court as the court of last resort, the patriation of the constitution, and Canadian citizenship (Canadians had been British subjects, and no citizenship per se existed until 1947).
In September 2012, the Canadian Department of Foreign Affairs and the UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office signed a memorandum of understanding on diplomatic cooperation, which promotes the co-location of embassies, the joint provision of consular services, and common crisis response. The project has been criticized by leading Canadian foreign affairs scholars for undermining Ottawa's foreign policy independence.
Within Global Affairs Canada, there are several bodies that facilitate Canada's international trade system, including the Trade Controls Bureau, Export Development Canada, Canadian Commercial Corporation, and the Trade Commissioner Service. Other organizations that facilitate international trade and foreign investment in Canada include the Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA), Invest in Canada (formerly Foreign Investment Review Agency), and the Canadian International Trade Tribunal, which is an independent quasi-judicial body. The CBSA and Statistics Canada collect information on all items exported from Canada, and classify these items using categories negotiated by the World Customs Organization.
|Trade agreement / system||Status||Type||Partner states|
|Canada–Central American Four Free Trade Agreement||Never implemented||Free trade agreement (FTA)||Central American Four (Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua)|
|Canada–Chile Free Trade Agreement||In effect||Bilateral FTA||Chile|
|Canada–China Promotion and Reciprocal Protection of Investments Agreement||In effect||Bilateral investment treaty||China|
|Canada–Colombia Free Trade Agreement||In effect||Bilateral FTA||Columbia|
|Canada–Costa Rica Free Trade Agreement||In effect||Bilateral FTA||Costa Rica|
|Canada–European Free Trade Association Free Trade Agreement||In effect||FTA||European Free Trade Association (Iceland, Norway, Switzerland, and Liechtenstein)|
|Canada–Honduras Free Trade Agreement||In effect||FTA||Honduras|
|Canada–India Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement||Under negotiations, as of 2020[update]||Bilateral FTA, whose negotiations launched in 2010||India|
|Canada–Israel Free Trade Agreement||In effect||Bilateral FTA||Israel|
|Canada–Jordan Free Trade Agreement||In effect, since October 2012||Bilateral FTA||Jordan|
|Canada–Korea Free Trade Agreement||In effect||Bilateral FTA||South Korea|
|Canada–Panama Free Trade Agreement||In effect||Bilateral FTA||Panama|
|Canada–Peru Free Trade Agreement||In effect||Bilateral FTA||Peru|
|Canada–Ukraine Free Trade Agreement||In effect||Bilateral FTA||Ukraine|
|Canada–United States Free Trade Agreement (CUSFTA)||Superseded by NAFTA in 1994||Bilateral FTA||United States|
|Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership||In effect||Multilateral FTA||Australia, Brunei, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, and Vietnam|
|Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA)||In effect||Bilateral FTA||European Union|
|Free Trade Area of the Americas||Never implemented||Proposed agreement||Countries of the Americas, excluding Cuba.|
|North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)||Superseded by USMCA in July 2020||Trilateral agreement||United States and Mexico|
|North American Union||N/A||Theoretical continental union||United States and Mexico|
|United States–Mexico–Canada Agreement (USMCA)||In effect||Trilateral agreement superseding NAFTA in July 2020|
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- Minister for International Trade
- Minister for International Development
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