Guaicuruan languages

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Guaicuruan
Waikurúan
EthnicityGuaycuru peoples
Geographic
distribution
northern Argentina, western Paraguay, southern Brazil
Linguistic classificationMataco–Guaicuru ?
  • Guaicuruan
Subdivisions
Glottologguai1249[1]

Guaicuruan (Guaykuruan, Waikurúan, Guaycuruano, Guaikurú, Guaicuru, Guaycuruana) is a language family spoken in northern Argentina, western Paraguay, and Brazil (Mato Grosso do Sul). The speakers of the languages are often collectively called the Guaycuru peoples. For the most part, the Guaycuruans lived in the Gran Chaco and were nomadic and warlike, until finally subdued by the various countries of the region in the 19th century.

Genetic relations[edit]

Jorge A. Suárez includes Guaicuruan with Charruan in a hypothetical Waikuru-Charrúa stock. Morris Swadesh includes Guaicuruan along with Matacoan, Charruan, and Mascoian within his Macro-Mapuche stock. Both proposals appear to be obsolete.

Family division[edit]

Guaicuruan/Waikurúan languages are often classified as follows:

  • Kadiweu (also known as Caduveo, Kadiwéu, Mbayá-Guaycuru, Mbayá, Guaicurú, Waikurú, Ediu-Adig)
  • Southern Guaicuruan
    • Pilagá (also known as Pilacá)
    • Toba Qom (also known as Chaco Sur, Namqom)
    • Mocoví (also known as Mbocobí, Mokoví, Moqoyt)
    • Abipón (also known as Callaga, Kalyaga, Abipon) †
  • Eastern Guaicuruan
    • Guachi (also known as Wachí) †
    • Payagua (also known as Payawá) †

Abipón, Guachí, and Payaguá all are extinct.

Lyle Campbell (2012) classifies Guachi and Payagua each as language isolates.[2]

Harriet Klein argues against the assumption that Kadiweu is Guaicuruan. Most others accept the inclusion of Kadiweu into the family. The Guachi were absorbed by the Mbayá. The similarities with the Mbayá language may be due to borrowing rather than a familial relationship.[3]

  • Toba is spoken in the eastern part of the Chaco and Formosa provinces of Argentina, in southern Paraguay, and in the eastern part of Bolivia; there are approximately 25,000 speakers. The Guaicuruan Toba language here should not be confused with the Mascoy language of the Mascoyan family which is also called Toba (or Toba-Emok, Toba-Maskoy).
  • Pilagá, with about 4,000 speakers, is spoken in the northeastern part of Chaco province, and in eastern Formosa, Argentina;
  • Mocoví, with about 7,000 speakers, is spoken in Argentina in the northern part of Santa Fe and southern Chaco provinces.
  • Abipón, which was spoken in the eastern part of Chaco province, Argentina, is now extinct and was very closely related to the other languages in the southern branch

Mason (1950)[edit]

Internal classification of the Guaicuruan languages by Mason (1950):[4]

  • Guaicurú, Northern: Mbayá-Guaicurú
    • West: Caduveo (Cadiguegodí), Guetiadegodí (Guetiadebo)
    • East: Apacachodegodegí (Mbayá Mirim), Lichagotegodí (Icachodeguo ?), Eyibogodegí, Gotocogegodegí (Ocoteguebo ?)
    • Payaguá (Lengua)
      • North: Sarigué (Cadigué)
      • South: Magach (Agacé, Siacuás, Tacumbú)
  • Frentones
    • Middle: Toba (Tocowit)
      • Toba: Guazú, Komlék, Michi (Miri), Cocolot, Lanyagachek, Mogosma, Chirokina, Natica
      • Pilagá
      • Aguilot
    • South
      • Abipón (Callaga)
        • Mapenuss (Yaukanigá)
        • Mepene
        • Gulgaissen (Kilvasa)
      • Mocoví (Mbocobí)

Possible or doubtful Guaicuruan languages listed by Mason (1950):

  • Guachi
  • Layaná
  • Juri (Suri)
  • Querandí
  • Mahoma (Hohoma)

Vocabulary[edit]

Loukotka (1968) lists the following basic vocabulary items for the Guaicuruan languages.[5]

gloss Guaicuru Kaduveo Beakeo Toba-Guazú Toba-Michí Komlék Pilagá Mocoví Abipon Guachí Payaguá
one uniniteguí oniúde uniditik natedak molek niátakolék onolik iñiateda iñitãra tamak hesle
two itoada edoáda itio-átate kakainí divastoluka diákte iñabako iñoaká euexo tigaké
eye ni-güekogüe o-gekore i-gékure iya-iti kada-ité kade-ité kada-ité niko-té nato-ete ya-taya ya-tígui
ear na-pagate ona-paráte a-parate tela ke-telá kadke-tilá kalke-telá li-kela ketal irtan-meté ya-igua
tooth no-güe odo-a odoː-ué ka-duhe kada-uvé kado-daití kada-eté ové na-vue ya-va ya-serata
man uneleiːgua onelégio inelégioː yalé yalé yalé lxiguo yalé yoalé shakup akú
water nogodi niorodi níoroːdi etarat netath noröp itarat varayák enarp öak ueig
fire nuledi nolédi noːlédi nodék nodék dóle dolé norík nkátek hicháte
earth iyogodi iːgo íru aloa alugá l'ova aluá alobá alóa leek nagiku
fish nagoyegí norodzyei nrodzyég niyak niyak niːak nigiyak nayí noayi anei nahiguáte

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Guaicuruan". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ Campbell, Lyle (2012). "Classification of the indigenous languages of South America". In Grondona, Verónica; Campbell, Lyle (eds.). The Indigenous Languages of South America. The World of Linguistics. 2. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 59–166. ISBN 978-3-11-025513-3.
  3. ^ Steward, Julian H. (1946), Handbook of South American Indians, Volume 1, The Marginal Tribes, Washington: Smithsonian Institution, p. 214
  4. ^ Mason, John Alden (1950). "The languages of South America". In Steward, Julian (ed.). Handbook of South American Indians. 6. Washington, D.C., Government Printing Office: Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 143. pp. 157–317.
  5. ^ Loukotka, Čestmír (1968). Classification of South American Indian languages. Los Angeles: UCLA Latin American Center.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Adelaar, Willem F. H.; & Muysken, Pieter C. (2004). The languages of the Andes. Cambridge language surveys. Cambridge University Press.
  • Campbell, Lyle. (1997). American Indian languages: The historical linguistics of Native America. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509427-1.
  • Censabella, Marisa. (1999). Las lenguas indígenas de la Argentina. (pp 60–77). Buenos Aires: Editorial Universitaria de Buenos Aires. ISBN 950-23-0956-1.

External links[edit]