Description and significance
Haloarcula species are extreme halophilic archaea. They are distinguished from other genera in the family Halobacteriaceae by the presence of specific derivatives of TGD-2 polar lipids. Currently, seven recognized species are in the genus: H. vallismortis, H. marismortui, H. hispanica, H. japonica, H. argentinensis, H. mukohataei, and H. quadrata. H. quadrata was first isolated when researchers were attempting to culture Haloquadratum walsbyi, a haloarchaeon that was thought to be unculturable until 2004. H. quadrata has predominantly flat, square-shaped, somewhat pleomorphic cells. H. marismortui has one of the only two prokaryotic large ribosomal subunits which have so far been crystallized. The other one is Deinococcus radiodurans.
Haloarcula species grow optimally at 40–45 °C. Growth appears in sheets of up to 65 cells often in the shape of a square or triangle.
Haloarcula species are found in neutral saline environments such as salt lakes, marine salterns, and saline soils. Like other members of the family Halobacteriaceae, Haloarcula requires at least 1.5 M NaCl for growth, but grow optimally in 2.0 to 4.5 M NaCl.
- See the NCBI webpage on Haloarcula. Data extracted from the "NCBI taxonomy resources". National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved 2007-03-19.
- Oren, A.; Ventosa, A.; Gutierrez, M. C.; Kamekura, M. (1999). "Haloarcula quadrata sp. nov., a square, motile archaeon isolated from a brine pool in Sinai (Egypt)". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 49 (3): 1149–1155. doi:10.1099/00207713-49-3-1149. PMID 10425773.
- Torreblanca M, Rodriquez-Valera F, Juez G, Ventosa A, Kamekura M, Kates M (1986). "Classification of non-alkaliphilic halobacteria based on numerical taxonomy and polar lipid composition, and description of Haloarcula gen. nov. and Haloferax gen.nov". Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 8: 89–99. doi:10.1016/s0723-2020(86)80155-2.
- Oren A, Ventosa A (2000). "International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology Subcommittee on the taxonomy of Halobacteriaceae. Minutes of the meetings, 16 August 1999, Sydney, Australia". Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 50: 1405–1407. doi:10.1099/00207713-50-3-1405. PMID 10843089.
- Javor B, Requadt C, Stoeckenius W (1982). "Box-shaped halophilic bacteria". J. Bacteriol. 151 (3): 1532–1542. PMC 220435. PMID 6286602.
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