Harlem Fire Watchtower
Harlem Fire Watchtower
NYC Landmark No. 0313
Restored in 2020
|Location||Marcus Garvey Park, East 122nd Street, Manhattan, New York City, New York|
|Architect||Julius H. Kroehl|
|NRHP reference No.||76001240|
|Added to NRHP||June 21, 1976|
|Designated NYCL||July 12, 1967|
The Harlem Fire Watchtower, also known as the Mount Morris Fire Watchtower, is the only surviving one of eleven cast-iron watchtowers placed throughout New York City starting in the 1850s. Standing at 47 feet (14 m) tall, it was built by Julius H. Kroehl for $2,300 based on a design by James Bogardus. It is located in Marcus Garvey Park in Harlem, Manhattan.
The Mount Morris Park tower went into service in 1857 in response to Harlem residents’ demand. The towers gave volunteers a perch from which to watch for fires that were common in the wooden structures that then made up much of New York City, and the watchers then spread the word via bell ringing. Later, electric telegraphs were installed but the bell provided local alarms. When pull boxes and other technological advances rendered the fire watchtowers obsolete, the system was discontinued and the other towers eventually were destroyed. Harlem's, protected in the middle of a park, endured.
During the New Deal, the area surrounding the watchtower was rebuilt by government employees as part of the Works Project Administration jobs program. This project created a gracious plaza (sometimes called "the Acropolis"), stone retaining wall, and wide steps approaching the summit from several sides for pedestrians. The tower was designated a city landmark in 1967 and was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1976. The last work on the watchtower came in 1994, but cracks in the overall structure and in the bell remained. The granite parapet along the top was in need of restoration.
Weather, lack of maintenance, and neglect took their toll over the years. Roof damage allowed water into the structure, rusting structural members. The original copper roof deteriorated and fell off, exposing the interior to more damage. Many of the internal steps were missing and park visitors may no longer climb them or get near the structure, which is protected by a fence. In 2013, the Mount Morris Park Community Improvement Association and the Marcus Garvey Park Alliance partnered with the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation to raise $4 million to restore the Harlem Watchtower, led by Valerie Jo Bradley. Starting in late 2014, NYC Parks disassembled the tower to restore the structure and ensure its soundness and stability before reconstruction. The tower reopened to visitors in December 2019.
- "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. July 9, 2010.
- Mount Morris Watchtower NYC Parks
- Margolies, Jane (2019-10-25). "The Miraculous Revival of the Last Fire Watchtower (Built in 1856)". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020-10-05.
- Restoration of the Harlem Fire Watchtower Mount Morris Park Community Improvement Association
- "Event: Historic New York: Mount Morris Fire Watchtower at Mount Morris Fire Watchtower in Marcus Garvey Park". NYC Parks. Retrieved 2019-12-21.
Media related to Harlem Fire Watchtower at Wikimedia Commons
- Official Site (New York City Department of Parks & Recreation)
- Historic American Engineering Record (HAER) No. NY-104, "Harlem Fire Watchtower, Marcus Garvey Park, New York, New York County, NY", 13 photos, 5 data pages, 1 photo caption page
- Firewatchtower.com - An online resource for the conservation of Mount Morris Fire Watchtower in Harlem's Marcus Garvey Park, New York, NY