Help:IPA/Punjabi

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Punjabi pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-pa}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

See Punjabi phonology, Gurmukhi, and Shahmukhi for a more thorough discussion of the sounds of Punjabi.

Consonants
IPA Examples English Approximation
Gurmukhi Shahmukhi ISO 15919
b ਬਿਸਤਰਾ ابستر bistarā butter
d ਦਿੱਤਾ دتّا dittā duck[1]
ਜਦੋਂ جدوں jadōṁ jug
ɖ ਡੰਗਰ ڈنگر angar guard[1]

(Rhotic dialects)

f ਫ਼ੇਰ فیر fēr fuss
ɡ ਗੱਡੀ گڈّی gaḍḍī gut
ɣ ਕਾਗ਼ਜ਼ کاغذ ġaz similar to a French r
ɦ ਹਾਏ ہائے hāē ahead
j ਯਾਰੀ یاری yārī yuck
k ਘਰ گھر ghar scab
ਔਖਾ اوکھا aukhā cab
l ਲਾਂਬਾ لامبا lāmbā leaf
ɭ ਰੌਲ਼ਾ رَوࣇا rauā garlic

(Rhotic dialects)

m ਮਸੀਤ مسیت masīt much
n ਨੂਹ نوہ nūh not
ɳ ਸੋਹਣਾ سوہݨا sōhā burn
ɲ ਉਂਞ انج uñj canyon
ŋ ਕੰਙਣ کنگݨ kaṅgaṇ bang
p ਭਰਿਆ بھریا bhariyā spot
ਫੁੱਲ پھلّ‎ phull pot
q ਕ਼ਲਮ قلم qalam somewhat like caught
r ਮੁਕ਼ੱਰਰ مقرّر muqarrar Trilled R[2]
ɾ ਵਾਰੀ واری rī American butter[2]
ɽ ਕੂੜ کوڑ garter (Rhotic dialects)
ɽʱ ਉਲੇੜ੍ਹ الیڑھ ulēṛh no English equivalent
s ਸਾਡਾ ساڈا sāḍā sun
ʃ ਹੋਸ਼ ہوش ś shoe
t ਤਿੱਲੜ تلّڑ tillaṛ stub[1]
ਓਥੇ اوتھے ōthē tub[1]
ਚੜ੍ਹਦਾ,

ਝੂਠ

چڑھدا،
جھوٹھ
caṛhdā,

jhūṭh

catch
tʃʰ ਛੱਡ چھڈّ‎ chaḍḍ choose
ʈ ਸੱਟ,

ਢੀਠ

سٹّ،
ڈھیٹھ
saṭṭ,

ḍhīṭh

carts[1]
ʈʰ ਕਾਠ کاٹھ ṭh trip[1]
ʋ ਵਹੁਟੀ ووہٹی vahuṭī vat[3]
x ਖ਼ਾਲਿਸ خالص k͟hālis Scottish Loch
z ਹਜ਼ਾਰ ہزار hazār zoo
Vowels
IPA Examples English Approximation
Gurmukhi Shahmukhi ISO 15919
ə ਕਮ کم kam about
ਨਾਲ਼ ناࣇ nā father
e ਵਾਹਿਗੁਰੂ واہِگرو vāhiguru say (shortened ē)
ਜੇਬ جیب jēb say
ɛ ਰਹਿਣਾ رَہݨا rahiṇā pen[4]
ɛː ਪੈਂਦਾ پَیندا painda fairy
ɪ ਇਮਲੀ اِملی imalī sit[5]
ਈਖ اِیکھ īkh seat[5]
i ਬੱਤੀ بَتّی battī happy[5]
ਬੋਲੋ بولو bōlō border (Received Pronunciation) go (General American)
ɔː ਕੌਣ کَوݨ kaun dog (Received Pronunciation) horse (General American)
ʊ ਤੁਕ تُک tuk book
ਸੂਤ سُوت sūt moon[5]
◌̃ ਹੰਸ ہن٘س has nasal vowel faun
([ãː, õː], etc.)
ਮੈਂ مَیں mai
Suprasegmentals
IPA Example Notes
ˈ◌ [ˈdeːɦli] stress
(placed before stressed syllable)
◌ː [ˈʊtːəɾ pɾəˈdeːʃ] doubled consonant
(placed after doubled consonant)
á, é, ... ਕੋੜ੍ਹਾ کوڑھا kohṛā 'leper' high, or high-falling tone
à, è, ... ਘੋੜਾ گھوڑا ghoṛā 'horse' low, or low-rising tone

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Punjabi contrast dental [t] and [d] with apical postalveolar [ʈ] and [ɖ] (as well as aspirated variants). Both sets sound like /t/ and /d/ to most English speakers.
  2. ^ a b /ɾ/ can surface as a trill [r] in word-initial and syllable-final positions. Geminate /ɾː/ is always a trill.
  3. ^ Janet Pierrehumbert, Rami Nair (1996), Implications of Hindi Prosodic Structure (Current Trends in Phonology: Models and Methods), European Studies Research Institute, University of Salford Press, 1996, ISBN 978-1-901471-02-1, ... showed extremely regular patterns. As is not uncommon in a study of subphonemic detail, the objective data patterned much more cleanly than intuitive judgments ... [w] occurs when / و/ is in onglide position ... [v] occurs otherwise ...
  4. ^ [ɛ] also occurs as an allophone of /ə/ near an /ɦ/ that is surrounded on both sides by schwas. Usually, the second schwa becomes silent, which results in an [ɛ] preceding an /ɦ/.
  5. ^ a b c d /iː, ɪ/ and /uː, ʊ/ are neutralised to [i, u] at the end of a word.