Help:IPA/Ukrainian

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet represents Ukrainian language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-uk}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

Ukrainian contrasts palatalized "soft" and unpalatalized "hard" consonants. Palatalized consonants, denoted by a superscript ⟨j⟩, are pronounced with the body of the tongue raised toward the hard palate, like in the [j] sound in yes.

See Ukrainian phonology for more details on the sounds of Ukrainian.

Consonants
IPA Examples English approximations
b бог[1] About this sound[bɔɦ] boot
d дим[1] About this sound[dɪm] do
дім, мідь[1] About this sound[d⁽ʲ⁾im], [midʲ] dew
dz дзе́ркало[1] About this sound[ˈdzɛrkɐlo] pads
dzʲ ґедзь, дзьоб[1] About this sound[ɡɛdzʲ], About this sound[dzʲɔb]
джміль[1] About this sound[dʒmilʲ] jump, ridge
f фа́рба About this sound[ˈfɑrbɐ] fool
ɡ ґа́нок[1] About this sound[ˈɡɑnok] good
ɣ чахохбі́лі[1] [tʃɐxoɣˈbil⁽ʲ⁾i] between good and hood
ɦ газе́та About this sound[ɦɐˈzɛtɐ] behind
j йти, гай, їда́льня About this sound[jtɪ], About this sound[ɦɑj], About this sound[jiˈdɑlʲnʲɐ] yes
k ключ About this sound[klʲutʃ] scar
l лось About this sound[lɔsʲ] bell
лід, сіль About this sound[l⁽ʲ⁾id], About this sound[s⁽ʲ⁾ilʲ] least
m мир About this sound[mɪr] moot
n не́бо About this sound[ˈnɛbo] noon
ні́жний, день About this sound[ˈn⁽ʲ⁾iʒnɪj], About this sound[dɛnʲ] new
p пил About this sound[pɪl] spare
r лі́кар About this sound[ˈl⁽ʲ⁾ikɐr] trilled r, like in Spanish riesgo
рі́чка About this sound[ˈr⁽ʲ⁾itʃkɐ]
s суп About this sound[sup] soup
сі́но, вісь About this sound[ˈs⁽ʲ⁾ino], [wisʲ] suit
ʃ шпари́на, ви́ще About this sound[ʃpɐˈrɪnɐ], About this sound[ˈwɪʃtʃe] shop
t тин About this sound[tɪn] star
тінь, мить About this sound[t⁽ʲ⁾inʲ], About this sound[mɪtʲ] stew
ts цибу́ля About this sound[tsɪˈbulʲɐ] cats
tsʲ ціна́, віне́ць About this sound[ts⁽ʲ⁾iˈnɑ], About this sound[wiˈnɛtsʲ]
очере́т, вище About this sound[otʃeˈrɛt], About this sound[ˈwɪʃtʃe] choose
вчи́тель, став About this sound[ˈu̯tʃɪtelʲ], [stɑu̯] tow
v Афганіста́н[1] [ɐvɦɐn⁽ʲ⁾iˈstɑn] vine
w віл About this sound[wil] between wine and vine
x ховра́х [xou̯ˈrɑx] Bach, loch
z зуб[1] About this sound[zub] zoo
зі́ллю, рі́зьблення[1] [ˈz⁽ʲ⁾ilʲːʊ], About this sound[ˈr⁽ʲ⁾izʲblenʲːɐ] presume
ʒ жи́то[1] About this sound[ˈʒɪto] measure, garage
Vowels
IPA Examples English approximation
Stressed
ɑ гай About this sound[ɦɑj] father
ɛ день About this sound[dɛnʲ] met
i кіт, і́кла About this sound[kit], [ˈiklɐ] meet
ɪ ми́ша About this sound[ˈmɪʃɐ] bit
ɔ по́ле, льон About this sound[ˈpɔle], [lʲɔn] off
u дух, лють About this sound[dux], About this sound[lʲutʲ] fool
Unstressed
ɐ гарма́та About this sound[ɦɐrˈmɑtɐ] hug
e ефі́рний About this sound[eˈfirnɪj] rate
i біле́т About this sound[biˈlɛt] meet
ɪ кра́сний[2] About this sound[ˈkrɑsnɪj] bit
o ору́дний About this sound[oˈrudnɪj] cold
ʊ туди́ About this sound[tʊˈdɪ] put
Other symbols
IPA Explanation
ˈ stress (placed before the stressed syllable)
ˌ secondary stress (placed before the stressed syllable)
ː gemination (the consonant is pronounced twice as long)[3]
⁽ʲ⁾ optional nature of consonant palatalization before /i/

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Voiceless obstruents /p t tʲ ts tsʲ tʃ k x f s sʲ ʃ/ are voiced [b d dʲ dz dzʲ dʒ ɡ ɣ v z zʲ ʒ] before other voiced obstruents. [ɣ] and [v] only ever occur in this case.
  2. ^ May also be realized as [e].
  3. ^ In Ukrainian, geminates are found between vowels: багаття About this sound[bɐˈɦɑtʲːɐ] 'bonfire', подружжя About this sound[poˈdruʒːɐ] 'married couple', обличчя About this sound[oˈblɪtʃːɐ] 'face'. Geminates also occur at the beginning of a few words: лляний [ˈlʲːɑnɪj] 'flaxen', forms of the verb лити 'to pour' (ллючи About this sound[lʲːʊˈtʃɪ], ллю [lʲːu], ллєш [lʲːɛʃ] etc.), ссати About this sound[ˈsːɑtɪ] 'to suck' and derivatives.[citation needed]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Danyenko, Andrii; Vakulenko, Serhii (1995). Ukrainian. Lincom Europa. ISBN 978-3-929075-08-3.
  • Жовтобрюх, М.А.; Кулик, Б.М. (1965). Курс сучасної української літературної мови. Частина I. (in Ukrainian). Kiev: Радянська школа.