Hoodoo (spirituality)

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Hoodoo candle

Hoodoo is an amalgamation of spiritual practices, traditions, and beliefs created by African slaves in North America that were held in secret from slaveholders.[1] Hoodoo evolved from various traditional African religions and practices, and in the American South, incorporated various elements of European folklore and indigenous botanical knowledge.[2] Also known as "Lowcountry Voodoo" in the Gullah South Carolina Lowcountry,[3][4] Following the Great Migration, Hoodoo spread throughout the USA.

Regional synonyms for hoodoo include conjuration, witchcraft, or rootwork.[5]



Approximately 388,000 African people from various ethnic groups were shipped to British colonial North America and the West Indies between the 17th and 19th centuries as a result of the transatlantic slave trade.[6] They were Kongo, Igbo, Akan, Mandé, Yoruba, Fon, Ewe, and Fulbe, among many others.[7][8]

Hoodoo developed as a primarily Central and West African retention with Native American and European influences such as regional indigenous traditional medicine and Judeo-Christian beliefs and folklore. The extent to which Hoodoo could be practiced varied by region and the temperament of the slave owners. For example, the Gullah people of the coastal Southeast experienced an isolation and relative freedom that allowed retention of various traditional West African cultural practices; whereas rootwork in the Mississippi Delta, where the concentration of enslaved African-Americans was dense, was practiced under a large cover of secrecy.[9][10]

The term “Hoodoo” was first documented in American English in 1875 as a noun (the practice of hoodoo) or as a transitive verb, as in "I hoodoo you," an action carried out by varying means. The hoodoo could be manifest in a healing potion, or in the exercise of a parapsychological power, or as the cause of harm which befalls the targeted victim.[11][12] In African-American Vernacular English (AAVE), Hoodoo is often used to refer to a paranormal consciousness or spiritual hypnosis, or a spell, but Hoodoo may also be used as an adjective in reference to a practitioner, such as "Hoodoo man".[13]

Known hoodoo spells date back to the era of slavery in the United States. In the year 1712 in British Colonial America in New York, enslaved Africans revolted and set fire to buildings in the downtown area. The leader of the revolt was a free African conjurer by the name of Peter the Doctor who made a magical powder for the other slaves to be rubbed on the body and clothes for protection and to empower the slaves.[14] Conjure bags, also called mojo bags, were used as a form of resistance against slavery. William Webb helped enslaved people on a plantation in Kentucky resist their oppressors with the use of mojo bags. Webb told the slaves to gather some roots and put them in bags and "march around the cabins several times and point the bags toward the master's house every morning." After the slaves did what they were instructed by Webb, the slaveholder treated his slaves better.[15] Another enslaved African by the name of Dinkie, known by the slaves as Dinkie King of Voodous, on a plantation in the American south, used goofer dust to resist a cruel overseer (a person who is an overseer of slaves). Dinkie was an enslaved man on a plantation who never worked like the other slaves. He was feared and respected by blacks and whites. Dinkie was known to carry a dried snake, frog and lizard, and sprinkled goofer dust on himself and spoke to the spirit of the snake to wake up its spirit against the overseer.[16] Frederick Douglass, known abolitionist and author, wrote in his autobiography that he sought spiritual assistance from an enslaved conjurer by the name of Sandy Jenkins. Sandy told Douglass to follow him into the woods and found a root which Sandy told Douglass to carry in his right pocket which would prevent any white man from whipping him. Douglass carried the root on his right side instructed by Sandy and put it to test when he returned back to the plantation. The cruel slave-breaker Mr. Covey told Douglass to do some work, but as Mr. Covey approached Douglass, Douglass had the strength and courage to resist Mr. Covey and defeated him after they fought. Covey never bothered Douglass again. In his autobiography, Douglass believed the root given to him by Sandy prevented him from being whipped by Mr. Covey.[17] Hoodoo or conjure for African Americans is a form of resistance against white domination.[18][19] Today, Hoodoo and other forms of African Traditional Religions are present in the Black Lives Matter movement as one of many methods against police brutality and racism in the black community. For example, in a news article from California State University..."the Black Live Matter movement, a movement that is generally deemed as non-religious, is actually deeply rooted in spirituality and has brought spiritual healing to the Black community and continues to share and spread this information to non-Black communities." "We are carrying out a rich tradition of Black organizing that is dynamic, spirit based and gives honor to what we are doing… We are giving honor to the spiritualism and the activism that our ancestors did and relied upon.” Black American keynote speakers that are practitioners of Hoodoo spoke at an event at The Department of Arts and Humanities at California State University about the importance of Hoodoo and other African spiritual traditions practiced in social justice movements to liberate black people from oppression.[20]

Haitian influence[edit]

Zora Neale Hurston, an African-American cultural anthropologist and Hoodoo initiate, reports in her essay, ”Hoodoo in America“, that conjure had its highest development along the Gulf Coast, particularly in New Orleans and its surrounding rural areas. These regions were settled by Haitian immigrants at the time of the overthrow of the French rule in Haiti by Toussaint Louverture.

Thirteen-hundred Haitians (of African descent, along with their White ex-masters) were driven out, and the nearest French refuge was the province of Louisiana. African Haitians brought with them their conjure rituals modified by European cultural influences, such as Catholicism. While some retained Haitian Vodou practices, others developed their own regional Hoodoo.

Unlike the continental North American slaves, slaves in the Caribbean islands were encouraged to make themselves as much at home as possible in their bondage, and thus retained more of their West African customs and language.[21]


The mobility of Black people from the rural South to more urban areas in the North is characterized by the items used in Hoodoo. White pharmacists opened their shops in African American communities and began to offer items both asked for by their customers, as well as things they themselves felt would be of use.[22] Examples of the adoption of occultism and mysticism may be seen in the colored wax candles in glass jars that are often labeled for specific purposes such as "Fast Luck" or "Love Drawing".

The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses is a grimoire that was made popular by European immigrants. Purportedly based on Jewish Kabbalah, it contains numerous signs, seals, and passages in Hebrew related to the prophet Moses' ability to work wonders. Though its authorship is attributed to Moses, the oldest manuscript dates to the mid-19th century. Its importance in hoodoo among some practitioners is summarized as follows:

I read de "Seven Books of Moses" seven or eight yeah a'ready ... de foundation of hoodooism came from way back yondah de time dat Moses written de book "De Seven Book of Moses".[23][24]

Hoodoo spread throughout the United States as African-Americans left the delta during the Great Migration.


There are several forms of divination traditionally used in Hoodoo.


Involves the casting of small objects (such as shells, bones, stalks, coins, nuts, stones, dice, sticks, etc.)


Divination by means of interpreting cards.

Natural or Judicial Astrology[edit]

The study of positions and motions of celestial bodies in the belief that they have an influence over nature and human affairs.


The deciphering of phenomena (omens) that are believed to foretell the future, often signifying the advent of change.


A form of divination based upon dreams.[25]


"Seeking" process[edit]

In a process known as "seeking" a Hoodoo practitioner will ask for salvation of a person's soul in order for a Gullah church to accept them. A spiritual leader will assist in the process and after believing the follower is ready they will announce it to the church. A ceremony will commence with much singing, and the practice of a ring shout.[4] The word ring shout derived from the West African Muslim word saut, meaning "dancing or moving around the Kaaba." The ring shout in Black churches (African American churches) originates from African styles of dance. "Despite the African style of singing, the spirituals, like the 'running spirituals' or rings shout, were performed in praise of the Christian God. The names and words of the African gods were replaced by Biblical figures and Christian imagery."[26] During slavery enslaved Africans were forced to become Christian which resulted in a blend of African and Christian spiritual practices that shaped hoodoo. As a result, hoodoo was and continues to be practiced in some Black churches in the United States.[27][28] In the Gullah/Geechee Cultural Heritage Corridor area, praise houses are places where African Americans gather to have church and perform healing rituals and the ring shout. "For example, since the mid-nineteenth century, travelers and northern teachers among the Gullah/Geechees have described an African-looking ritual called the 'ring shout.' Following the normal church, or 'praise house,' service, fully ordained members of the praise house often engaged in an accelerating circular dance, accompanied by singing and clapping. The ring shout culminated in the ecstatic descent of the Holy Spirit."[29] The ring shout in hoodoo has its origins in the Kongo region of Africa with the Kongo Cosmogram. For example, "Ring Shouts begin with an ancient ceremony which follows the circular pattern of the (Ba)Kongo Cosmogram. The Cosmogram symbol depicts the pattern of energy flow connecting the spiritual and physical worlds. During a Ring Shout, the counter-clockwise motion is meant to invoke The Spirit while participants sing, pray and chant. Participants never lift their feet from the earth as they travel the Ring." "A Ring Shout is ritual with spiritual healing qualities as prominent as transcendental vision quests, astral projection, or nirvana. 'In order for a Ring Shout to occur, the participants must step aside from their cerebral presence and allow Spirit to enter and govern the Ring.”[30]

Spirit mediation[edit]

The purpose of Hoodoo was to allow people access to supernatural forces to improve their lives. Hoodoo is purported to help people attain power or success ("luck") in many areas of life including money, love, health, and employment. As in many other spiritual and medical folk practices, extensive use is made of herbs, minerals, parts of animals' bodies, an individual's possessions.

Contact with ancestors or other spirits of the dead is an important practice within the conjure tradition, and the recitation of psalms from the Bible is also considered spiritually influential in Hoodoo. Due to Hoodoo's great emphasis on an individual's spiritual power to effect desired change in the course of events, Hoodoo's principles are believed to be accessible for use by any individual of faith.[31] Hoodoo practice does not require a formally designated minister.

Spiritual supplies[edit]

Homemade powders, mojo hands, oils (van van oil, dragon's blood, etc.), and talismans form the basis of much rural Hoodoo, but there are also some successful commercial companies selling various Hoodoo products to urban and town practitioners. These are generally called spiritual supplies, and they include herbs, roots, minerals, candles, incense, oils, floor washes, sachet powders, bath crystals, icons, aerosols, and colognes. Many patent medicines, cosmetics, and household cleaning supplies for mainstream consumers have been aimed also at Hoodoo practitioners. Some products have dual usage as conventional and spiritual supplies, examples of which include the Four Thieves Vinegar, Florida Water, and Red Devil Lye.

Bottle tree[edit]

Photo of a bottle tree.

Hoodoo is linked to a popular tradition of bottle trees in the United States. According to gardener and glass bottle researcher Felder Rushing, the use of bottle trees came to the Old South from Africa with the slave trade. The use of blue bottles is linked to the "haint blue" spirit specifically. Glass bottle trees have become a popular garden decoration throughout the South and Southwest.[32]



Since the 19th century there has been Christian influence in Hoodoo thought.[33] This is particularly evident in relation to God's providence and his role in retributive justice. For example, though there are strong ideas of good versus evil, cursing someone to cause their death might not be considered a malignant act. One practitioner explained it as follows:

[In h]oodooism, anythin' da' chew do is de plan of God undastan', God have somepin to do wit evah' thin' you do if it's good or bad, He's got somepin to do wit it ... jis what's fo' you, you'll git it.[34]
([In h]oodooism, anything that you do is the plan of God, understand? God has something to do with everything that you do whether it's good or bad, he's got something to do with it... You'll get what's coming to you)

According to Carolyn Morrow Long, "At the time of the slave trade, the traditional nature-centered religions of West and Central Africa were characterized by the concept that human well-being is governed by spiritual balance, by devotion to a supreme creator and a pantheon of lesser deities, by veneration and propitiation of the ancestors, and by the use of charms to embody spiritual power. ...In traditional West African thought, the goal of all human endeavor was to achieve balance." Several African spiritual traditions recognized a genderless supreme being who created the world, was neither good nor evil, and which did not concern itself with the affairs of mankind. Lesser spirits were invoked to gain aid for humanity's problems.[35]

God as conjurer[edit]

Not only is Yahweh's providence a factor in Hoodoo practice, but Hoodoo thought understands the deity as the archetypal Hoodoo doctor. On this matter Zora Neale Hurston stated, "The way we tell it, Hoodoo started way back there before everything. Six days of magic spells and mighty words and the world with its elements above and below was made."[36] From this perspective, biblical figures are often recast as Hoodoo doctors and the Bible becomes a source of spells and is, itself, used as a protective talisman.[37] This can be understood as a syncretic adaptation for the religion. By blending the ideas laid out by the Christian Bible, the faith is made more acceptable. This combines the teachings of Christianity that Africans brought to America were given and the traditional beliefs they brought with them.

A recent work on hoodoo lays out a model of hoodoo origins and development. Mojo Workin: The Old African American Hoodoo System by Katrina Hazzard-Donald discusses what the author calls

the ARC or African Religion Complex which was a collection of eight traits which all the enslaved Africans had in common and were somewhat familiar to all held in the agricultural slave labor camps known as plantations communities. Those traits included naturopathic medicine, ancestor reverence, counter clockwise sacred circle dancing, blood sacrifice, divination, supernatural source of malady, water immersion and spirit possession. These traits allowed Culturally diverse Africans to find common culturo-spiritual ground. According to the author, hoodoo developed under the influence of that complex, the African divinities moved back into their natural forces, unlike in the Caribbean and Latin America where the divinities moved into Catholic saints.

This work also discusses the misunderstood "High John the Conqueror root" and myth as well as the incorrectly-discussed "nature sack".[38]

Moses as conjurer[edit]

Hoodoo practitioners often understand the biblical figure Moses in similar terms. Hurston developed this idea in her novel Moses, Man of the Mountain, in which she calls Moses, "the finest Hoodoo man in the world."[39] Obvious parallels between Moses and intentional paranormal influence (such as magic) occur in the biblical accounts of his confrontation with Pharaoh. Moses conjures, or performs magic "miracles" such as turning his staff into a snake. However, his greatest feat of conjure was using his powers to help free the Hebrews from slavery. This emphasis on Moses-as-conjurer led to the introduction of the pseudonymous work the Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses into the corpus of hoodoo reference literature.[40]

Bible as talisman[edit]

In Hoodoo, "All hold that the Bible is the great conjure book in the world."[41] It has many functions for the practitioner, not the least of which is a source of spells. This is particularly evident given the importance of the book Secrets of the Psalms in hoodoo culture.[42] This book provides instruction for using psalms for things such as safe travel, headache, and marital relations. The Bible, however, is not just a source of spiritual works but is itself a conjuring talisman. It can be taken "to the crossroads", carried for protection, or even left open at specific pages while facing specific directions. This informant provides an example of both uses:

Whenevah ah'm afraid of someone doin' me harm ah read the 37 Psalms an' co'se ah leaves the Bible open with the head of it turned to the east as many as three days.[43]


It is believed one's soul returns to God after death, however their spirit may still remain on Earth. Spirits can interact with the world by providing good fortune or bringing bad deeds. A spirit that torments the living is known as a Boo Hag.[4] Spirits can also be conjured to cure or kill people, and predict the future.[44] Also wearing a silver dime worn around the ankle or neck can protect someone from evil spirits and conjure.[45]

Differences from voodoo religions[edit]

Hoodoo shows evident links to the practices and beliefs of Fon and Ewe Vodun spiritual folkways.[46] The folkway of Vodun is a more standardized and widely dispersed spiritual practice than Hoodoo. Vodun's modern form is practiced across West Africa in the nations of Benin, Togo, and Burkina Faso, among others. In the Americas, the worship of the Vodoun loa is syncretized with Roman Catholic saints. The Vodou of Haiti, Voodoo of Louisiana, Vodú of Cuba, and the Vudú of the Dominican Republic are related more to Vodun than to Hoodoo. Archeologists unearthed Hoodoo artifacts on slave plantations in Maryland showing evidence of West African practices in the United States brought over by African slaves.[47] On another plantation in Maryland archeologists unearthed artifacts that showed a blend of West African and Christian spiritual practices among the slaves. This was Ezekial's Wheel in the bible that blended with the Central African Kongo Cosmogram. The Kongo Cosmogram is an x sometimes enclosed in a circle that resembles the Christian cross. This may explain the connection enslaved black Americans had with the Christian symbol the cross as it resembled their African symbol. Also, the Kongo cosmogram is evident in hoodoo practice among black Americans. Archeologists unearthed on a former slave plantation in South Carolina clay pots made by enslaved Africans that had the Kongo cosmogram engraved onto clay pots.[48] The Kongo cosmogram symbolize the birth, life, death and rebirth cycle of the human soul, and the rising and setting of the sun.[49] "The basic form of this cosmogram is a simple cross with one line representing the boundary between the living world and that of the dead, and the other representing the path of power from below to above, as well as the vertical path across the boundary. Marks on the bases of Colono Ware bowls found in river bottoms and slave quarter sites in South Carolina suggest that more than one hundred and fifty years ago African American priests used similar symbols of the cosmos. While cataloging thousands of Colono Ware sherds, South Carolina archaeologists began noticing marks on the bases of some bowls. Most of these marks were simple crosses. In some cases a circle or rectangle enclosed the cross; in others, 'arms' extended counterclockwise from the ends of the cross. On one there was a circle without a cross, and on a few others we found more complicated marks." The Kongo cosmogram in hoodoo is also represented in physical form called the Crossroads.[50] In the practice of hoodoo, there is much Kongo spiritual beliefs and practices, because the majority of Africans taken from Africa during the slave trade came from the Kongo region.[51][52][53]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Raboteau, Albert (2004). Slave Religion: The "Invisible Institution" in the Antebellum South. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198020318.
  2. ^ “What is Hoodoo?” Patti Wigington https://www.learnreligions.com/what-is-hoodoo-2561899
  3. ^ Young, Jason (2007). Rituals of Resistance: African Atlantic Religion in Kongo and the Lowcountry South in the Era of Slavery. Louisiana State University Press. ISBN 9780807137192.
  4. ^ a b c Zepke, Terrance (2009). Lowcountry Voodoo: Beginner's Guide to Tales, Spells and Boo Hags. Pineapple Press. ISBN 9781561648719.
  5. ^ Hyatt, Harry Middleton. 1970–1978. Hoodoo—Conjuration—Rootwork. 5 vols. Hannibal: Western
  6. ^ Pollitzer, William (1999). The Gullah People and Their African Heritage. The University of Georgia Press. ISBN 9780820327839.
  7. ^ Ferguson. "Magic Bowls". Park Ethnography Program. Department of Interior - The National Park Service. Retrieved January 15, 2021.
  8. ^ Cooksey, Susan (2013). "Kongo Across the Waters". African Arts. www.jstor.org: UCLA James S. Coleman African Studies Center. 46 (4): 79-82. doi:10.1162/AFAR_a_00109. JSTOR 43306192. S2CID 57565417. Retrieved January 15, 2021.
  9. ^ Georgia Writers' Project (1940). Drums and Shadows: Survival Studies Among the Georgia Coastal Negroes. The University of Georgia Press. ISBN 0820308501.
  10. ^ Puckett, Newbell (1926). Folk Beliefs of the Southern Negro. www.archive.org: Chapel Hill, The University of North Carolina Press. p. 181.
  11. ^ Merriam Webster Online Archived 2011-01-02 at the Wayback Machine
  12. ^ Alvarado, D. The Voodoo Hoodoo Spellbook. San Francisco, CA: Weiser Books, 2011. Print.
  13. ^ Randolph, Paschal B. (1870). Seership, the Magnetic Mirror. p. 17,18.
  14. ^ Rucker, Walter (September 2001). "Conjure, Magic, and Power: The Influence of Afro-Atlantic Religious Practices on Slave Resistance and Rebellion" (PDF). Journal of Black Studies. 32 (1): 86–100. doi:10.1177/002193470103200105. JSTOR 2668016. S2CID 143791527.
  15. ^ Blassingame, John (1980). The slave community. Oxford University Press. p. 110.
  16. ^ Brown, William W. (1880). My southern home, or, The South and its people. Boston : A.G. Brown. pp. 68–82.
  17. ^ Douglass, Frederick (1849). Narrative of the life of Frederick Douglass, an American slave. Boston : Anti-Slavery Office. pp. 70–71.
  18. ^ Hazzard-Donald, Katrina (2013). Mojo Workin': The Old African American Hoodoo System. University of Illinois. ISBN 9780252094460.
  19. ^ Chireau, Yvonne P. (2006). Black Magic: Religion and the African American Conjuring Tradition. University of California Press. pp. 60, 74–75. ISBN 9780520249882.
  20. ^ Anderson, Chase. "Discussing the role of spirituality in the Black Lives Matter movement and the fight for racial justice". The Runner. The Student News Site of California State University. Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  21. ^ Hurston, Zora (1931). "Hoodoo in America". The Journal of American Folklore. 44 (174): 317–417. doi:10.2307/535394. ISSN 0021-8715. JSTOR 535394.
  22. ^ Kail, Tony (2017). A Secret History of Memphis Hoodoo: Rootworkers, Conjurers & Spirituals. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 9781439659571. Retrieved 29 August 2018.
  23. ^ Hyatt. Hoodoo. vol. I. pp. 1758–1759.
  24. ^ "Mystical Hoodoo with Mother Mystic". Patheos.com. 23 July 2011. Retrieved 2018-09-17.
  25. ^ The Hoodoo Tarot. 2020-02-18. ISBN 978-1-62055-873-7.
  26. ^ Raboteau. Slave Religion. Oxford University Press. pp. 68–74.
  27. ^ Pinn, Anthony B. (2003). Terror and Triumph: The Nature of Black Religion. Fortress Press. p. 221.
  28. ^ Niles. Folk beliefs of the southern Negro. p. preface.
  29. ^ Matory, J. Lorand (2008). "The Illusion of Isolation: The Gullah/Geechees and the Political Economy of African Culture in the Americas". Comparative Studies in Society and History. 50 (4): 955. Retrieved 28 February 2021.
  30. ^ Booth, Ebony Isis. "THE PERFECT CIRCLE: GULLAH/GEECHEE NATION'S DIVINE SECRET". Griots Republic. Retrieved 28 February 2021.
  31. ^ Haskins, Jim (June 1990). Voodoo & Hoodoo: Their Traditional Crafts Revealed by Actual Practitioners. Original Publications. ISBN 978-0942272185.
  32. ^ "Hometalk Discusses Bottle Trees". Hometalk. 2014-05-26. Archived from the original on 2016-03-26. Retrieved 2014-05-29.
  33. ^ "{title}". Archived from the original on 2013-02-16. Retrieved 2013-01-02.
  34. ^ Hyatt. Hoodoo. vol. II. p. 1761.
  35. ^ Long, Carolyn Morrow. "Spiritual Merchants: Religion, Magic and Commerce." University of Tennessee Press. Knoxville: 2001.
  36. ^ Hurston. 1935. Mules and Men. pp. 183.
  37. ^ Smith. 1994. Conjuring Culture. p. 6. See also, Hurston's, Mules and Men. In the appendix she lists the "paraphernalia of conjure," the last on the list being the Christian Bible.
  38. ^ Hazzard-Donald (2013). Mojo Workin: The Old African American Hoodoo System. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-07876-7.
  39. ^ Hurston. Moses, Man of the Mountain. p. ??.
  40. ^ One observer at the time called The Sixth and Seventh Books "the Hoodoo Bible". Yvonne Chireau. Black Magic: Religion and the African American Conjuring Tradition. University of California Press, (2006) ISBN 0-520-24988-7
  41. ^ Hurston. Mules and Men. p. 280
  42. ^ Selig, Godfrey. Secrets of the Psalms
  43. ^ Hyatt. Hoodoo. vol. 1. p. 417. Quoted in Smith. Conjuring Culture. p. 14. n. 8.
  44. ^ Jones-Jackson, Patricia (1987). When Roots Die: Endangered Traditions on the Sea Islands. The University of Georgia Press. p. 25. ISBN 9780820342412.
  45. ^ Puckett. Folk beliefs of the southern Negro. p. 288.
  46. ^ Zogbe, Mama. "Hoodoo: A New World Name of an Ancient African Magical Tradition". Mamiwata. Retrieved 31 August 2018.
  47. ^ Wilford, John N. (2008). "Under Maryland Street, Ties to African Past". New York Times. Retrieved January 21, 2021.
  48. ^ Gundaker, Grey (2011). "The Kongo Cosmogram in Historical Archaeology and the Moral Compass of Dave the Potter". Historical Archaeology. 45 (2). Retrieved 25 February 2021.
  49. ^ Stayton, Cory C. (1997). "The Kongo cosmogram: A theory in African American literature" (PDF). ETD Collection for AUC Robert W. Woodruff Library. A Thesis Paper (Clark Atlanta University): 11–12. Retrieved 25 February 2021.
  50. ^ Anderson, Jeffrey E. (2002). Conjure in African-American society. Louisiana State University. p. 130.
  51. ^ "The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade". African Passages, Lowcountry Adaptations. Lowcountry Digital History Initiative. Retrieved 23 February 2021.
  52. ^ Ferguson. "Park Ethnography Program - African American Heritage and Ethnography". The National Park Service. The Department of Interior - The National Park Service. Retrieved 23 February 2021.
  53. ^ "Ezekiel's Wheel Ties African Spiritual Traditions to Christianity". University of Maryland - College of Behavioral & Social Sciences. University of Maryland. Retrieved 13 February 2021.