Inhuman or degrading treatment
Inhuman and degrading treatment is treatment of prisoners which is contrary to human rights, but does not rise to the level of torture. It is forbidden by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights and the United Nations Convention against Torture.
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- Başoğlu, Metin; Livanou, Maria; Crnobarić, Cvetana (1 March 2007). "Torture vs Other Cruel, Inhuman, and Degrading Treatment: Is the Distinction Real or Apparent?". Archives of General Psychiatry. 64 (3): 277. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.64.3.277. ISSN 0003-990X.
- Waldron, Jeremy (2010). "The Coxford Lecture Inhuman and Degrading Treatment: The Words Themselves". Canadian Journal of Law & Jurisprudence. 23 (2): 269–286. doi:10.1017/S0841820900004938.
- Davis, Michael (2005). "The Moral Justifiability of Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment:". International Journal of Applied Philosophy. 19 (2): 161–178. doi:10.5840/ijap200519215.
- Nowak, Manfred. "Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment". The Oxford Handbook of International Law in Armed Conflict. doi:10.1093/law/9780199559695.001.0001/law-9780199559695-e-16.
- Bojosi, Kealeboga N. (2004). "The death row phenomenon and the prohibition against torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment". African Human Rights Law Journal. 4 (2): 303–333.
- Liebling, Alison (2011). "Moral performance, inhuman and degrading treatment and prison pain". Punishment & Society. 13 (5): 530–550. doi:10.1177/1462474511422159.
- Weissbrodt, David; Heilman, Cheryl (2011). "Defining Torture and Cruel, Inhuman, and Degrading Treatment". Law and Inequality: A Journal of Theory and Practice. 29: 343.
- de Frouville, O. (2011). "The Influence of the European Court of Human Rights' Case Law on International Criminal Law of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment". Journal of International Criminal Justice. 9 (3): 633–649. doi:10.1093/jicj/mqr020.
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