# Inner automorphism

In abstract algebra an **inner automorphism** is an automorphism of a group, ring, or algebra given by the conjugation action of a fixed element, called the *conjugating element*. These inner automorphisms form a subgroup of the automorphism group, and the quotient of the automorphism group by this subgroup gives rise to the concept of the outer automorphism group.

## Definition[edit]

If G is a group and g is an element of G (alternatively, if G is a ring, and g is a unit), then the function

is called **(right) conjugation by g** (see also conjugacy class). This function is an endomorphism of G: for all

where the second equality is given by the insertion of the identity between and Furthermore, it has a left and right inverse, namely Thus, is bijective, and so an isomorphism of G with itself, i.e. an automorphism. An **inner automorphism** is any automorphism that arises from conjugation.^{[1]}

When discussing right conjugation, the expression is often denoted exponentially by This notation is used because composition of conjugations satisfies the identity: for all This shows that conjugation gives a right action of G on itself.

## Inner and outer automorphism groups[edit]

The composition of two inner automorphisms is again an inner automorphism, and with this operation, the collection of all inner automorphisms of G is a group, the inner automorphism group of G denoted Inn(*G*).

Inn(*G*) is a normal subgroup of the full automorphism group Aut(*G*) of G. The outer automorphism group, Out(*G*) is the quotient group

The outer automorphism group measures, in a sense, how many automorphisms of G are not inner. Every non-inner automorphism yields a non-trivial element of Out(*G*), but different non-inner automorphisms may yield the same element of Out(*G*).

Saying that conjugation of x by a leaves x unchanged is equivalent to saying that a and x commute:

Therefore the existence and number of inner automorphisms that are not the identity mapping is a kind of measure of the failure of the commutative law in the group (or ring).

An automorphism of a group G is inner if and only if it extends to every group containing G.^{[2]}

By associating the element *a* ∈ *G* with the inner automorphism *f*(*x*) = *x*^{a} in Inn(*G*) as above, one obtains an isomorphism between the quotient group *G*/*Z*(*G*) (where *Z*(*G*) is the center of G) and the inner automorphism group:

This is a consequence of the first isomorphism theorem, because *Z*(*G*) is precisely the set of those elements of G that give the identity mapping as corresponding inner automorphism (conjugation changes nothing).

### Non-inner automorphisms of finite p-groups[edit]

A result of Wolfgang Gaschütz says that if G is a finite non-abelian p-group, then G has an automorphism of p-power order which is not inner.

It is an open problem whether every non-abelian p-group G has an automorphism of order p. The latter question has positive answer whenever G has one of the following conditions:

- G is nilpotent of class 2
- G is a regular p-group
*G*/*Z*(*G*) is a powerful p-group- The centralizer in G,
*C*_{G}, of the center, Z, of the Frattini subgroup, Φ, of G,*C*_{G}∘*Z*∘ Φ(*G*), is not equal to Φ(*G*)

### Types of groups[edit]

The inner automorphism group of a group G, Inn(*G*), is trivial (i.e., consists only of the identity element) if and only if G is abelian.

The group Inn(*G*) is cyclic only when it is trivial.

At the opposite end of the spectrum, the inner automorphisms may exhaust the entire automorphism group; a group whose automorphisms are all inner and whose center is trivial is called complete. This is the case for all of the symmetric groups on n elements when n is not 2 or 6. When *n* = 6, the symmetric group has a unique non-trivial class of outer automorphisms, and when *n* = 2, the symmetric group, despite having no outer automorphisms, is abelian, giving a non-trivial center, disqualifying it from being complete.

If the inner automorphism group of a perfect group G is simple, then G is called quasisimple.

## Lie algebra case[edit]

An automorphism of a Lie algebra 𝔊 is called an inner automorphism if it is of the form Ad_{g}, where Ad is the adjoint map and g is an element of a Lie group whose Lie algebra is 𝔊. The notion of inner automorphism for Lie algebras is compatible with the notion for groups in the sense that an inner automorphism of a Lie group induces a unique inner automorphism of the corresponding Lie algebra.

## Extension[edit]

If G is the group of units of a ring, A, then an inner automorphism on G can be extended to a mapping on the projective line over A by the group of units of the matrix ring, *M*_{2}(*A*). In particular, the inner automorphisms of the classical groups can be extended in that way.

## References[edit]

**^**S., Dummit, David (2004).*Abstract algebra*. Foote, Richard M., 1950- (3. ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. p. 45. ISBN 9780471452348. OCLC 248917264.**^**Schupp, Paul E. (1987), "A characterization of inner automorphisms" (PDF),*Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society*, American Mathematical Society,**101**(2): 226–228, doi:10.2307/2045986, JSTOR 2045986, MR 0902532

## Further reading[edit]

- Abdollahi, A. (2010), "Powerful
*p*-groups have non-inner automorphisms of order*p*and some cohomology",*J. Algebra*,**323**(3): 779–789, arXiv:0901.3182, doi:10.1016/j.jalgebra.2009.10.013, MR 2574864 - Abdollahi, A. (2007), "Finite
*p*-groups of class*2*have noninner automorphisms of order*p*",*J. Algebra*,**312**(2): 876–879, arXiv:math/0608581, doi:10.1016/j.jalgebra.2006.08.036, MR 2333188 - Deaconescu, M.; Silberberg, G. (2002), "Noninner automorphisms of order
*p*of finite*p*-groups",*J. Algebra*,**250**: 283–287, doi:10.1006/jabr.2001.9093, MR 1898386 - Gaschütz, W. (1966), "Nichtabelsche
*p*-Gruppen besitzen äussere*p*-Automorphismen",*J. Algebra*,**4**: 1–2, doi:10.1016/0021-8693(66)90045-7, MR 0193144 - Liebeck, H. (1965), "Outer automorphisms in nilpotent
*p*-groups of class*2*",*J. London Math. Soc.*,**40**: 268–275, doi:10.1112/jlms/s1-40.1.268, MR 0173708 - Remeslennikov, V.N. (2001) [1994], "Inner automorphism",
*Encyclopedia of Mathematics*, EMS Press - Weisstein, Eric W. "Inner Automorphism".
*MathWorld*.