James City (Virginia Company)

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James City (or James Cittie as it was then called) was one of four incorporations established in the Virginia Colony in 1619 by the proprietor, the Virginia Company. The plantations and developments were divided into four "incorporations" or "citties" [sic], as they were called. These were Charles City, Elizabeth City, Henrico City, and James City.[1] James City included the seat of government for the colony at Jamestown. Each of the four "citties" [sic] extended across the James River, the main conduit of transportation of the era.

In 1634, under Royal authority, a portion became James City Shire, later the County of James City (aka James City County). James City was established in 1619 along with 3 more and in 1634 it was abolished, in favor for more counties. April 1623 the Privy Council appointed the proposal and commission a compromise. During the re-establishment the Crown took over the company through a new charter similar to the 1606. The company refused this causing the crown to issue a writ of quo warrant for annulment of the charter, this ended Virginia Company which ceased to exist in May 1624[2]

Early events[edit]

In December 1609 a fleet commanded by Gates lead 500 had set out from Plymouth, England, carrying 500 settlers, food, arms, and equipment to Jamestown, only to meet huge disaster. The ship hit the reef causing damage and scattering the survivors. in May 16, 1610 they built James Fort, which later it was later renamed as a colony as Jamestown. This prompted it to be the first permanent English American settlements.[3]

James City's survival  was profoundly influential to America future. as it allow Virginia to emerged as the richest and most populous of the British mainland colonies. with the first English language, law, institution, and  Protestant Church. Which also blossomed into a vibrant political culture in James town in 1619, even to British colonies which lead in time a new republican faith that found its fulfillment in the foundation of United states.[3]

Starving Time[edit]

The Starving Time was an event that took place during years 1606-1610. It resulted from shortages of food, fractured leadership, and a siege by Powhatan Indian warriors. The colonists struggled to maintain enough food to sustain themselves. They were in dire need. And relations were strained with the Virginia Indian tribes, their most likely trading partners. The severe famine affected the entire region.[4]

Early Indian conflict[edit]

There where chronicle of bloodshed of conflict between the colony and the Indians do to disease, starvation, and deaths.Do to the Morality rate from disease and conflicts with the Powhatan Indians.[5] this prompted the Indians to lunch a mass attack on James town. during the conflict Pocahontas was kidnapped and made an uneasy truce with her father which brought short peace between the Indian and settler. However after Pocahontas death it began rise new tension between the colony and Indians this conflict grew worst after her father died shortly after Pocahontas death. Her father death caused the downward spiral of Indian-English relations that led to the uprising of March 1622[6]

Massacre event[edit]

March 1621 the Native tribes lunched a major attack. this attack massacred nearly 350 settler the following years. During the great massacre the company went bankrupt, while Sandy's unpopularity prompted a royal investigation. This event with the subsequent high death rate in 1622-1623 caused it to lose it rule and ended the company.[2]

Trades[edit]

James City became a modest farm area and multiple small plantations containing 250 acres of land. the chief crop is tobacco which is the cornerstone of Virginia economic for 200 years.[7] James City itself sold tobacco to England, by 1622 it had sold 60,000 pound of tobacco to England. during the early 1620 sold around £200-£1,000 for single crops.[2] After the Bacon's Rebellion the demand for labor worker was required, so Jamestown brought over Africans from Africa to be sold for labor works.[8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "How Counties Got Started in Virginia". virginiaplaces.org. Retrieved 9 September 2010.
  2. ^ a b c Macpherson, Heidi Slettedahl; Kaufman, Will (October 2005). "The State of (Dis)Union: American Studies in Britain". Prospects. 30: 27–43. doi:10.1017/s0361233300001964. ISSN 0361-2333.
  3. ^ a b Donnelly, Ralph W. (1959). "The Confederate Lead Mines of Wythe County, Va". Civil War History. 5 (4): 402–414. doi:10.1353/cwh.1959.0019. ISSN 1533-6271.
  4. ^ "Starving", How Food Made History, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, pp. 215–236, 2011-10-05, ISBN 9781444344677, retrieved 2019-05-07
  5. ^ Deal, D. (2006-09-01). "A Land as God Made It: Jamestown and the Birth of America". Journal of American History. 93 (2): 493–494. doi:10.2307/4486246. ISSN 0021-8723.
  6. ^ "The Facts on File encyclopedia of word and phrase origins". Choice Reviews Online. 42 (01): 42–0005–42-0005. 2004-09-01. doi:10.5860/choice.42-0005. ISSN 0009-4978.
  7. ^ Mancall, Peter C. (December 2007). "Savagery in Jamestown:"George Percy's 'Trewe Relacyon'": A Primary Source for the Jamestown Settlement";A New World: England's First View of America;Writings, with Other Narratives of Roanoke, Jamestown, and the First English Settlement of America;The Journals of Captain John Smith: A Jamestown Biography". Huntington Library Quarterly. 70 (4): 661–670. doi:10.1525/hlq.2007.70.4.661. ISSN 0018-7895.
  8. ^ Cotter, John L. (March 1957). "Excavations at Jamestown, Virginia. Site of the First Permanent English Settlement in America". Antiquity. 31 (121): 19–24. doi:10.1017/s0003598x00027022. ISSN 0003-598X.