Kārlis Balodis

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Kārlis Balodis
Born(1864-06-20)20 June 1864
Died13 January 1931(1931-01-13) (aged 66)
Alma materUniversity of Tartu
University of Jena
University of Munich
University of Strasbourg

Kārlis Balodis (German: Carl Ballod; June 20, 1864 – January 13, 1931) was a notable Latvian economist, financist, statistician and demographist[1][2]. Most notably, he is the author of civilian rationing, which was first used in Germany during the First World War. Balodis has received the Grand Gold Medal of the Russian Academy of Sciences, as well as Dmitry Tolstoy Prize.


Between 1884 and 1887 Kārlis studied theology at the University of Tartu. In 1888, he was sent to Brazil to work as a Lutheran minister. In 1891 and 1892, he studied geography at the University of Jena. Between 1893 and 1895, he worked as a minister in the Ural Mountains region, and wrote his first researches on demography and statistics. In 1895, he started studying economics at the University of Munich.

After 1899, Balodis worked as an associate professor at the University of Berlin. In 1905, he became an employee of Prussian Statistics Office, and in 1908, he started work at the German Federal Ministry of Finance. In 1918 he became the first chairman of the Pro Palestinian Committee[3]. In 1919, he worked on the civilian rationing system.

After the war Balodis returned to Latvia, where he became a professor at the University of Latvia. In 1928, he became a member of the Parliament of Latvia.


Balodis was also known as Ballod-Atlanticus after he adopted the name Atlanticus from Francis Bacon's book Nova Atlantis (1627). Under this name he published the utopian book Der Zukunftsstaat: Produktion und Konsum im Sozialstaat (The Future State: Production and Consumption in the Socialist State) in 1898.

Published works[edit]

Balodis primarily wrote in German.

  • Der Staat Santa Catharina in Südbrasilien. Stuttgart, 1892
  • Die mittlere Lebensdauer in Stadt und Land. Leipzig, 1899
  • Der Zukunftsstaat. Produktion und Konsum im Sozialstaat. Stuttgart, 1898 (Verlag J.H.W.Dietz Nachf., Berlin 1919)
  • Die Sterblichkeit der Grosstädte, 1903
  • Sterblichkeit und Lebensdauer in Preussen. Berlin, 1907
  • Grundriss der Statistik enthaltend Bevölkerungs-, Wirtschafts-, Finanz- und Handels-Statistik. Berlin, 1913
  • Die Bevölkerungsbewegung der letzten Jahrzehnte in Preussen und in einigen anderen wichtigen Staaten Europas. Berlin, 1914
  • Palästina als jüdisches Ansiedlungsgebiet. Deutsches Komitee zur Förderung der jüdischen Palästinasiedlung 1918
  • Sowjet-Rußland. Verlagsgenossenschaft Freiheit, Berlin 1920
  • Der Bankrott der freien Wirtschaft und die notwendigen Finanz- und Wirtschaftsreformen. Jena, 1923


  1. ^ Aldis Purs,Andrejs Plakans (2017). Historical Dictionary of Latvia. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 44. ISBN 978-1-538-10221-3.
  2. ^ Clarence Glacken (2017). Genealogies of Environmentalism: The Lost Works of Clarence Glacken. University of Virginia Press. ISBN 978-0-813-93909-4.
  3. ^ Nathan Harpaz (2013). Zionist Architecture and Town Planning: The Building of Tel Aviv (1919-1929). Purdue University Press. p. 265. ISBN 978-1-557-53673-0.

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