The K1C2 formula, which stands for "Korea, Communism, and Corruption", was a campaign platform devised by Dwight D. Eisenhower in the United States Presidential Election of 1952. Even though he was aloof from party politics, he vowed to personally go to Korea if he was elected. This was a defining moment in the return of the Republican Party. Democrats had dominated the presidency since 1933 and this was a return to office for the Republicans that had been a long time coming.
In September 1945, Igor Gouzenko, a GRU cipher clerk who had worked for the Soviet mission in Ottawa, defected, bringing documents which showed that the Manhattan Project had been penetrated. In January 1950, Klaus Fuchs, who had worked with Hans Bethe and John von Neumann while at the Manhattan Project, confessed that he had spied for Stalin. Gouzenko's defection "awakened the people of North America to the magnitude and the danger of Soviet espionage."
Harry S Truman had asked for J. Howard McGrath's resignation after McGrath, who had been serving as Truman's Attorney General from August 1945 to April 1952, refused to cooperate with a Justice Department investigation of corruption. Major General Harry H. Vaughan, Military Aide to the President, provided access to the White House to those who had given him costly gifts.
- Professor Kevin M. Kruse, Associate Chair of History at Princeton University, lecture dated 13 October 2008.
- James L. Stokesbury (1990), A Short History of the Korean War, New York: Harper, pp. 136-137, ISBN 0-688-09513-5 .
- Alvin Finkel and Margaret Conrad (2002) History of the Canadian People: 1867 to Present, Toronto: Addison Wesley Longman, p. 347.
- Michael Goldman (July 2005), "Who Is Trying to Keep What Secret from Whom and Why? MI5-FBI Relations and the Klaus Fuchs Case", Journal of Cold War Studies, 7 (3):124-146, at 130-131, doi:10.1162/1520397054377160 , ISSN 1531-3298 .
- Granville Hicks (18 July 1954), "Decline and Fall of a Russian Idol", New York Times.
- Robert J. Donovan (1982), Tumultuous Years: The Presidency of Harry S Truman, 1949-1953, Volume 2, pp. 372-381.
- "Harry H. Vaughan, Major General Who Was an Aide to Truman, Dies", New York Times, 22 May 1981.
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