NKG2-C type II integral membrane protein or NKG2C is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KLRC2 gene.  It is also known as or  cluster of differentiation 159c ( CD159c).
Function [ edit ]
Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes that can mediate lysis of certain tumor cells and virus-infected cells without previous activation. They can also regulate specific humoral and cell-mediated immunity. NK cells preferentially express several calcium-dependent (C-type) lectins, which have been implicated in the regulation of NK cell function. The group, designated KLRC (NKG2) are expressed primarily in natural killer (NK) cells and encodes a family of transmembrane proteins characterized by a type II membrane orientation (extracellular C terminus) and the presence of a C-type lectin domain. The KLRC (NKG2) gene family is located within the NK complex, a region that contains several C-type lectin genes preferentially expressed on NK cells. KLRC2 alternative splice variants have been described but their full-length nature has not been determined.
Interactions [ edit ]
KLRC2 has been shown to
interact and form dimers with CD94.  The CD94/NKG2C heterodimer can bind to  HLA-E  and this binding leads to NK cells activation.
During infection with
human cytomegalovirus, peptides derived from the virus are presented on HLA-E and natural killer cells that express the CD94/NKG2C receptor can specifically recognise the virus peptides. This recognition leads to activation, expansion, and differentiation of adaptive NK cells.
See also [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
^ a b c
GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000205809 - Ensembl, May 2017
"Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
Plougastel B, Trowsdale J (Apr 1998). "Sequence analysis of a 62-kb region overlapping the human KLRC cluster of genes". Genomics. 49 (2): 193–9. doi: 10.1006/geno.1997.5197. PMID 9598306.
^ a b
"Entrez Gene: KLRC2 killer cell lectin-like receptor subfamily C, member 2".
Lazetic S, Chang C, Houchins JP, Lanier LL, Phillips JH (Dec 1996). "Human natural killer cell receptors involved in MHC class I recognition are disulfide-linked heterodimers of CD94 and NKG2 subunits". Journal of Immunology. 157 (11): 4741–5. PMID 8943374.
Braud VM, Allan DS, O'Callaghan CA, Söderström K, D'Andrea A, Ogg GS, Lazetic S, Young NT, Bell JI, Phillips JH, Lanier LL, McMichael AJ (Feb 1998). "HLA-E binds to natural killer cell receptors CD94/NKG2A, B and C.". Nature. 391 (6669): 795–9. Bibcode: 1998Natur.391..795B. doi: 10.1038/35869. PMID 9486650. S2CID 4379457.
Lee N, Llano M, Carretero M, Ishitani A, Navarro F, López-Botet M, Geraghty DE (Apr 1998). "HLA-E is a major ligand for the natural killer inhibitory receptor CD94/NKG2A". PNAS. 95 (9): 5199–204. Bibcode: 1998PNAS...95.5199L. doi: 10.1073/pnas.95.9.5199. PMC . 20238 PMID 9560253.
Hammer Q, Rückert T, Borst EM, Dunst J, Haubner A, Durek P, Heinrich F, Gasparoni G, Babic M, Tomic A, Pietra G, Nienen M, Blau IW, Hofmann J, Na IK, Prinz I, Koenecke C, Hemmati P, Babel N, Arnold R, Walter J, Thurley K, Mashreghi MF, Messerle M, Romagnani C (May 2018). "Peptide-specific recognition of human cytomegalovirus strains controls adaptive natural killer cells". Nature Immunology. 19 (5): 453–463. doi: 10.1038/s41590-018-0082-6. PMID 29632329. S2CID 4718187.
Further reading [ edit ]
Houchins JP, Yabe T, McSherry C, Bach FH (Apr 1991). "DNA sequence analysis of NKG2, a family of related cDNA clones encoding type II integral membrane proteins on human natural killer cells". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 173 (4): 1017–20. doi: 10.1084/jem.173.4.1017. PMC . 2190798 PMID 2007850.
Yabe T, McSherry C, Bach FH, Fisch P, Schall RP, Sondel PM, Houchins JP (1993). "A multigene family on human chromosome 12 encodes natural killer-cell lectins". Immunogenetics. 37 (6): 455–60. doi: 10.1007/BF00222470. PMID 8436421. S2CID 27350036.
Houchins JP, Lanier LL, Niemi EC, Phillips JH, Ryan JC (Apr 1997). "Natural killer cell cytolytic activity is inhibited by NKG2-A and activated by NKG2-C". Journal of Immunology. 158 (8): 3603–9. PMID 9103421.
Braud VM, Allan DS, O'Callaghan CA, Söderström K, D'Andrea A, Ogg GS, Lazetic S, Young NT, Bell JI, Phillips JH, Lanier LL, McMichael AJ (Feb 1998). "HLA-E binds to natural killer cell receptors CD94/NKG2A, B and C". Nature. 391 (6669): 795–9. Bibcode: 1998Natur.391..795B. doi: 10.1038/35869. PMID 9486650. S2CID 4379457.
Lanier LL, Corliss B, Wu J, Phillips JH (Jun 1998). "Association of DAP12 with activating CD94/NKG2C NK cell receptors". Immunity. 8 (6): 693–701. doi: 10.1016/S1074-7613(00)80574-9. PMID 9655483.
Glienke J, Sobanov Y, Brostjan C, Steffens C, Nguyen C, Lehrach H, Hofer E, Francis F (Aug 1998). "The genomic organization of NKG2C, E, F, and D receptor genes in the human natural killer gene complex". Immunogenetics. 48 (3): 163–73. doi: 10.1007/s002510050420. PMID 9683661. S2CID 22585415.
Khakoo SI, Rajalingam R, Shum BP, Weidenbach K, Flodin L, Muir DG, Canavez F, Cooper SL, Valiante NM, Lanier LL, Parham P (Jun 2000). "Rapid evolution of NK cell receptor systems demonstrated by comparison of chimpanzees and humans". Immunity. 12 (6): 687–98. doi: 10.1016/S1074-7613(00)80219-8. PMID 10894168.
Shum BP, Flodin LR, Muir DG, Rajalingam R, Khakoo SI, Cleland S, Guethlein LA, Uhrberg M, Parham P (Jan 2002). "Conservation and variation in human and common chimpanzee CD94 and NKG2 genes". Journal of Immunology. 168 (1): 240–52. doi: . 10.4049/jimmunol.168.1.240 PMID 11751968.
Hikami K, Tsuchiya N, Yabe T, Tokunaga K (Mar 2003). "Variations of human killer cell lectin-like receptors: common occurrence of NKG2-C deletion in the general population". Genes and Immunity. 4 (2): 160–7. doi: . 10.1038/sj.gene.6363940 PMID 12618865.
Miyashita R, Tsuchiya N, Hikami K, Kuroki K, Fukazawa T, Bijl M, Kallenberg CG, Hashimoto H, Yabe T, Tokunaga K (Jan 2004). "Molecular genetic analyses of human NKG2C (KLRC2) gene deletion". . International Immunology 16 (1): 163–8. doi: . 10.1093/intimm/dxh013 PMID 14688071.
Ortega C, Romero P, Palma A, Orta T, Peña J, García-Vinuesa A, Molina IJ, Santamaría M (Dec 2004). "Role for NKG2-A and NKG2-C surface receptors in chronic CD4+ T-cell responses". Immunology and Cell Biology. 82 (6): 587–95. doi: 10.1111/j.0818-9641.2004.01284.x. PMID 15550116. S2CID 2275210. Gumá M, Busch LK, Salazar-Fontana LI, Bellosillo B, Morte C, García P, López-Botet M (Jul 2005). "The CD94/NKG2C killer lectin-like receptor constitutes an alternative activation pathway for a subset of CD8+ T cells". European Journal of Immunology. 35 (7): 2071–80. doi: . 10.1002/eji.200425843 PMID 15940674. S2CID 19284874.
This article incorporates text from the
United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.