Kagwahiva language

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Kawahiva
Kawahib
Native toBrazil
RegionMato Grosso and Rondonia
Ethnicity(see varieties below)
Native speakers
870 (2000–2006)[1]
Tupian
Language codes
ISO 639-3Variously:
pah – TenharimParintintín
urz – Uru-eu-wau-wau
kuq – Karipuná (confuses Kawahib with Jau-Navo)
jua – Júma
xmo – Morerebi
tkf – ? Tukumanféd (unattested)
wir – Wiraféd
paf – Paranawát
adw – Amondawa
api – Apiacá
Glottologtupi1280[2]

Kawahiva (Kawahíb, Kagwahib) is a Tupi–Guarani dialect cluster of Brazil. The major variety is Tenharin (Tenharin).

The Tenharim, Parintintín, Amondawa, Uru-eu-wau-wau and Júma peoples, along with a recently contacted group confusingly labeled "Karipuná" in the literature, all call themselves Kavahiva. Their speech is all very similar, and also similar with other languages now extinct. Apiaká (incl. Wiraféd) is very similar and may be a dialect.[3]

Varieties[edit]

Varieties of Kawahíwa listed in Aguilar (2013, 2018):[4][5]

Languages spoken in north-central Rondonia are Karipuna, Jupaú, Amondáwa, and unidentified varieties by some isolated groups. Languages spoken in northeastern Mato Grosso and southern Pará are Apiaká, Kayabí, Piripkura, and unidentified varieties by some isolated groups.

Phonology[edit]

Tenharin dialect[edit]

Phonemic inventory of the Tenharin dialect:[6]

Vowels Front Central Back
High i ĩ ɨ ɨ̃ u ũ
Mid e ẽ o õ
Low a ã
Consonants Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar Labio-velar Glottal
Stop/affricate p t t͡ʃ k ʔ
Fricative β h
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ ŋʷ
Tap, flap ɾ

Júma dialect[edit]

Phonemic inventory of the Júma dialect:[7]

Vowels Front Central Back
High i ĩ ɨ ɨ̃ u ũ
Mid e ẽ o õ
Low a ã
Consonants Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Plain stop p t k ʔ
Voiced stop ɡ
Fricative h
Nasal m n ŋ
Approximant j w
Tap, flap ɾ

References[edit]

  1. ^ Tenharim–Parintintín at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Uru-eu-wau-wau at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Karipuná (confuses Kawahib with Jau-Navo) at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Júma at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Morerebi at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    (Additional references under 'Language codes' in the information box)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Tupi-Guarani Subgroup VI". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Hammarström (2015) Ethnologue 16/17/18th editions: a comprehensive review: online appendices
  4. ^ Aguilar, A. M. G. C. (2018). Kawahíwa como uma unidade linguística. Revista Brasileira De Linguística Antropológica, 9(1), 139-161. https://doi.org/10.26512/rbla.v9i1.19529
  5. ^ Aguilar, A. M. G. C. 2013. Contribuições Etnolinguísticas e Histórico-Comparativas para os estudos sobre os povos e as línguas Kawahíwa. Tese (Exame de Qualificação de Doutorado), PPGL/UnB.
  6. ^ "Tenharim". www.linguistics.berkeley.edu. Retrieved 2019-05-14.
  7. ^ "Júma". www.linguistics.berkeley.edu. Retrieved 2019-05-14.

External links[edit]

  • Lev, Michael; Stark, Tammy; Chang, Will (2012). "Phonological inventory of Tenharim". The South American Phonological Inventory Database (version 1.1.3 ed.). Berkeley: University of California: Survey of California and Other Indian Languages Digital Resource.
  • Lev, Michael; Stark, Tammy; Chang, Will (2012). "Phonological inventory of Júma". The South American Phonological Inventory Database (version 1.1.3 ed.). Berkeley: University of California: Survey of California and Other Indian Languages Digital Resource.