Kamakan language

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Native toBrazil
Extinctfirst half 20th century
  • Kamakã
  • Kotoxó
  • Mongoyó/Mangaló
Language codes
ISO 639-3vkm
Glottologkama1372  Kamakan
coto1237  Cotoxo

The Kamakã language (Kamakan), or Ezeshio, is an extinct language of a small family believed to be part of the Macro-Jê languages of Brazil. Dialects included Kotoxó and Mongoyó/Mangaló.


Front Central Back
Close i ĩ ɨ ɨ̃ u ũ
Close-mid e ẽ o õ
Mid ə
Open-mid ɛ ɔ
Open a ã
  • /ə/ can also be realized as a back vowel sound [ʌ].
Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Stop p t k
Fricative f s ʃ x h
Nasal m n ɲ
Flap ɾ
Approximant j w
  • /ɾ/ can be in free variation with a fricative [ʒ] and a lateral [l].
  • /n/ is heard as [ŋ] when preceding /k/.[1]


The Kamakã is a subset of the entire macro-Jê. The spoken language was spoken by several groups of Native Americans who lived in the region of Bahia: the Kamaka, Mongoyó, Menién, Kotoxó and Masakará.[2]


  1. ^ Grahl, João A. P. (2009). Kamakã em Prolog: Possibilidades de análise de uma língua de tradição oral morta. Universidade Federal do Paraná.
  2. ^ Rivail Ribeiro et van der Voort 2010, p. 547.


  • Eduardo Rivail Ribeiro, Hein van der Voort, Nimuendajú Was Right : The Inclusion of the Jabuti Language Family in the Macro-Jê Stock, International Journal of American Linguistics, 76:4, pp. 517-570, 2010.