Kecksburg UFO incident
The Kecksburg UFO incident occurred on December 9, 1965, at Kecksburg, Pennsylvania, United States in North America, when a fireball was reported by citizens of six U.S. states and Canada over Detroit, Michigan and Windsor, Canada. Astronomers said it was likely a meteor bolide burning up in the atmosphere and descending at a steep angle. NASA released a statement in 2005 reporting that experts had examined fragments from the area and determined they were from a Soviet satellite, but records of their findings were lost in the 1990s. NASA responded to court orders and Freedom of Information Act requests to search for the records. The incident gained wide notoriety in popular culture and UFOlogy, with speculations ranging from alien craft to debris from the Soviet space probe Kosmos 96, and is often referred to as "Pennsylvania's Roswell".
On the evening of December 9, 1965, a large, brilliant fireball was seen by thousands in at least six U.S. states and Ontario, Canada. It streaked over the Detroit, Michigan – Windsor, Canada area. Reports of hot metal debris over Michigan and northern Ohio, grass fires, and sonic booms in the Pittsburgh metropolitan area were attributed to the fireball. Some people in the village of Kecksburg, about 30 miles (48 km) southeast of Pittsburgh, reported something crashing in the woods, wisps of blue smoke, vibrations, and a "thump".
According to an initial story in the Greensburg Tribune-Review:
"The area where the object landed was immediately sealed off on the order of U.S. Army and State Police officials, reportedly in anticipation of a 'close inspection' of whatever may have fallen ... State Police officials there ordered the area roped off to await the expected arrival of both U.S. Army engineers and possibly, civilian scientists."
When State troopers and Air Force personnel searched the woods, they reportedly found "absolutely nothing". A subsequent edition in the Tribune-Review bore the headline "Searchers Fail To Find Object".
Authorities discounted proposed explanations such as a plane crash, errant missile test, or reentering satellite debris and generally assumed it to be a meteor. Astronomer Paul Annear said the fireball was likely a meteor entering the Earth's atmosphere. Geophysicist George Wetherilo discounted speculations that it was debris from a satellite and agreed the reports were probably due to a meteor. Astronomers William P. Bidelman and Fred Hess said it undoubtedly was a meteor bolide. A spokesman for the Defense Department in Washington said first reports indicated the reported fireball was a natural phenomenon.
Sky and Telescope
Several articles were written about the fireball in science journals. The February 1966 issue of Sky & Telescope reported that the fireball was seen over the Detroit-Windsor area at about 4:44 p.m. EST. The Federal Aviation Administration had received 23 reports from aircraft pilots, the first starting at 4:44 p.m. A seismograph 25 miles southwest of Detroit had recorded the shock waves created by the fireball as it passed through the atmosphere. The Sky & Telescope article concluded that "the path of the fireball extended roughly from northwest to southeast" and ended "in or near the western part of Lake Erie".
Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada
A 1967 article by two astronomers in the Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada (JRASC) used the seismographic record to pinpoint the time of passage over the Detroit area to 4:43 p.m. In addition, they used photographs of the trail taken north of Detroit at two different locations to triangulate the trajectory of the object. They concluded that the fireball was descending at a steep angle, moving from the southwest to the northeast, and likely impacted on the northwestern shore of Lake Erie near Windsor, Ontario.
In December 2005, just before the 40th anniversary of the Kecksburg incident, NASA released a statement reporting that experts had examined metallic fragments from the area and determined they were from a Russian satellite that re-entered the atmosphere and broke up, but records of their findings were lost in the 1990s.
Leslie Kean, described as "an investigative reporter backed by the Sci-Fi Channel", reportedly "sued NASA under the Freedom of Information Act" for the lost NASA records. On October 26, 2007, NASA agreed to search for those records after being ordered by a court. During the hearing, Steve McConnell, NASA's public liaison officer, testified that two boxes of papers from the time of the Kecksburg incident were missing. Loss of records is not a unique case for NASA; for example, the original tapes recorded during the televised Apollo 11 Moon landing were misplaced or reused.
In 2008, space writer James Oberg suggested that NASA was unlikely to possess any such documents since, in his view, it was highly likely that the supposed NASA team that investigated the site were in fact Air Force personnel who identified themselves as NASA personnel, something regularly done by military personnel in civilian clothes during the 1960s. He further suggested that Kean's action was no more than a "publicity stunt" for the benefit of Kean's employers.
According to John Ventre of MUFON and Shafton native Owen Eichler, their recent investigations have led them to speculate the object that reportedly landed in Kecksburg was "a General Electric Mark 2 Re-entry Vehicle that had been launched by the Air Force as a spy satellite, but fell out of orbit", however, “we need confirmation from NASA or the Air Force".
More recent comments by NASA are less supportive of a link to a Russian satellite:
There is some speculation that the reentry of the Cosmos 96/Venera-type spacecraft was responsible for a fireball which was seen over southwestern Ontario, Canada and at least eight states from Michigan to New York at 4:43 p.m. EST (21:43 UT) on 9 December 1965. Investigations of photographs and sightings of the fireball indicated its path through the atmosphere was probably too steep to be consistent with a spacecraft re-entering from Earth orbit and was more likely a meteor in a prograde orbit from the vicinity of the asteroid belt, and probably ended its flight over western Lake Erie. U.S. Air Force tracking data on Cosmos 96 also indicate the spacecraft orbit decayed earlier than 21:43 UT on 9 December. Other unconfirmed reports state the fireball subsequently landed in Pennsylvania southeast of Pittsburgh near the town of Kecksburg (40.2 N, 79.5 W) at 4:46 p.m. EST (although estimating the impact point of fireballs from eyewitness accounts is notoriously inaccurate). Uncertainties in the orbital information and reentry coordinates and time make it difficult to determine definitively if the fireball could have been the Cosmos 96 spacecraft.
Television and film
- In 1990, the NBC television show Unsolved Mysteries aired an episode partially devoted to the incident. The episode suggested an extraterrestrial craft had crashed. It quoted local residents at the time who said they had found an object in the woods shaped like an acorn and about as large as a Volkswagen Beetle bearing writing resembling Egyptian hieroglyphs which was subsequently removed in a secret military operation. A prop from that show remains on display in the village.
- In 2003, the Sci Fi Channel aired a two-hour documentary entitled "The New Roswell: Kecksburg Exposed", hosted by Bryant Gumbel. During the show, Kecksburg resident John Hays said when he was a 10-year old boy, he saw "a flat-bed truck emerging from the site near his house carrying something the “size of a VW”, an exact repetition of the claims he made in the first episode of Unsolved Mysteries, season 3, in 1990.
- The 2008, an episode of the Discovery Channel series Nazi UFO Conspiracy suggested the incident was the recovery of an alleged Nazi UFO called Die Glocke ("The Bell"; also known as "The Nazi Bell"), a claim also made by conspiracy theorist Joseph P. Farrell.
- In February 2009, the History Channel's UFO Hunters suggested a military conspiracy and cover-up related to the incident.
- In 2011, the History Channel's Ancient Aliens suggested the alleged Nazi secret weapon Die Glocke was recovered at Kecksburg, prompting a government conspiracy and cover-up.
- On September 12, 2019, producer/director Cody Knotts premiered his film "Kecksburg" based on the events at Kecksburg.  The film follows the dramatized story of real-life John Murphy, a reporter for local radio station WHJB who was among the first to arrive on the scene, as he tries to uncover more information about the mysterious object that crash landed in the rural woodlands of Kecksburg.   
- Filmmaker Andrew Patterson has said that the plot of his 2019 film The Vast of Night was partially based on the Kecksburg incident.
- E.g., space expert and skeptic James Oberg first proposed the Kosmos 96 explanation in 1991 and was continuing to advocate it in a 1998 Pittsburgh Post-Gazette article on the Kecksburg case
- Dinkel, Matthew. "Acorn from Space: The Kecksburg Incident". Pennsylvania Center for the Book. Pennsylvania State University. Retrieved 28 October 2019.
- Metal debris fall and recoveries were reported in or near Elyria, Ohio, and Livonia, Jackson, and Battle Creek, Michigan. Example sources were Chicago Tribune and Baltimore Sun, December 11, 1965 (Livonia), Elyria Chronicle-Telegram, December 11, 1965, and UPI story in Kalamazoo (MI) Gazette, December 11, 1965 (Jackson & Battle Creek)
- E.g., The Spokesman-Review, December 10, 1965, p. 1, "U.F.O. Starts Many Fires", Chicago Tribune December 11, 1965, "Flaming Streak Across Sky Identified as Great Meteor: Blamed for Grass and Woods Fires in North States", Cleveland Plain-Dealer, December 10, 1965, "Fireballs Are Blamed in Elyria Grass Blazes", Philadelphia Inquirer, December 10, 1965, "'Flaming Ball' Crashes South of Pittsburgh, Sets Fires in 3 States". Grass fires associated with falling debris were widely reported in AP and UPI stories in Elyria, Ohio, Eaton Township, Ohio, near Columbus, and near Lapeer, Michigan, 40 miles (64 km) north of Detroit; smoke in the woods was also reported by witnesses and in the press to what landed near Kecksburg.
- E.g., Pittsburgh astronomer Nicholas Wagman was quoted by UPI December 10 saying he believed the fireball to be a Geminid meteor and that "there were reports of a shock wave in parts of Western Pennsylvania at the time of the sighting" similar to a meteorite found in Pennsylvania in 1938.
- "Beaver County Times - Google News Archive Search". news.google.com. Retrieved 2019-09-11.
- Greensburg Tribune-Review headline story, December 10, 1965
- E.g. AP article, Dec. 10: "State troopers and Air Force personnel tramped through the area for hours with Geiger counters. They said they found nothing and called off the search."
- Nickell, Joe; McGaha, James. "The Roswellian Syndrome: How Some UFO Myths Develop". Skeptical Inquirer, May/June 2012. Committee for Skeptical Inquiry. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
- E.g., 1) AP article, Dec. 10, 1965, Lebanon, PA, Daily Times: "A spokesman for the Defense Department in Washington said first reports indicate it was a natural phenomenon. All aircraft, missiles and the like are accounted for, he said." 2) UPI article, Lima, Ohio, News, Dec. 11, 1965: "In Washington, the Air Force said it 'concludes that the phenomena was a meteor or meteors that entered the atmosphere.' The Air Force, which process information of unidentified flying objects, said all aircraft and missiles were accounted for and there was no evidence of space debris which entered the atmosphere at that time."
- Von Del Chamberlain; David J. Krause (1967). "The Fireball of December 9, 1965 – Part I". Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada. 61: 184–190. Bibcode:1967JRASC..61..184C.
- E.g., "The Kecksburg, Pennsylvania 'UFO Crash'". debunker.com.
- Nasa under pressure over 'UFO': Sci-Tech: News: News24 Archived 2009-02-24 at the Wayback Machine
- Keim, Brandon (2007-10-29). "NASA Will Re-Open Kecksburg UFO Files". Wired. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
-  Archived October 30, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
- "Detroit Free Press - Home". Retrieved September 11, 2019.
- Luscombe, Richard (November 11, 2007). "Nasa told to solve 'UFO crash' X-File". The Guardian. London. Retrieved May 7, 2010.
- "NASA - Apollo 40th Anniversary". nasa.gov.
- "Houston, We Erased The Apollo 11 Tapes". National Public Radio, July 16, 2009.
- Oberg, James (January 7, 2008). "Jim Oberg on the "NASA lawsuit over Kecksburg UFO Documents"" (PDF).
- Majors, Dan. "Five decades later, the Kecksburg UFO is identified (probably)". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. PG Publishing Co. Retrieved 16 November 2018.
- "NSSDCA/COSPAR ID: 1965-094A". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. 28 November 2018.
- Unsolved Mysteries Original Robert Stack Episodes, Season 3 Episode 1, December 31, 1990.
- "Kecksburg UFO debate renewed". 2003-08-03.
- Owen, Rob. "On the Tube: In 'Kecksburg' the truth is way out there". Pittsburg Post-Gazette. Post-Gazette. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
- Nazi UFO Conspiracy: The Bell Video at YourDiscovery.com
- Farrell, Dr. Joseph P. (2004). Reich of the Black Sun: Nazi Secret Weapons and the Cold War Allied Legend. Adventures Unlimited Press. ISBN 978-1-931882-39-2.
- "Ticket sales take off for 'Kecksburg' UFO movie premiere | TribLIVE.com". triblive.com. Retrieved 2019-10-11.
- Kecksburg, retrieved 2019-10-11
- "Space Acorn". Atlas Obscura. Retrieved 2019-10-11.
- Kecksburg - Official Trailer, retrieved 2019-10-11
- Mattise, Nathan (2019-10-27). "The Vast of Night is an alien encounter film like no other". Ars Technica. Retrieved 2019-10-27.
- Pittsburgh Post-Gazette article by David Templeton
- Skeptic Robert Sheaffer comments on the Kecksburg case
- Roadside America article
- UFOcasebook.com Summary of case
- UFOcasebook.com copies of released NASA records
- UFOevidence.org summary and links to Kecksburg articles
- International UFO Reporter, 2005 article by Leslie Kean