Kerkennah Islands seen from space
|Area||160 km2 (62 sq mi)|
|Official name||Iles Kerkennah ou L'archipel de Kerkennah|
|Designated||2 February 2012|
Kerkennah Islands (Tunisian Arabic: قرقنة qarqna) are a group of islands lying off the east coast of Tunisia in the Gulf of Gabès, at . The Islands are low-lying, being no more than 13 metres (43 feet) above sea level. The main islands are Chergui and Gharbi. The archipelago has an area of 160 square kilometres (62 sq mi) and a population of 15,501 (2014).
Kerkennah's main town, Remla (on Chergui), has a population of 2,000. The population of the islands significantly decreased during the 1980s due to drought. The islands were unable to provide suitable irrigation systems and, with clean water rapidly running out, many islanders were forced to leave for mainland Tunisia, the nearest town being Sfax.
Kerkennah has a lengthy, but simple history. The natives of Tunisia and Kerkennah originally settled there, but during the spread of the Roman Empire, Kerkennah was used as a port and look-out point by the Romans, to keep note of off-shore activity. In 2 BC, Augustus exiled Sempronius Gracchus, a lover of Julia the Elder, to the islands for 14 years for his indiscretions with his then-married daughter. Greeks called it Cercina (Ancient Greek: Κέρκινα) and Cercinna (Ancient Greek: Κέρκιννα). Strabo and Ptolemaeus wrote that also the city that was on the island was called Cercinna (Ancient Greek: Κέρκιννα), same as the island.
Among the Catholic bishops whom the Arian Vandal king Huneric summoned to Carthage in 484, was a Bishop Athenius of Cercina, the seat of the bishopric being in the most easterly island of the group. No longer a residential bishopric, Cercina is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see.
In World War 2, the Battle of the Tarigo Convoy was fought near the islands on 16 April 1941.
The islands are warm and dry, with strong prevailing winds. This is mainly due to its positioning in the Gulf of Gabes, with strong sea winds (Gharbi), carried over the mainland, making them hot and dry. What little water vapour there is, is lost over cooler Tunisia first. This causes the general ecology of the island to mainly consist of tall xerophytic (and often halophytic) flora, such as palms and saltbushes.
The land is arid, as if desertification was imminent. There is little agriculture, though the islanders own chickens and goats for their own personal consumption. Fishing, especially for octopus, is also a key industry of Kerkennah, whence it is exported to mainland Tunisia and other nearby countries.
Relative to the mainland and as a result of the lack of tourist-attracting "endless" sandy beaches, tourism is limited in Kerkennah. Many mainland Tunisians spend their holidays in Kerkennah, and many more affluent Tunisians often build private second homes on the island. Tourists also come from European countries. Temperatures on the island are high, with a minimum of 4 °C (39 °F) and often reaching 40 °C (104 °F).
The north includes a port known as Kraten.
- "Iles Kerkennah ou L'archipel de Kerkennah". Ramsar Sites Information Service. Retrieved 25 April 2018.
- "Information about Kerkennah, Tunisia". www.mediterraneanislands.org. Archived from the original on 21 August 2017. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
- Diodorus Siculus, Library, §5.12.3
- Plutarch, Life of Dion, §Dion.25
- Pseudo Scylax, Periplous, §110
- Polybius, Histories, §3.96.12
- Plutarch, Life of Marius, §40
- Strabo, Geography, §17.3.16
- Ptolemaeus, Geography, §4.3.45
- G.-L. Feuille, v. Cercina, in Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographie ecclésiastiques, vol. XII, Paris 1953, col. 160
- Stefano Antonio Morcelli, Africa christiana, Volume I, Brescia 1816, pp. 140–141
- Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 866
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