Kert campaign

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Kert campaign
1911-10-14, La Hormiga de Oro, Tropas acampadas en las inmediaciones del Ker (cropped).jpg
Date24 August 1911 – 15 May 1912
Location
Eastern Rif, Morocco
Territorial
changes
Consolidation of the Spanish-controlled territory in Kelaïa east of the river Kert
Belligerents
Spain Riffians
Commanders and leaders
José García Aldave [es]
Agustín Luque [es]
Dámaso Berenguer
Salvador Díaz (kia)
Mohammed Ameziane (kia)
Units involved
Spanish Army
Regulares
Riffian harkas
Riffian harkas
Casualties and losses
500 killed
1,900 wounded
Unknown

The Kert campaign (Spanish: campaña del Kert) was a conflict in northern Morocco between Spain and insurgent Riffian harkas led by Mohammed Ameziane, who had called for a jihad against the Spanish occupation in the eastern Rif. It took place between 1911 and 1912.

History[edit]

The campaign saw the introduction of the tropas regulares indígenas ("native regular troops"), created by Dámaso Berenguer on 30 June 1911.

The campaign followed a revolt initiated by Mohammed Ameziane, caïd of Segangan, who had called for a jihad and had attacked both Spanish and tribes friendly to them.[1][2] After an attack on a group of Spanish military personnel undertaking topographic works at a position near Ishafen (near the river Kert) the Spanish campaign formally started on 24 August.[3] A Spanish column had been however already shot on 30 June.[4]

Spanish convoy heading for Imaroufene

Following a visit to Melilla, Spanish War Minister Agustín Luque took control of the operations on 7 October, and the struggles brought numerous losses to both sides, 64 death and 204 wounded on the Spanish side.[5] On 14 October 1911 General Salvador Díaz Ordóñez was killed in action and a column commanded by General Navarro [es] had 33 deaths and 105 wounded.[5]

The Spanish forces took the position of Al Aaroui (Monte Arruit) on 18 January 1912.[6]

The Spanish ended the campaign following the killing of Ameziane by native regulares on 15 May 1912.[1][7] The Spanish losses by that time amounted to about 500 killed and 1,900 wounded.[8] The Spanish control line was extended to the river Kert and the new boundaries for the Spanish-occupied territory entailed the annexation of the Berber tribes of Ait Sidel and Ait Bu-Gafar.[9]

Citations and references[edit]

Citations[edit]

References[edit]

  • Barrio Jala, Manuel del (2002). "Nuestros Generales en el Norte de África" (PDF). Ejército. Madrid: Ministry of Defence. LXIII (732): 41–51. ISSN 0013-2918.
  • Gajate Bajo, María (2012), Las campañas de Marrueco y la opinión pública. El ejemplo de Salamanca y su prensa (1906-1927) (PDF), Madrid: Instituto Universitario General Gutiérrez Mellado, ISBN 978-84-615-9842-7
  • León Rojas, José (2018). "Tarifa y las Campañas de Marruecos (1909-1927)". Aljaranda. Tarifa: Ayuntamiento de Tarifa. 1 (92). ISSN 1130-7986.
  • Macías Fernández, Daniel (2013). "Las campañas de Marruecos (1909-1927)". Revista Universitaria de Historia Militar. 2 (3).
  • Martínez Antonio, Francisco Javier (2006). "Tangerian Ghosts and Riffian Realities: The Limits of Colonial Public Health in Spanish Morocco (1906–1921)". In Nelson, M.C. (ed.). Occupational Health and Public Health: Lessons from the Past, Challenges for the Future (PDF). Sweden: National Institute for Working Life. pp. 180–250. ISBN 91-7045-810-3. ISSN 0346–7821 Check |issn= value (help).
  • Ramos Oliver, Francisco (2013). "Las guerras de Marruecos" (PDF). Entemu. Gijón: UNED Centro Asociado de Asturias: 165–185. ISBN 978-84-88642-16-5. ISSN 1130-314X. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2020-08-27.
  • Requejo Gómez, José Antonio (2017). Los Regulares en la Guerra de África. Valencia: Real Acadèmia de Cultura Valenciana.