|Native to||Nagaland, India|
|61,983 (2011 census)|
Khiamniungan (Khiamngan, Khiamniungan) is a Sino-Tibetan language spoken by the Khiamniungan people in east-central Noklak District of Nagaland in northeastern India and in northwestern Burma. The majority of the Khiamniungans in India are known to Pathso-sui which remains the main language within their geographical area.
Alternate names for Khiamniungan include Aoshedd, Khiamnga, Kalyokengnyu, Khiamngan, Khiamniungan, Nokaw, Tukhemmi, and Welam (Ethnologue).
Distribution and status
There are approximately 50,000 speakers of Khiamniungan. There are an estimated 29 Khiamniungan villages in India and 132 in Burma. "Khiamniungan" is the autonym for the language, which means "the source of water" or "water people", whereas Kalyokengnyu is an exonym meaning "dwelling in stone", given to the group by European anthropologists after the slate roof houses the people lived in. The low number of speakers of Khiamniugan makes it vulnerable, but it is taught in schools and supported by the government through cultural programs.
History of scholarship
Most of the information of Khiamniungan comes from its inclusion in studies of the Naga or Konyak languages by the Central Institute for Indian Languages in Mysore. There is also a Khiamniungan vocabulary published in 1974 by Nagaland Bhasha-Parishad.
- "Statement 1: Abstract of speakers' strength of languages and mother tongues - 2011". www.censusindia.gov.in. Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 2018-07-07.
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Khiamniungan Naga". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Pillai, S.K. (2001). The Water People: a Khiamniungan landscape. India International Centre Quarterly, Vol. 27/28, Vol. 27, no. 4/Vol. 28, no. 1: The Human Landscape, 95–108. Retrieved from JSTOR.
- Matisoff, J. (1996). Languages and dialects of Tibeto-Burman (2nd ed., p. 76). Berkeley: STEDT.
- Khiamniungan language at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- Minahan, J. (2012). Nagas. In Ethnic Groups of South Asia and the Pacific: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO.
- Kumāra, B. Bihārī. (1975). Hindi khiyamanna Angreji sabda-suci = Hindi Khiamngan English Vocabulary. Kohima: Nagaland Bhasha Parishad