Kinect for Xbox One
|Generation||Seventh and eighth-generation eras|
|Units sold||35 million (as of October 25, 2017)|
|Camera||640×480 pixels @ 30 Hz (RGB camera)|
640×480 pixels @ 30 Hz (IR depth-finding camera)
|Connectivity||USB 2.0 (type-A for original model; proprietary for Xbox 360 S)|
|Platform||Xbox 360 |
Microsoft Windows (Windows 7 onwards)
|Predecessor||Xbox Live Vision|
Kinect (codenamed Project Natal during development) is a line of motion sensing input devices produced by Microsoft. Initially, the Kinect was developed as a gaming accessory for Xbox 360 and Xbox One video game consoles and Microsoft Windows PCs. Based around a webcam-style add-on peripheral, it enabled users to control and interact with their console/computer without the need for a game controller, through a natural user interface using gestures and spoken commands. While the gaming line did not gain much traction and eventually discontinued, third-party developers and researches found several after-market uses for Kinect's advanced low-cost sensor features, leading Microsoft to drive the product line towards more application-neutral uses, including integrating the device with Microsoft's cloud computing platform Azure.
The first-generation Kinect for Xbox 360 was introduced in November 2010 in an attempt to broaden the console's audience beyond its typical gamer base. Microsoft released a beta version of the Kinect software development kit for Windows 7 applications on June 16, 2011, initially supporting the Kinect for Xbox 360 hardware connected to a PC for non-commercial applications. This SDK was meant to allow developers to write Kinect apps in C++/CLI, C#, or Visual Basic .NET.
A similar hardware version Kinect for Windows was released on February 1, 2012. The 1.0 version of the Windows SDK, allowing commercial applications, was released with and required the Kinect for Windows hardware.
Kinect for Xbox One, a new version with significantly expanded hardware capabilities, was released with the Xbox One platform starting in 2013. The corresponding Kinect for Windows v2 hardware was released in 2014, along with a supporting SDK. The 2.0 version of the Windows SDK supported the Kinect for Windows v2 as well as the Kinect for Xbox One hardware.
Microsoft announced the discontinuation of the first Kinect for Windows device as of 2015. The Kinect for Xbox 360 was discontinued along with the console by April 2016. The Kinect for Windows v2 was also discontinued in 2015, and customers were encouraged to use the functionally identical Kinect for Xbox One hardware with an adapter for Windows machines instead. The Kinect for Xbox One was discontinued in October 2017. While Kinect as a primary gaming device has been discontinued, Microsoft continues to develop the platform for developers, with the most recent release being the Azure Kinect announced in February 2019.
- 1 History
- 2 Technology
- 3 Reception
- 4 Sales
- 5 Other motion controllers
- 6 Awards
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Kinect was first announced on June 1, 2009, at E3 2009 under the code name "Project Natal". Three demos were shown to showcase Kinect when it was revealed at Microsoft's E3 2009 Media Briefing: Ricochet, Paint Party and Milo & Kate. A demo based on Burnout Paradise was also shown outside of Microsoft's media briefing. The skeletal mapping technology shown at E3 2009 was capable of simultaneously tracking four people, with a feature extraction of 48 skeletal points on a human body at 30 Hz.
It was rumored that the launch of Project Natal would be accompanied with the release of a new Xbox 360 console (as either a new retail configuration, a significant design revision, and/or a modest hardware upgrade). Microsoft dismissed the reports in public and repeatedly emphasized that Project Natal would be fully compatible with all Xbox 360 consoles. Microsoft indicated that the company considers it to be a significant initiative, as fundamental to Xbox brand as Xbox Live, and with a launch akin to that of a new Xbox console platform. Kinect was even referred to as a "new Xbox" by Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer at a speech for Executives' Club of Chicago. When asked if the introduction will extend the time before the next-generation console platform is launched (historically about 5 years between platforms), Microsoft corporate vice president Shane Kim reaffirmed that the company believes that the life cycle of Xbox 360 will last through 2015 (10 years).
During Kinect's development, project team members experimentally adapted numerous games to Kinect-based control schemes to help evaluate usability. Among these games were Beautiful Katamari and Space Invaders Extreme, which were demonstrated at Tokyo Game Show in September 2009. According to creative director Kudo Tsunoda, adding Kinect-based control to pre-existing games would involve significant code alterations, making it unlikely for Kinect features to be added through software updates.
Although the sensor unit was originally planned to contain a microprocessor that would perform operations such as the system's skeletal mapping, it was revealed in January 2010 that the sensor would no longer feature a dedicated processor. Instead, processing would be handled by one of the processor cores of Xbox 360's Xenon CPU. According to Alex Kipman, Kinect system consumes about 10-15% of Xbox 360's computing resources. However, in November, Alex Kipman made a statement that "the new motion control tech now only uses a single-digit percentage of Xbox 360's processing power, down from the previously stated 10 to 15 percent." A number of observers commented that the computational load required for Kinect makes the addition of Kinect functionality to pre-existing games through software updates even less likely, with concepts specific to Kinect more likely to be the focus for developers using the platform.
On March 25, 2010, Microsoft sent out a save the date flier for an event called the "World Premiere 'Project Natal' for Xbox 360 Experience" at E3 2010. The event took place on the evening of Sunday, June 13, 2010, at Galen Center and featured a performance by Cirque du Soleil. It was announced that the system would officially be called Kinect, a portmanteau of the words "kinetic" and "connect", which describe key aspects of the initiative. Microsoft also announced that the North American launch date for Kinect will be November 4, 2010. Despite previous statements dismissing speculation of a new Xbox 360 to accompany the launch of the new control system, Microsoft announced at E3 2010 that it was introducing a redesigned Xbox 360, complete with a connector port ready for Kinect. In addition, on July 20, 2010, Microsoft announced a Kinect bundle with a redesigned Xbox 360, to be available with Kinect launch.
On June 16, 2011, Microsoft announced the beta release of its SDK, allowing development of non-commercial applications running on Microsoft Windows 7, using the Kinect for Xbox 360 hardware.
On July 21, 2011, Microsoft announced that the first ever white Kinect sensor would be available as part of "Xbox 360 Limited Edition Kinect Star Wars Bundle", which also includes custom a Star Wars-themed console and controller, and copies of Kinect Adventures and Kinect Star Wars. Previously, all Kinect sensors had been glossy black.
On October 31, 2011, Microsoft announced launching of the Kinect for Windows program with release of SDK to commercial companies. David Dennis, Product Manager at Microsoft, said, "There are hundreds of organizations we are working with to help them determine what's possible with the tech".
On February 1, 2012, Microsoft released the Kinect for Windows version of the hardware device, and the final version of the SDK that required the new hardware, allowing commercial applications. It said that more than 300 companies from over 25 countries were working on Kinect-ready apps.
The tabloid the New York Post claimed Microsoft had a $500 million budget for advertising the launch of Kinect. While this claim was widely re-reported, an examination of the 10-Q from Microsoft reveals a 20% year-over-year increase ($85 million) for sales and marketing the quarter Kinect was launched for all of the Entertainment and Devices division, making the total sales and marketing spend $425 million for the entire division. The marketing campaign You Are the Controller, aiming to reach new audiences, included advertisements on Kellogg's cereal boxes and Pepsi bottles, commercials during shows such as Dancing with the Stars and Glee as well as print ads in various magazines such as People and InStyle.
On October 19, Microsoft advertised Kinect on The Oprah Winfrey Show by giving free Xbox 360 consoles and Kinect sensors to the people in the audience. Two weeks later, Kinect bundles with Xbox 360 consoles were also given away to the audience of Late Night with Jimmy Fallon. On October 23, Microsoft held a pre-launch party for Kinect in Beverly Hills. The party was hosted by Ashley Tisdale and was attended by soccer star David Beckham and his three sons, Cruz, Brooklyn, and Romeo. Guests were treated to sessions with Dance Central and Kinect Adventures, followed by Tisdale having a Kinect voice chat with Nick Cannon. Between November 1 and 28, Burger King gave away a free Kinect bundle "every 15 minutes".
Kinect was launched in North America on November 4, 2010; in Europe on November 10, 2010; in Australia, New Zealand, and Singapore on November 18, 2010; and in Japan on November 20, 2010. Purchase options for the sensor peripheral include a bundle with the game Kinect Adventures and console bundles with either a 4 GB or 250 GB Xbox 360 console and Kinect Adventures.
Kinect for Xbox 360 (2010)
Kinect for Xbox 360 was a combination of Microsoft built software and hardware. The hardware included a range chipset technology by Israeli developer PrimeSense, which developed a system consisting of an infrared projector and camera and a special microchip that generates a grid from which the location of a nearby object in 3 dimensions can be ascertained. This 3D scanner system called Light Coding employs a variant of image-based 3D reconstruction.
The Kinect sensor is a horizontal bar connected to a small base with a motorized pivot and is designed to be positioned lengthwise above or below the video display. The device features an "RGB camera, depth sensor and microphone array running proprietary software", which provide full-body 3D motion capture, facial recognition and voice recognition capabilities. At launch, voice recognition was only made available in Japan, United Kingdom, Canada and United States. Mainland Europe received the feature later in spring 2011. Currently voice recognition is supported in Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, United Kingdom and United States. The Kinect sensor's microphone array enables Xbox 360 to conduct acoustic source localization and ambient noise suppression, allowing for things such as headset-free party chat over Xbox Live.
The depth sensor consists of an infrared laser projector combined with a monochrome CMOS sensor, which captures video data in 3D under any ambient light conditions. The sensing range of the depth sensor is adjustable, and Kinect software is capable of automatically calibrating the sensor based on gameplay and the player's physical environment, accommodating for the presence of furniture or other obstacles.
Described by Microsoft personnel as the primary innovation of Kinect, the software technology enables advanced gesture recognition, facial recognition and voice recognition. According to information supplied to retailers, Kinect is capable of simultaneously tracking up to six people, including two active players for motion analysis with a feature extraction of 20 joints per player. However, PrimeSense has stated that the number of people the device can "see" (but not process as players) is only limited by how many will fit in the field-of-view of the camera.
Reverse engineering has determined that the Kinect's various sensors output video at a frame rate of ≈9 Hz to 30 Hz depending on resolution. The default RGB video stream uses 8-bit VGA resolution (640 × 480 pixels) with a Bayer color filter, but the hardware is capable of resolutions up to 1280x1024 (at a lower frame rate) and other colour formats such as UYVY. The monochrome depth sensing video stream is in VGA resolution (640 × 480 pixels) with 11-bit depth, which provides 2,048 levels of sensitivity. The Kinect can also stream the view from its IR camera directly (i.e.: before it has been converted into a depth map) as 640x480 video, or 1280x1024 at a lower frame rate. The Kinect sensor has a practical ranging limit of 1.2–3.5 m (3.9–11.5 ft) distance when used with the Xbox software. The area required to play Kinect is roughly 6 m2, although the sensor can maintain tracking through an extended range of approximately 0.7–6 m (2.3–19.7 ft). The sensor has an angular field of view of 57° horizontally and 43° vertically, while the motorized pivot is capable of tilting the sensor up to 27° either up or down. The horizontal field of the Kinect sensor at the minimum viewing distance of ≈0.8 m (2.6 ft) is therefore ≈87 cm (34 in), and the vertical field is ≈63 cm (25 in), resulting in a resolution of just over 1.3 mm (0.051 in) per pixel. The microphone array features four microphone capsules and operates with each channel processing 16-bit audio at a sampling rate of 16 kHz.
Because the Kinect sensor's motorized tilt mechanism requires more power than the Xbox 360's USB ports can supply, the device makes use of a proprietary connector combining USB communication with additional power. Redesigned Xbox 360 S models include a special AUX port for accommodating the connector, while older models require a special power supply cable (included with the sensor) that splits the connection into separate USB and power connections; power is supplied from the mains by way of an AC adapter.
Kinect for Windows (2012)
On February 21, 2011, Microsoft announced that in spring 2011 it would release a preliminary software development kit (SDK) enabling researchers and enthusiasts to develop applications running on Microsoft Windows PCs. The beta version initially supported the Kinect for Xbox 360 hardware, connected to a PC, and only non-commercial applications were allowed. The first beta was released for Windows 7 on June 16, 2011. Beta 2 was released on the 1 year anniversary of Kinect for Xbox 360, on November 3, 2011.
On February 1, 2012, a new hardware version of the device called Kinect for Windows was released at a suggested price of US$249. It was similar to the existing Xbox 360 device but tested and supported under warranty for commercial Windows applications. At the same time, version 1.0 of the SDK was released, allowing commercial use, with licence terms requiring the use of the Kinect for Windows hardware even for non-commercial use.
The SDK included Windows 7 compatible PC drivers for Kinect device. It provided Kinect capabilities to developers to build applications with C++, C#, or Visual Basic by using Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 and included the following features:
- Raw sensor streams: Access to low-level streams from the depth sensor, color camera sensor, and four-element microphone array.
- Skeletal tracking: The capability to track the skeleton image of one or two people moving within Kinect's field of view for gesture-driven applications.
- Advanced audio capabilities: Audio processing capabilities include sophisticated acoustic noise suppression and echo cancellation, beam formation to identify the current sound source, and integration with Windows speech recognition API.
- Sample code and Documentation.
In March 2012, Craig Eisler, the general manager of Kinect for Windows, said that almost 350 companies are working with Microsoft on custom Kinect applications for Microsoft Windows.
In March 2012, Microsoft announced that next version of Kinect for Windows SDK would be available in May 2012. Kinect for Windows 1.5 was released on May 21, 2012. It adds new features, support for many new languages and debut in 19 more countries.
- Kinect for Windows 1.5 SDK would include 'Kinect Studio' a new app that allows developers to record, playback, and debug clips of users interacting with applications.
- Support for new "seated" or "10-joint" skeletal system that will let apps track the head, neck, and arms of a Kinect user - whether they're sitting down or standing; which would work in default and near mode.
- Support for four new languages for speech recognition – French, Spanish, Italian, and Japanese. Additionally it would add support for regional dialects of these languages along with English.
- It would be available in Hong Kong, South Korea, and Taiwan in May and Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Denmark, Finland, India, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Arab Emirates in June.
Kinect for Windows SDK for the first-generation sensor was updated a few more times, with version 1.6 released October 8, 2012, version 1.7 released March 18, 2013, and version 1.8 released September 17, 2013.
Kinect for Xbox One (2013)
An upgraded iteration of Kinect was released on November 22, 2013 for Xbox One. It uses a wide-angle time-of-flight camera, and processes 2 gigabits of data per second to read its environment. The new Kinect has greater accuracy with three times the fidelity over its predecessor and can track without visible light by using an active IR sensor. It has a 60% wider field of vision that can detect a user up to 3 feet from the sensor, compared to six feet for the original Kinect, and can track up to 6 skeletons at once. It can also detect a player's heart rate, facial expression, the position and orientation of 25 individual joints (including thumbs), the weight put on each limb, speed of player movements, and track gestures performed with a standard controller. The color camera captures 1080p video that can be displayed in the same resolution as the viewing screen, allowing for a broad range of scenarios. In addition to improving video communications and video analytics applications, this provides a stable input on which to build interactive applications. Kinect's microphone is used to provide voice commands for actions such as navigation, starting games, and waking the console from sleep mode. The recommended player's height is at least 40 inches, which roughly corresponds to children of 4 and a half years old and up.
All Xbox One consoles were initially shipped with Kinect included—a holdover from a previously-announced, but retracted mandate requiring Kinect to be plugged into the console at all times for it to function. In June 2014, bundles without Kinect were made available, along with an updated Xbox One SDK allowing game developers to explicitly disable Kinect skeletal tracking, freeing up system resources that were previously reserved for Kinect even if it was disabled or unplugged.
A standalone Kinect for Xbox One, bundled with a digital copy of Dance Central Spotlight, was released on October 7, 2014. The Xbox One Kinect was also repackaged as Kinect for Windows v2 (which is nearly identical besides the removal of Xbox branding, and its inclusion of a USB 3.0/AC adapter), released alongside version 2.0 of the Windows SDK for the platform. In April 2015, this edition was discontinued, with Microsoft instructing developers to use the Xbox-branded Kinect with a USB adapter instead.
Kinect for Xbox One was considered a market failure, with critics crediting privacy concerns (held over from controversies that affected Xbox One's launch), how its inclusion affected the console's launch price (which affected sales in comparison to PlayStation 4), and the smaller number of Kinect-specific titles developed for Xbox One. By mid-2015, Microsoft had begun to heavily downplay Kinect as part of its overall strategy for the platform. With the release of the refreshed Xbox One S SKU in 2016, the proprietary port used to attach Kinect was removed from this and future revisions of the console, necessitating the use of a USB 3.0/AC adapter cord. This was offered for free to Xbox One S owners with Kinect until March 2017. On October 25, 2017, Microsoft officially announced the discontinuation of Kinect for Xbox One and end of production. Production of the adapter cord also ended by January 2018.
On May 7, 2018, Microsoft announced a new iteration of Kinect technology designed primarily for enterprise software and artificial intelligence usage. It is designed around the Microsoft Azure cloud platform, and is meant to "leverage the richness of Azure AI to dramatically improve insights and operations". It has a smaller form factor than the Xbox iterations of Kinect, and features a 12-megapixel camera, a time-of-flight depth sensor also used on the HoloLens 2, and seven microphones. A development kit was announced in February 2019.
Requiring at least 190 MB of available storage space, Kinect system software allows users to operate Xbox 360 Dashboard console user interface through voice commands and hand gestures. Techniques such as voice recognition and facial recognition are employed to automatically identify users. Among the applications for Kinect is Video Kinect, which enables voice chat or video chat with other Xbox 360 users or users of Windows Live Messenger. The application can use Kinect's tracking functionality and Kinect sensor's motorized pivot to keep users in frame even as they move around. Other applications with Kinect support include ESPN, Zune Marketplace, Netflix, Hulu Plus and Last.fm. Microsoft later confirmed that all forthcoming applications would be required to have Kinect functionality for certification.
Xbox 360 games that require Kinect are packaged in special purple cases (as opposed to the green cases used by all other Xbox 360 games), and contain a prominent "Requires Kinect Sensor" logo on their front cover. Games that include features utilizing Kinect, but do not require it for standard gameplay, contain a "Better with Kinect Sensor" branding on their front covers.
Kinect launched on November 4, 2010 with 17 titles. Third-party publishers of available and announced Kinect games include, among others, Ubisoft, Electronic Arts, LucasArts, THQ, Activision, Konami, Sega, Capcom, Namco Bandai and MTV Games. Along with retail games, there are also select Xbox Live Arcade titles which require the peripheral.
Kinect Fun Labs
At E3 2011, Microsoft announced Kinect Fun Labs: a collection of various gadgets and minigames that are accessible from Xbox 360 Dashboard. These gadgets includes Build A Buddy, Air Band, Kinect Googly Eyes, Kinect Me, Bobblehead, Kinect Sparkler, Junk Fu and Avatar Kinect.
Open source drivers
In November 2010, Adafruit Industries offered a bounty for an open-source driver for Kinect. Microsoft initially voiced its disapproval of the bounty, stating that it "does not condone the modification of its products" and that it had "built in numerous hardware and software safeguards designed to reduce the chances of product tampering". This reaction, however, was caused by a misunderstanding within Microsoft, and the company later clarified its position, claiming that while it does not condone hacking of either the physical device or the console, the USB connection was left open by design.
|“||The first thing to talk about is, Kinect was not actually hacked. Hacking would mean that someone got to our algorithms that sit inside of the Xbox and was able to actually use them, which hasn't happened. Or, it means that you put a device between the sensor and the Xbox for means of cheating, which also has not happened. That's what we call hacking, and that's what we have put a ton of work and effort to make sure doesn't actually occur. What has happened is someone wrote an open-source driver for PCs that essentially opens the USB connection, which we didn't protect, by design, and reads the inputs from the sensor. The sensor, again, as I talked earlier, has eyes and ears, and that's a whole bunch of noise that someone needs to take and turn into signal.||”|
|— Microsoft's Alex Kipman speaking formally on NPR's Science Friday|
On November 10, Adafruit announced Héctor Martín as the winner, who had produced a Linux driver that allows the use of both the RGB camera and depth sensitivity functions of the device. It was later revealed that Johnny Lee, a core member of Microsoft's Kinect development team, had secretly approached Adafruit with the idea of a driver development contest and had personally financed it.
In December 2010, PrimeSense, whose depth sensing chips were used in the Kinect for Xbox 360 hardware, released their own open source drivers along with motion tracking middleware called NITE. PrimeSense later announced that it had teamed up with Asus to develop a PC-compatible device similar to Kinect for Chinese markets, called the Wavi Xtion. The product was released in October 2011.
OpenNI is an open-source software framework that is able to read sensor data from Kinect, among other natural user interface sensors.
Alexandre Alahi from EPFL presented a video surveillance system that combines multiple Kinect devices to track groups of people even in complete darkness. Companies So touch and Evoluce have developed presentation software for Kinect that can be controlled by hand gestures; among its features is a multi-touch zoom mode. In December 2010, the free public beta of HTPC software KinEmote was launched; it allows navigation of Boxee and XBMC menus using a Kinect sensor. Soroush Falahati wrote an application that can be used to create stereoscopic 3D images with a Kinect sensor.
Kinect also shows compelling potential for use in medicine. Researchers at the University of Minnesota have used Kinect to measure a range of disorder symptoms in children, creating new ways of objective evaluation to detect such conditions as autism, attention-deficit disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Several groups have reported using Kinect for intraoperative, review of medical imaging, allowing the surgeon to access the information without contamination. This technique is already in use at Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre in Toronto, where doctors use it to guide imaging during cancer surgery. At least one company, GestSure Technologies, is pursuing the commercialization of such a system.
NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) signed up for the Kinect for Windows Developer program in November 2013 to use the new Kinect to manipulate a robotic arm in combination with an Oculus Rift virtual reality headset, creating "the most immersive interface" the unit had built to date.
Kinect for Xbox 360
Upon its release, the Kinect garnered generally positive opinions from reviewers and critics. IGN gave the device 7.5 out of 10, saying that "Kinect can be a tremendous amount of fun for casual players, and the creative, controller-free concept is undeniably appealing", though adding that for "$149.99, a motion-tracking camera add-on for Xbox 360 is a tough sell, especially considering that the entry level variation of Xbox 360 itself is only $199.99". Game Informer rated Kinect 8 out of 10, praising the technology but noting that the experience takes a while to get used to and that the spatial requirement may pose a barrier. Computer and Video Games called the device a technological gem and applauded the gesture and voice controls, while criticizing the launch lineup and Kinect Hub.
CNET's review pointed out how Kinect keeps players active with its full-body motion sensing but criticized the learning curve, the additional power supply needed for older Xbox 360 consoles and the space requirements. Engadget, too, listed the large space requirements as a negative, along with Kinect's launch lineup and the slowness of the hand gesture UI. The review praised the system's powerful technology and the potential of its yoga and dance games. Kotaku considered the device revolutionary upon first use but noted that games were sometimes unable to recognize gestures or had slow responses, concluding that Kinect is "not must-own yet, more like must-eventually own." TechRadar praised the voice control and saw a great deal of potential in the device whose lag and space requirements were identified as issues. Gizmodo also noted Kinect's potential and expressed curiosity in how more mainstream titles would utilize the technology. Ars Technica's review expressed concern that the core feature of Kinect, its lack of a controller, would hamper development of games beyond those that have either stationary players or control the player's movement automatically.
The mainstream press also reviewed Kinect. USA Today compared it to the futuristic control scheme seen in Minority Report, stating that "playing games feels great" and giving the device 3.5 out of 4 stars. David Pogue from The New York Times predicted players will feel a "crazy, magical, omigosh rush the first time you try the Kinect." Despite calling the motion tracking less precise than Wii's implementation, Pogue concluded that "Kinect’s astonishing technology creates a completely new activity that’s social, age-spanning and even athletic." The Globe and Mail titled Kinect as setting a "new standard for motion control." The slight input lag between making a physical movement and Kinect registering it was not considered a major issue with most games, and the review called Kinect "a good and innovative product," rating it 3.5 out of 4 stars.
Kinect for Xbox One
Although featuring improved performance over the original Kinect, its successor has been subject to mixed responses. In its Xbox One review, Engadget praised Xbox One's Kinect functionality, such as face recognition login and improved motion tracking, but that whilst "magical", "every false positive or unrecognized [voice] command had us reaching for the controller." The Kinect's inability to understand some accents in English was criticized. Writing for Time, Matt Peckham described the device as being "chunky" in appearance, but that the facial recognition login feature was "creepy but equally sci-fi-future cool", and that the new voice recognition system was a "powerful, addictive way to navigate the console, and save for a few exceptions that seem to be smoothing out with use". However, its accuracy was found to be affected by background noise, and Peckham further noted that launching games using voice recognition required that the full title of the game be given rather than an abbreviated name that the console "ought to semantically understand", such as Forza Motorsport 5 rather than "Forza 5".
While announcing Kinect's discontinuation in an interview with Fast Co. Design on October 25, 2017, Microsoft stated that 35 million units had been sold since its release. 24 million units of Kinect had been shipped by February 2013. Having sold 8 million units in its first 60 days on the market, Kinect claimed the Guinness World Record of being the "fastest selling consumer electronics device". According to Wedbush analyst Michael Pachter, Kinect bundles accounted for about half of all Xbox 360 console sales in December 2010 and for more than two-thirds in February 2011. More than 750,000 Kinect units were sold during the week of Black Friday 2011.
Other motion controllers
Kinect competes with several motion controllers on other home consoles, such as Wii Remote, Wii Remote Plus and Wii Balance Board for the Wii and Wii U, PlayStation Move and PlayStation Eye for the PlayStation 3, and PlayStation Camera for the PlayStation 4.
- The machine learning work on human motion capture within Kinect won the 2011 MacRobert Award for engineering innovation.
- Kinect Won T3's "Gadget of the Year" award for 2011. It also won the "Gaming Gadget of the Year" prize.
- 'Microsoft Kinect for Windows Software Development Kit' was ranked second in "The 10 Most Innovative Tech Products of 2011" at Popular Mechanics Breakthrough Awards ceremony in New York City.
- Microsoft Kinect for Windows won Innovation of the Year in the 2012 Seattle 2.0 Startup Awards.
- "Kinect gets UK release date". BBC. Retrieved August 17, 2010.
It will hit the shelves on 10 November, five days after the US.
- "Microsoft Xbox 360 Kinect Launches November 4". Gizmodo.
- "Ya llegaron a Colombia los videojuegos que no necesitan controles" [They've arrived in Colombia: controller-free video games] (in Spanish). Caracol TV. November 14, 2010. Retrieved November 14, 2010.
- "Xbox 360′s Kinect given release date for Australia". September 1, 2010. Retrieved September 3, 2010.
- "Microsoft to launch Kinect in Japan in November". The Economic Times. September 8, 2010. Retrieved October 20, 2010.
- "Starting February 1, 2012: Use the Power of Kinect for Windows to Change the World - Kinect for Windows Blog - Site Home - MSDN Blogs". Blogs.msdn.com. January 9, 2012. Retrieved March 12, 2012.
- "Microsoft isn't selling Kinect for Windows anymore". Engadget.
- "Achievement Unlocked: 10 Years – Thank You, Xbox 360". Xbox Wire.
- Yin-Poole, Wesley (October 25, 2017). "Kinect officially dead". Eurogamer. Retrieved October 25, 2017.
- Reisinger, Don (October 25, 2017). "Microsoft Has Finally Killed the Kinect Xbox Sensor". Fortune. Retrieved December 1, 2017.
- Microsoft (2012). "Kinect for Windows SDK 1.6 Programming Guide". Microsoft. Retrieved February 16, 2013.
- ""Project Natal" 101". Microsoft. June 1, 2009. Archived from the original on January 21, 2012. Retrieved June 2, 2009.
- Pham, Alex (June 1, 2009). "E3: Microsoft shows off gesture control technology for Xbox 360". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 1, 2009.
The effort aims to attract a broader audience to Microsoft's console. Most of the 30 million Xbox 360s sold since November 2005 have been snapped up by avid young males drawn to complex shooter or adventure games such as Halo and Modern Warfare or R.P.Gs
- Orland, Kyle (February 21, 2011). "News - Microsoft Announces Windows Kinect SDK For Spring Release". Gamasutra. Retrieved March 16, 2011.
- "Microsoft: "Kinect SDK Coming In March."". Gadgetsteria.com. February 21, 2011. Archived from the original on March 19, 2011. Retrieved March 16, 2011.
- Knies, Rob (February 21, 2011). "Academics, Enthusiasts to Get Kinect SDK". Retrieved March 18, 2011.
- "Kinect for Windows SDK beta launches, wants PC users to get a move on". Engadget. June 16, 2011. Retrieved October 19, 2011.
- "Microsoft releases Kinect for Windows SDK - latimes.com". Latimesblogs.latimes.com. June 16, 2011. Retrieved October 19, 2011.
- O'Brien, Terrence (May 21, 2013). "Microsoft's new Kinect is official: larger field of view, HD camera, wake with voice". Engadget. AOL. Retrieved February 20, 2017.
- "The Kinect for Windows v2 sensor and free SDK 2.0 public preview are here". Microsoft. July 15, 2014. Retrieved March 12, 2018.
- Dent, Steve (December 31, 2014). "Wave goodbye to Microsoft's original Kinect for Windows". Engadget. Retrieved March 12, 2018.
- "E3 2010: Project Natal is "Kinect"". IGN. June 13, 2010. Retrieved March 18, 2011.
- "E3 2009: Microsoft Press Conference Live Blog". IGN. June 1, 2009. Retrieved June 1, 2009.
- Dunham, Jeremy (June 2, 2009). "E3 2009: I've Played Natal and it Works". IGN. Retrieved March 18, 2011.
- Totilo, Stephen (June 5, 2009). "Microsoft: Project Natal Can Support Multiple Players, See Fingers". Kotaku. Gawker Media. Retrieved June 6, 2009.
- Takahashi, Dean (June 2, 2009). "Microsoft games exec details how Project Natal was born". VentureBeat. Retrieved June 6, 2009.
The companies are doing a lot of great work with the cameras. But the magic is in the software. It’s a combination of partners and our own software.
- Dudley, Brier (June 3, 2009). "E3: New info on Microsoft's Natal -- how it works, multiplayer and PC versions". Brier Dudley's Blog. The Seattle Times. Retrieved June 3, 2009.
We actually built a software platform that was what we wanted to have as content creators. And then [asked], 'OK, are there hardware solutions out there that plug in?' But the amount of software and the quality of software are really the innovation in Natal.
- Gibson, Ellie (June 5, 2009). "E3: Post-Natal Discussion". Eurogamer. Eurogamer Network. pp. 1–2. Retrieved June 9, 2009.
Essentially we do a 3D body scan of you. We graph 48 joints in your body and then those 48 joints are tracked in real-time, at 30 frames per second. So several for your head, shoulders, elbows, hands, feet...
- Wilson, Mark; Buchanan, Matt (June 3, 2009). "Testing Project Natal: We Touched the Intangible". Gizmodo. Gawker Media. Retrieved June 6, 2009.
- French, Michael (November 11, 2009). "Natal launch details leak from secret Microsoft tour". MCV. Intent Media. Retrieved November 11, 2009.
November 2010 release, 5m units global ship, 14 games, and super-low sub-£50 price [...] Microsoft is planning to manufacture 5m units for day one release, with a mix of console and camera plus solus SKUs expected. [...] The device should cost under £100,00 when sold solo. The somewhat confirmed price is stated to be at 150$ (USD)when sold alone this is 50$ higher than the original 99$ projected price. [...] Another even says the camera could even retail for just £30.
- Channell, Mike (October 3, 2009). "Mark Rein Interview". Xbox 360: The Official Xbox Magazine. Future Publishing. Retrieved October 11, 2009.
And you know, I think they said they were going to ship Natal with every Xbox when they actually launch the thing, so everybody will have one.
- Brightman, James (August 21, 2009). "Xbox 360 Slim? Analysts Weigh In". IndustryGamers. pp. 1–2. Archived from the original on December 24, 2009. Retrieved September 2, 2009.
- Kennedy, Sam (June 12, 2009). "Rumor: Xbox Natal is Actually Microsoft's Next Console". 1UP.com. UGO Entertainment. Retrieved June 19, 2009.
- Takahashi, Dean (June 2, 2009). "Microsoft games exec details how Kinect was born". VentureBeat. Retrieved June 6, 2009.
The companies are doing a lot of great work with the cameras. But the magic is in the software. It’s a combination of partners and our own software.
- Graft, Kris; Sheffield, Brandon (June 16, 2009). "Microsoft's Future Begins Now: Shane Kim Speaks". Gamasutra. Think Services. p. 3. Retrieved June 20, 2009.
- Gruener, Wolfgang (2009). "Ballmer announces 2010 Xbox 360 at The Executive Club Chicago". TG Daily. Chicago: Tigervision Media (published June 19, 2009). Retrieved June 19, 2009.
I am talking about the Global Leaders luncheon with Steve Ballmer yesterday in Chicago, during which the executive announced 'a new Xbox for 2010.' [...] I triple-checked with a few friends who were sitting in the audience as well and it seemed pretty clear to them that a new Xbox is coming in 2010, after what Ballmer had said.
- Reilly, Jim (June 19, 2009). "Ballmer Clarifies His 'New' Xbox 360 Comment". IGN. IGN Entertainment. Retrieved June 21, 2009.
I confused the issue with my poorly chosen words. There is no news in my comments. Things are as reported after E3. Sorry.
- "Generation When?". Edge Online. Future plc. June 18, 2009. p. 2. Archived from the original on January 5, 2011. Retrieved June 22, 2009.
Since the NES, every five years or so a distinct new wave of technology has washed across the industry, bringing with it new power and functions to a market galvanised by the promise of faster, better, more.
- Crecente, Brian (September 25, 2009). "Playing Space Invaders, Katamari Damacy on Natal". Kotaku. Gawker Media. Retrieved September 26, 2009.
- Chester, Nick (September 25, 2009). "TGS 09: Patching older 360 games to work with natal not possible". Destructoid. Retrieved September 26, 2009.
- Elliott, Phil (January 7, 2010). "Microsoft drops internal Natal chip". GamesIndustry.biz. Retrieved March 18, 2011.
- Barras, Colin (January 7, 2010). "Microsoft's body-sensing, button-busting controller". New Scientist. Archived from the original on January 14, 2012. Retrieved March 18, 2011.
- Pearson, Dan (November 3, 2010). "Kipman: Kinect CPU use down to single-digits | News". Gamesindustry.biz. Retrieved November 4, 2010.
- "Microsoft Planning Special Event for Project Natal on June 13th". March 25, 2010. Archived from the original on May 6, 2010. Retrieved March 25, 2010.
- Toulouse, Stephen (June 13, 2010). "What's in a name? Everything and nothing, depending". Stepto.com. Archived from the original on August 23, 2010. Retrieved July 2, 2010.
- Snider, Mike (January 4, 2010). "Microsoft Kinect gets into motion as E3 confab kicks off". Usatoday.Com. Retrieved June 15, 2010.
- Boyd, Graeme (July 20, 2010). "Kinect bundled with slim 4GB Xbox 360 Arcade for $300, new console for $200 in August". Twitter. Archived from the original on July 20, 2010. Retrieved July 20, 2010.
Euro prices are 149.99 Euro for the camera + Kinect Adventures, 299.99 Euro for the 4GB console bundle.
- "Microsoft Kinect for Windows | Develop for the Kinect | Kinect for Windows". Research.microsoft.com. Retrieved March 12, 2012.
- "Xbox Live's Major Nelson » Limited Edition Star Wars Console". Microsoft. July 21, 2011. Retrieved July 22, 2011.
- "Microsoft's Commercial Kinect Partners, Panasonic's Record $5.5 Billion Loss, Anonymous Threatens To Expose Mexican Cartel". Fast Company. October 31, 2011. Retrieved March 12, 2012.
- Greene, Jay (February 1, 2012). "Microsoft debuts Kinect for Windows, commercial SDK | Microsoft - CNET News". News.cnet.com. Retrieved June 15, 2013.
- Atkinson, Claire (October 17, 2010). "Microsoft gears up for big launch of Kinect controller-free device for Xbox - NYPOST.com". New York Post. Retrieved October 20, 2010.
- Makuch, Eddie (October 18, 2010). "Microsoft to spend $500M on Kinect marketing - Report". Retrieved February 24, 2018.
- "Half A Billion Dollar Marketing Budget For Microsoft Kinect Launch". October 19, 2010. Retrieved February 24, 2018.
- Dutton, Fred (October 18, 2010). "Kinect gets $500m marketing spend". Retrieved February 24, 2018.
- "Microsoft Corp - Quarterly Report". apps.shareholder.com. Retrieved February 24, 2018.
- "Kinect Ads: 'You Are the Controller'". Microsoft. October 21, 2010. Archived from the original on March 6, 2011. Retrieved January 25, 2011.
- "Oprah Audience Explodes Into Hysterics Over Free Xbox Kinects". Gizmodo. Retrieved October 20, 2010.
- Mitchell, Richard (November 5, 2010). "Jimmy Fallon gives everyone in his audience a Kinect". Joystiq. Retrieved December 9, 2010.
- "Ashley Tisdale Hosts The Xbox Kinect Event". Bsckids.com. October 26, 2010. Archived from the original on October 31, 2010. Retrieved November 4, 2010.
- Goldman, Tom (November 2, 2010). "Greasy Fingers Don't Matter With Kinect". The Escapist. Retrieved January 25, 2011.
- Greenhough, Chris (November 4, 2010). "Time Square grinds to a halt for Microsoft Kinect". Inquisitr.com. Retrieved January 25, 2011.
- Lian, Jotham. "Kinect launches Nov 18 with StarHub tie-up". ChannelNewsAsia.com.
- "New Zealand Kinect Launch Date confirmed!". September 17, 2010. Retrieved September 17, 2010.
- "Xbox Kinect Japanese launch date". September 14, 2010. Retrieved September 17, 2010.
- "New Xbox 360, Kinect Sensor and "Kinect Adventures" — Get All Your Controller-Free Entertainment in One Complete Package". Redmond, Washington: Microsoft. July 20, 2010. Archived from the original on July 22, 2010. Retrieved July 20, 2010.
- "Say Hello to the New Xbox 360". Microsoft. Archived from the original on February 24, 2011. Retrieved March 18, 2011.
- Purchese, Robert (September 8, 2010). "£300 Kinect 250GB bundle confirmed". Eurogamer. Retrieved September 8, 2010.
- ""MIT" The 50 most innovative companies 2011, MIT technological review". Retrieved February 24, 2018.
- Takahashi, Dean (September 5, 2009), "How many vendors does it take to make Microsoft's Project Natal game control system?", Venture Beat, retrieved January 8, 2010
- Press, MS (March 31, 2010). "PrimeSense Supplies 3-D-Sensing Technology to Project Natal for Xbox 360". MsPress. p. MsPress. Archived from the original on June 20, 2010. Retrieved March 31, 2010.
- "© 2010 PrimeSense Ltd. | FAQ". Primesense.com. Retrieved March 16, 2011.
- mirror2image (November 30, 2010). "How Kinect depth sensor works – stereo triangulation?". Mirror2image.wordpress.com. Retrieved March 16, 2011.
- "» Kinect Hacking 103: Looking at Kinect IR Patterns". Futurepicture. November 17, 2010. Retrieved March 16, 2011.
- Totilo, Stephen (January 7, 2010). "Natal Recognizes 31 Body Parts, Uses Tenth of Xbox 360 "Computing Resources"". Kotaku, Gawker Media. Retrieved November 25, 2010.
- "Microsoft: Kinect doesn't listen in mainland Europe till spring". September 1, 2010.
- Bramwell, Tom (June 3, 2009). "E3: MS execs: Natal not derived from 3DV". Eurogamer. Eurogamer Network. Retrieved June 5, 2009.
- Lee, Johnny (June 1, 2009). "Project Natal". Procrastineering. Retrieved June 6, 2009.
- "Play.com (UK) : Kinect : Xbox 360 - Free Delivery". Play.com. Retrieved July 2, 2010.
This information is based on specifications supplied by manufacturers and should be used for guidance only.
- "Kinect: The company behind the tech explains how it works". Joystiq. June 19, 2010. Retrieved March 21, 2011.
- "OpenKinect Protocol Documentation".
- "Kinect for Xbox 360". Microsoft Store. Microsoft. Archived from the original on June 18, 2010. Retrieved July 7, 2010.
Array of 4 microphones supporting single speaker voice recognition
- "Project Natal & Its Instruction Manual(!) In The Wild". Kotaku. April 20, 2010. Retrieved May 27, 2010.
- "Original Xbox 360 requires separate power connection for Kinect". Joystiq. June 14, 2010. Retrieved June 14, 2010.
- "It's Official: Kinect for Windows is Coming Soon". Retrieved February 24, 2018.
- "Starting February 1, 2012: Use the Power of Kinect for Windows to Change the World". Retrieved February 24, 2018.
- "About the Kinect for Windows SDK - Microsoft Research". Retrieved October 19, 2011.
- "Can Kinect Make Windows Cool Again?". Businessweek. March 8, 2012. Retrieved March 12, 2012.
- Albanesius, Chloe (March 27, 2012). "Kinect for Windows 1.5 Coming in May". PC Magazine.
- Albanesius, Chloe (May 21, 2012). "Kinect for Windows 1.5 Released With Facial, Skeletal Tracking". PC Magazine.
- Tom Warren (March 27, 2012). "Kinect for Windows 1.5 will feature '10-joint' skeletal tracking and four new speech recognition languages". The Verge. Retrieved June 15, 2013.
- Gorman, Michael (March 27, 2012). "Kinect for Windows version 1.5 to be released in May". Engadget.com. Retrieved June 15, 2013.
- "What's Ahead: A Sneak Peek - Kinect for Windows Product Blog - Site Home - MSDN Blogs". Blogs.msdn.com. March 26, 2012. Retrieved June 15, 2013.
- "Kinect for Windows releases SDK update and launches in China". Retrieved February 24, 2018.
- "The latest Kinect for Windows SDK is here". Retrieved February 24, 2018.
- "Updated SDK, with HTML5, Kinect Fusion improvements, and more". Retrieved February 24, 2018.
- "Microsoft's new Kinect is official: larger field of view, HD camera, wake with voice". Retrieved February 24, 2018.
- Dave Tach (May 21, 2013). "Kinect is always listening on Xbox One, but privacy is a 'top priority' for Microsoft". Polygon. Retrieved May 22, 2013.
- "The Kid-Friendly Guide to Kinect". Channel 9. Retrieved November 13, 2018.
- "Kinect and your kids: What works, what won't". msnbc.com. November 10, 2010. Retrieved November 13, 2018.
- "Xbox One no longer requires Kinect, but it'll still come in the box, and you'll still pay $500". ExtremeTech. Ziff Davis Media. Retrieved September 5, 2013.
- Crecente, Brian (May 9, 2014). "Microsoft: Dropping Kinect could free up extra processing power in Xbox One". Polygon. Retrieved May 9, 2014.
- Thurrott, Paul. "Explaining the Performance Improvements in the June Xbox One XDK Update". Supersite for Windows. Penton. Retrieved July 1, 2014.
- "Standalone Xbox One Kinect Launching October 7 for $150 With Dance Central". GameSpot. Retrieved December 16, 2014.
- "Microsoft has a Kinect for Windows v2 sensor". Eurogamer.net. Retrieved May 8, 2018.
- "Microsoft stops producing Kinect for Windows v2 sensor, will focus on Kinect for Xbox One and Windows apps". VentureBeat. April 2, 2015. Retrieved May 8, 2018.
- "Microsoft ends free Kinect adapter promotion for Xbox One S owners". Polygon. Vox Media. Retrieved April 5, 2017.
- Sarkar, Samit (January 2, 2018). "Microsoft discontinues Xbox One Kinect adapter". Polygon. Retrieved January 2, 2018.
- "Kinect gets another shot at Microsoft Build". CNET. May 7, 2018. Retrieved May 8, 2018.
- "Microsoft is moving Kinect to the cloud". The Verge. Retrieved May 8, 2018.
- Warren, Tom (February 24, 2019). "Microsoft shrinks Kinect into a $399 cloud-powered PC peripheral". The Verge. Retrieved February 24, 2019.
- Warren, Tom (February 25, 2019). "A closer look at Microsoft's new Kinect sensor". The Verge. Retrieved February 26, 2019.
- "Xbox.com: Kinect". Xbox.com. Microsoft. Archived from the original on September 12, 2010. Retrieved September 18, 2010.
- "Netflix and Hulu Plus with Kinect coming this spring to Xbox 360". Engadget. January 5, 2011. Retrieved October 19, 2011.
- Robinson, Blake (November 4, 2010). "Last.fm Gesture Controls for Xbox Kinect". Mashable.com. Retrieved October 19, 2011.
- Narcisse, Evan (December 8, 2011). "Wave Hello: Microsoft's Requiring Kinect Functionality for All Future Apps Built for Xbox 360". Kotaku.com. Retrieved March 12, 2012.
- Dixon, Gwynne (July 6, 2010). "Some Games Are "Better With Kinect", Others "Require" It News". TotalVideoGames. Retrieved July 2, 2010.
- Van Camp, Jeffrey (October 19, 2010). "Microsoft reveals Kinect launch games". digitaltrends.com. Retrieved December 9, 2010.
- "Free Kinect Videogame Junk Fu Now Available". Electronic Theatre. February 20, 2012. Retrieved March 12, 2012.
- Nosowitz, Dan. "Microsoft Gives the Kinect an App Store and Voice-Controlled Live TV | Popular Science". Popsci.com. Retrieved October 19, 2011.
- "Kinect Fun Labs - Xbox.com". Marketplace.xbox.com. June 6, 2011. Retrieved October 19, 2011.
- Terrones, Terry (August 29, 2011). "Kinect Fun Labs Review from". GamePro. Archived from the original on December 1, 2011. Retrieved October 19, 2011.
- "Microsoft furious at 2000 bounty for open source Kinect drivers". TechEye. November 5, 2010.
- Bishop, Todd (February 21, 2011). "Microsoft plans Kinect SDK". TechFlash.com. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
- "Microsoft: Kinect wasn't hacked, USB port left open 'by design'". techflash.com. November 20, 2010. Retrieved November 29, 2010.
- "Adafruit Contest Winner Announcement". Retrieved November 11, 2010.
- "Me gusta trastear" [I like to tinker]. El País (in Spanish). November 11, 2010. Retrieved November 15, 2010.
- "OpenKinect's libfreenect". Retrieved November 15, 2010.
- "Open Source Kinect contest has been won". hackaday.com. November 11, 2010. Retrieved November 11, 2010.
- Terdiman, Daniel (February 21, 2011). "Kinect developer claims credit for hack bounty idea". cNET.com. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
- Mitchell, Richard (December 10, 2010). "PrimeSense releases open source drivers, middleware for Kinect". Joystiq. Retrieved December 11, 2010.
- "PrimeSense Teams Up with ASUS to Bring Intuitive PC Entertainment to the Living Room with WAVI Xtion". Business Wire. January 3, 2011. Retrieved January 3, 2011.
- Matthews, Lee. "Asus Wavi Xtion motion controller goes on sale in China next month". geek.com. Retrieved February 26, 2015.
- Wortham, Jenna (November 21, 2010). "With Kinect Controller, Hackers Take Liberties". The New York Times. Retrieved November 25, 2010.
- Doug. "depthJS". GitHub.
- Savov, Vlad (December 9, 2010). "Kinect finally fulfills its Minority Report destiny (video)". Engadget. Retrieved December 9, 2010.
- "Kinect and MRPT | The Mobile Robot Programming Toolkit". Mrpt.org. Retrieved March 16, 2011.
- Newton, James (December 6, 2010). "Become Tom Hanks in Big with Kinect's Giant Piano Hack". KINECTaku.com. Retrieved December 6, 2010.
- Newton, Casey (January 10, 2011). "Microsoft's Xbox Kinect beyond hackers, hobbyists". San Francisco Chronicle.
- Bonvin, Didier. "Connecting Kinects for Group Surveillance". Retrieved December 26, 2010.
- "Control your PowerPoint and PDF presentations with Kinect". PRLog.org. December 2, 2010. Retrieved December 8, 2010.
- Protalinski, Emil (December 24, 2010). "KinEmote brings Kinect to Boxee and XBMC on Windows". TechSpot. Retrieved December 26, 2010.
- "Kinect 3D Photo Capture Tool 0.7 Released". Retrieved March 4, 2011.
- "Minnesota University Team Adapts Kinect for Medical Use". Softpedia. March 15, 2011. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
- "Medical practice finds use for Kinect hack". QuickJump Gaming Network. December 27, 2010. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
- "radRounds". Xbox Kinect-based radiology & medical image exploration. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- "Doctors use Xbox Kinect in cancer surgery". CHealth. March 22, 2011. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
- "GestSure Technologies". Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- Lee, Nicole. "NASA's JPL maneuvers a robot arm with Oculus Rift and Kinect 2, points to more immersive space missions". Web. Retrieved March 19, 2014.
- Ingham, Tim (November 4, 2010). "Kinect Review". Computer and Video Games. Archived from the original on November 6, 2010. Retrieved November 4, 2010.
- Gonzalez, Annette (November 4, 2010). "Kinect Hardware Review: Wave Of The Future". Game Informer. Retrieved November 4, 2010.
- Lowe, Scott (November 4, 2010). "Microsoft Kinect Review". IGN. Retrieved November 4, 2010.
- Bakalar, Jeff (November 4, 2010). "Xbox 360 Kinect Review". CNET. Retrieved November 4, 2010.
- Miller, Ross (November 4, 2010). "Kinect for Xbox 360 review". Engadget. AOL. Retrieved November 4, 2010.
- Molina, Brett (November 4, 2010). "We play Kinect..." USA Today. Retrieved November 4, 2010.
- "Microsoft Kinect review". TechRadar. November 4, 2010. Retrieved November 8, 2010.
- Harris, Ron (November 4, 2010). "Microsoft Kinect review". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 10, 2010.
- Wilson, Jeffrey L. (November 4, 2010). "Microsoft Kinect for Xbox 360". PCMag.com. Retrieved November 10, 2010.
- "Microsoft Kinect Review: The beginning of hassle-free gaming | Game Guru". Gameguru.in. February 4, 2011. Retrieved March 16, 2011.
- "Microsoft Kinect for Xbox 360 Review: Controller-free gaming at its best". TechShout. Retrieved March 16, 2011.
- Totilo, Stephen (November 3, 2010). "Review: Kinect". Kotaku. Gawker Media. Retrieved November 3, 2010.
- Chen, Jason (November 4, 2010). "Xbox Kinect Review: It's a Brand New Console". Gizmodo. Retrieved November 4, 2010.
- "Buy a house, clean your floor, move your butt: Ars reviews Kinect". Ars Technica. November 4, 2010.
- Pogue, David (November 4, 2010). "Kinect Pushes Users Into a Sweaty New Dimension". The New York Times. Retrieved November 4, 2010.
- Sapieha, Chad (November 4, 2010). "Microsoft's Kinect sets new standard for motion control". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. Retrieved November 4, 2010.
- Gilbert, Ben. "Xbox One review: a fast and powerful work in progress". Engadget. Retrieved December 16, 2014.
- "The Point : Can Kinect Understand Weird Accents?".
- Peckham, Matt. "Xbox One Review: Microsoft's Ambitious One-Stop Shop". Time. Retrieved April 5, 2015.
- "Privacy concerns threaten to overshadow Microsoft's new console". Polygon. Retrieved June 10, 2013.
- "Microsoft may award achievements for watching TV and ads by monitoring you with Kinect". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 10, 2013.
- "Kinect on Xbox One will not record or upload your conversations, Microsoft says". Polygon. Vox Media. Retrieved June 10, 2013.
- Will Greenwald (May 22, 2013). "Hello Xbox One, Goodbye Freedom". PC Magazine. Retrieved May 23, 2013.
- Epstein, Zach (February 12, 2013). "MICROSOFT SAYS XBOX 360 SALES HAVE SURPASSED 76 MILLION UNITS, KINECT SALES TOP 24 MILLION". BGR.com. Retrieved February 15, 2013.
- Alexander, Leigh (March 9, 2011). "Microsoft: Kinect Hits 10 Million Units, 10 Million Games". Gamasutra. Retrieved March 10, 2011.
- Ingham, Tim (March 9, 2011). "Kinect cruises past 10m sales barrier". CVG. Archived from the original on March 11, 2011. Retrieved March 10, 2011.
- "Kinect Confirmed As Fastest-Selling Consumer Electronics Device". Guinnessworldrecords.com. Archived from the original on March 11, 2011. Retrieved March 10, 2011.
- Stevens, Tim (March 9, 2011). "Microsoft sells 10 million Kinects, 10 million Kinect games". Engadget. Retrieved March 10, 2011.
- Brightman, James (January 14, 2011). "Microsoft's Xbox 360 Kinect Bundles Outsold Move Bundles By 5:1". Industrygamers.com. Archived from the original on January 16, 2011. Retrieved January 14, 2011.
- Brightman, James (March 11, 2011). "Kinect Bundles Outsold PS3 Move Bundles 5:1 in February". Industrygamers.com. Archived from the original on March 14, 2011. Retrieved March 11, 2011.
- "Xbox 360 records the biggest week in Xbox history". MajorNelson.com. November 29, 2011. Retrieved November 29, 2011.
- "Xbox 360 sees biggest sales week in its 7-year history". VentureBeat. November 29, 2011. Retrieved March 12, 2012.
- "Kinect team scoop the $50,000 Macrobert Award". Professional Engineering. June 7, 2011.
- "Gadget of the Year | T3 Gadget Awards 2011". T3. Future plc. Retrieved October 13, 2011.
- "Gaming Gadget of the Year | T3 Gadget Awards 2011". T3. Future plc. Retrieved October 13, 2011.
- "The 10 Most Innovative Tech Products of 2011". Popular Mechanics. Retrieved March 12, 2012.
- "Kinect for Windows SDK Beta Makes It Big in the Big Apple". Microsoft Research Connections Blog. Blogs.MSDN.com. October 13, 2011. Retrieved March 12, 2012.
- "Revealed: The winners of the Seattle 2.0 Startup Awards". May 4, 2012. Retrieved February 24, 2018.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kinect.|
- Official website for Xbox + Kinect
- Official website for Kinect for Windows
- Kinect Playlist at the official YouTube Xbox channel
- KinectShare KinectShare.com
- iFixit teardown of Kinect
- Patent application relating to Kinect
- Kinect for Windows SDK
- Time-of-Flight and Kinect Imaging
- Official KINECT for Windows Blog