Location of Kirillovsky District in Vologda Oblast
|Federal subject||Vologda Oblast|
|Established||August 1, 1927|
|• Total||5,400 km2 (2,100 sq mi)|
| • Estimate |
|• Density||2.9/km2 (7.6/sq mi)|
|• Administrative divisions||1 Towns of district significance, 15 Selsoviets|
|• Inhabited localities||1 Cities/towns, 480 Rural localities|
|• Municipally incorporated as||Kirillovsky Municipal District|
|• Municipal divisions||1 Urban settlements, 8 Rural settlements|
|Time zone||UTC+3 (MSK )|
Kirillovsky District (Russian: Кири́лловский райо́н) is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the twenty-six in Vologda Oblast, Russia. It is located in the north of the oblast and borders with Kargopolsky and Konoshsky Districts of Arkhangelsk Oblast in the north, Vozhegodsky and Ust-Kubinsky Districts in the east, Vologodsky District in the southeast, Sheksninsky District in the south, Cherepovetsky District in the southeast, Belozersky and Vashkinsky Districts in the west, and with Vytegorsky District in the northwest. The area of the district is 5,400 square kilometers (2,100 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Kirillov. Population: 15,877 (2010 Census); 18,627 (2002 Census); 21,702 (1989 Census). The population of Kirillov accounts for 48.7% of the district's total population.
The area of the district is elongated from north to south and is split into two roughly equal parts by the divide between the basins of the Arctic Ocean and the Caspian Sea. The area is divided between the basins of three major rivers—the Volga, the Onega, and the Northern Dvina. The northeastern part of the district includes the western half of Lake Vozhe, which Kirillovsky District shares with Vozhegodsky District. The lake, as well as the rivers in the northern part of the district, belongs to the basin of the Onega. The major tributaries of the Onega within the district are the Sovza and the Pereshna. The Sovza flows through Lake Veshchozero, and the Pereshna has its source in Lake Pereshnoye, which is divided between Kirillovsky and Ust-Kubinsky Districts. Areas in the central-east of the district are in the basin of the Porozovitsa River, which belongs to the basin of Lake Kubenskoye and of the Northern Dvina. A stretch of the western border of the district lies on the shore of Lake Beloye; however, no part of the lake belongs to the district. The rivers in the rest of the district drain into the Sheksna, which was made into the Sheksna Reservoir. There are many lakes of the district; among the biggest ones (after Lake Vozhe and the Sheksna Reservoir) are Lake Itkolskoye, Lake Siverskoye, and Lake Zaulomskoye.
The only national park in Vologda Oblast, Russky Sever National Park, is located in Kirillovsky District.
The north of the district, especially the areas around Lake Vozhe, are covered by swamps, the biggest of which is the Charonda Swamp (shared also with Ust-Kubensky and Vozhegodsky Districts).
Forests occupy 67% of the district's territory.
In the 13th century, the area belonged to the Principality of Beloozero, and in the 14th century, together with the rest of the principality, it became a part of the Grand Duchy of Moscow. In 1397, St. Cyril of Beloozero, a monk and a disciple of St. Sergius of Radonezh, founded the Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery on the shore of Lake Siverskoye. The town of Kirillov eventually developed as the posad of the monastery. In 1398, St. Therapont of Beloozero, who arrived with Cyril, moved to a separate location, which later became the Ferapontov Monastery. Both monasteries were subordinate to Archbishops of Rostov. In the 15th and the 16th centuries, Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery developed into one of the most influential monasteries in Russia. It also helped that the Sheksna River was one of the most heavily used waterways connecting central and northern Russia. At some point, the monastery was the second biggest landowner after the Trinity Lavra of St. Sergius. Vasily III, the Grand Prince of Moscow, and Ivan the Terrible, the Tsar, visited the monastery on several occasions. In the end of the 15th century, Nil Sorsky, a former monk of the monastery and a leader of non-possessors movement in the Russian Orthodox Church, founded the Nilo-Sorsky Monastery 15 kilometers (9.3 mi) northwest of Kirillov.
In the course of the administrative reform carried out in 1708 by Peter the Great, the area was included into Ingermanland Governorate (known since 1710 as Saint Petersburg Governorate). In 1727, separate Novgorod Governorate was split off. The area became a part of Charondsky Uyezd of Belozersk Oblast of Novgorod Governorate. In 1776, the area was transferred to Novgorod Viceroyalty. Simultaneously, Kirillov was chartered and became the seat of Kirillovsky Uyezd. In 1796, the viceroyalty was abolished, and the area was transferred to Novgorod Governorate. Kirillovsky Uyezd was abolished as well; however, it was re-established in 1802.
In June 1918, five uyezds of the Novgorod Governorate, including Kirillovsky Uyezd, were split off to form Cherepovets Governorate, with the administrative center in Cherepovets. In 1919, northwestern parts of Kirillovsky Uyezd were transferred into Kadnikovsky Uyezd of Vologda Governorate and Kargopol Uyezd of Olonets Governorate. On August 1, 1927, Cherepovets Governorate was abolished, and its area became Cherepovets Okrug of Leningrad Oblast. Simultaneously, the uyezds were abolished, and Kirillovsky District was established. On September 23, 1937, Kirillovsky District was transferred to newly established Vologda Oblast.
On August 1, 1927, Petropavlovsky District with the administrative center in the selo of Petropavlovskoye and Nikolsko-Torzhsky District with the administrative center in the selo of Nikolsky Torzhok were also established. On July 30, 1931, Nikolsko-Torzhsky District was merged into Kirillovsky District, and Petropavlovsky District was renamed Charozersky District. The selo of Petropavlovskoye was renamed Charozero. In 1937, Charozersky District was transferred from Leningrad Oblast to Vologda Oblast. On December 12, 1955, Charozersky District was abolished, and its area was appended to Kirillovsky District.
The economy of the district is based on timber industry. There is also food industry.
The agriculture of the district is essentially limited to crop growing and cattle breeding, resulting and meat and milk production.
The Volga–Baltic Waterway (formerly known as the Mariinsk Canal System), connecting the Rybinsk Reservoir in the basin of the Volga River and Lake Onega in the basin of the Neva River, runs through the district, following the course of the Sheksna.
The northern part of Lake Kubenskoye, which belongs to the basin of the Northern Dvina River, is connected by the Northern Dvina Canal with Lake Siverskoye, the town of Kirillov, and the Sheksna River, thus connecting the basins of the White Sea and the Volga. In the 19th century, the canal was the main waterway connecting the Volga with the White Sea. However, in the 1930s the White Sea – Baltic Canal was built, and the Northern Dvina Canal lost its significance. The canal is still in operation, serving cargo traffic and occasional cruise ships, which move from the Sheksna to Lake Kubenskoye.
The district hosts two acting monasteries of the total four open in Vologda Oblast. These are the Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery (male) in the town of Kirillov and the Goritsky Monastery (female) in the selo of Goritsy, close to Kirillov.
Culture and recreation
Kirillovsky District preserves a number of medieval ensembles which are considered among the best monuments of art and architecture in Russia. The Ferapontov Monastery is the only World Heritage site in Vologda Oblast. The Cathedral of Nativity of the Virgin (1490) in the monastery is the only remaining Russian church with fully painted walls. The frescoes were carried out by Dionisius. The Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery is a fortified ensemble built in the 15th and the 16th centuries. The Resurrection Church of the Goritsky Monastery also originates from the 16th century.
The district contains 10 objects classified as cultural and historical heritage by Russian Federal law, and additionally 143 objects classified as cultural and historical heritage of local importance. The cultural heritage monuments of the federal significance are the ensembles of the Kirillo-Belozersky, the Gorisky, and the Ferapontov Monasteries, as well as the St. Iliya Church of the Tsypin Pogost and a number of archaeological monuments.
The Ferapontov monastery operates as a museum—The Dionysios Frescoes Museum. All other museums of the district are operated under the umbrella of the Kirillo-Belozersky Museum of History, Art, and Architecture which is located in the Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery. The ensemble of the monastery is shared between the monastery and the museum.
- Law #371-OZ
- Справка об изменениях административно-территориального устройства и сети партийных и комсомольских органов на территории Вологодской области (1917-1991) (in Russian). Архивы России. Retrieved October 16, 2011.
- Resolution #178
- Характеристика района (in Russian). Кирилловский район Вологодской области. Archived from the original on April 25, 2012. Retrieved November 3, 2011.
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
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- Law #1116-OZ
- "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
- "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
- Никольско-Торжский район (август 1927 г . – сентябрь 1931 г .) (in Russian). Система классификаторов исполнительных органов государственной власти Санкт-Петербурга. Retrieved November 16, 2011.
- Культура регионов России: Вологодская область (in Russian). «ФГУП ГИВЦ Минкультуры». Retrieved November 4, 2011.
- Памятники истории и культуры народов Российской Федерации (in Russian). Russian Ministry of Culture. Retrieved June 2, 2016.
- Музей фресок Дионисия (in Russian). Музей фресок Дионисия. Retrieved November 4, 2011.
- Кирилло-Белозерский историко-архитектурный и художественный музей-заповедник (in Russian). Кирилло-Белозерский историко-архитектурный и художественный музей-заповедник. Retrieved November 4, 2011.
- Законодательное Собрание Вологодской области. Закон №371-ОЗ от 4 июня 1999 г. «О вопросах административно-территориального устройства Вологодской области», в ред. Закона №2916-ОЗ от 7 декабря 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон области "О вопросах административно-территориального устройства Вологодской области"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Красный Север", №124–125, 29 июля 1999 г. (Legislative Assembly of Vologda Oblast. Law #371-OZ of June 4, 1999 On the Matters of the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Vologda Oblast, as amended by the Law #2916-OZ of December 7, 2012 On Amending the Oblast Law "On the Matters of the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Vologda Oblast". Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
- Правительство Вологодской области. Постановление №178 от 1 марта 2010 г. «Об утверждении реестра административно-территориальных единиц Вологодской области», в ред. Постановления №686 от 25 июня 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в некоторые Постановления Правительства области». Вступил в силу 20 марта 2010 г. Опубликован: "Красный Север", №29, 20 марта 2010 г. (Government of Vologda Oblast. Resolution #178 of March 1, 2010 On Adopting the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Units of Vologda Oblast, as amended by the Resolution #686 of June 25, 2012 On Amending Various Resolutions of the Oblast Government. Effective as of March 20, 2010.).
- Законодательное Собрание Вологодской области. Закон №1116-ОЗ от 6 декабря 2004 г. «Об установлении границ Кирилловского муниципального района, границах и статусе муниципальных образований, входящих в его состав», в ред. Закона №2809-ОЗ от 5 июля 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в отдельные Законы области, устанавливающие границы и статус муниципальных образований области». Вступил в силу через 10 дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Красный Север", №242, 11 декабря 2004 г. (Legislative Assembly of Vologda Oblast. Law #1116-OZ of December 6, 2004 On Establishing the Borders of Kirillovsky Municipal District, on the Borders and Status of the Municipal Formations It Comprises, as amended by the Law #2809-OZ of July 5, 2012 On Amending Various Laws of the Oblast, Establishing the Borders and the Status of the Municipal Formations of the Oblast. Effective as of after 10 days from the day of the official publication.).