Kolopom languages

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Kolopom
Geographic
distribution
Kolopom Island, New Guinea
Linguistic classificationTrans–New Guinea
  • Kayagar–Kolopom
    • Kolopom
Glottologkolo1268[1]
Kolopom languages.svg
Map: The Kolopom languages of New Guinea
  The Kolopom languages
  Other Trans–New Guinea languages
  Other Papuan languages
  Austronesian languages
  Uninhabited

The Kolopom languages are a family of Trans–New Guinea languages in the classifications of Stephen Wurm (1975) and of Malcolm Ross (2005). Along with the Mombum languages, they are the languages spoken on Yos Sudarso Island (Kolopom Island).

Languages[edit]

The Kolopom languages are,[2]

Proto-language[edit]

Phonemes[edit]

Usher (2020) reconstructs the consonant inventory as follows:[2]

*m *n
*p *t *s *k
*mb *nd *ndz *ŋg
[*w] [*r] [*j] [*ɣ]
*i *u
*e *o
*a

Pronouns[edit]

Usher (2020) reconstructs the pronouns as:[2]

sg pl
1 *n[a/o] *nie
2 *K[a/o] (?) *ŋgie
3 *ep *emDe

Basic vocabulary[edit]

Some lexical reconstructions by Usher (2020) are:[2]

gloss Proto-Kolopom
head *tipV; *mVrV[w]
hair/feathers *muen[a]
ear/mind ? *mVrVk; *[ndz][o/u]an
eye *VnV
nose *ŋgon
tooth *t[e]r[a]k
tongue *mepreŋg
blood *iendz
breast/milk *mam
louse *nemeŋg
dog *n[ia]
pig *k[o/u][a]
egg *uak
tree/wood *nd[ua]t
man/person *ndz[ia]p
woman/wife *jowa[k]
moon *kumbanV
water *ndzu
stone *mete
name *n[e/a][k/ŋg]
two *[j]enapa; *sVp

Cognates[edit]

Cognates among Kolopom languages listed by Evans (2018):[3]

Kolopom family cognates
gloss Kimaghama Riantana Ndom Marori
stone mɛtɛ mɛtoe mɛtə mɛrɛ / mara
cheek cama cəma sama
name na nar neɣ / naw
rope niɛ na nɛɣ naʒ

Vocabulary comparison[edit]

The following basic vocabulary words are from the Trans-New Guinea database:[4]

gloss Kimaghima Ndom Riantana
head tuakwo reːt modo
hair muna tomwen rutivö
eye avuo ununor anömbö
tooth travae trex tudömbo
leg kura tur teː
louse nöme neːmön nöme
dog nöe wawant nia
pig ku yar ku
bird axanemö nembörfe ne
egg wo wax winömbana
blood dörö eth yerana
bone duno in nduka
skin krara krikir kwika
tree do ndör; ndua ndör; ndua
man ci xarefe theref rianoana
sun öre wen meːnoŋwa
water cu wer
fire i u drö
stone mete meːt metö
name ne nar ria
eat muye xot mora
one növere sas meːbö
two kave thef enava

Evolution[edit]

Kolopom reflexes of proto-Trans-New Guinea (pTNG) etyma are:[5]

Kimaghana language:

  • kura ‘leg’ < *k(a,o)ndok[V]
  • nome ‘louse’ < *niman
  • nanu ‘older sibling’ < *nana(i)

Riantana language:

  • mu ‘breast’ < *amu
  • modo ‘head’ < *mVtVna
  • nome ‘louse’ < *niman

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Kolopom". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ a b c d New Guinea World, Kolopom
  3. ^ Evans, Nicholas (2018). "The languages of Southern New Guinea". In Palmer, Bill (ed.). The Languages and Linguistics of the New Guinea Area: A Comprehensive Guide. The World of Linguistics. 4. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 641–774. ISBN 978-3-11-028642-7.
  4. ^ Greenhill, Simon (2016). "TransNewGuinea.org - database of the languages of New Guinea". Retrieved 2020-11-05.
  5. ^ Pawley, Andrew; Hammarström, Harald (2018). "The Trans New Guinea family". In Palmer, Bill (ed.). The Languages and Linguistics of the New Guinea Area: A Comprehensive Guide. The World of Linguistics. 4. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 21–196. ISBN 978-3-11-028642-7.

External links[edit]