Krenak language

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Native toBrazil
RegionMinas Gerais
Ethnicity150 Botocudo (2006)[1]
Native speakers
10 (2006)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3kqq

The Krenak language, or Botocudo, is the sole surviving language of a small family believed to be part of the Macro-Gê languages. It was once spoken by the Botocudo people in Minas Gerais, but is known primarily by older women today.


Front Central Back
Close i ĩ ɨ u ũ
Mid ə
Open-mid ɛ ɛ̃ ɜ̃ ɔ ɔ̃
Open a
Bilabial Alveolar Post-
Palatal Velar Glottal
Stop voiceless p t k ʔ
voiced b d g
prenasal ᵐb ⁿd ᵑɡ
Affricate voiceless t͡ʃ
voiced d͡ʒ
prenasal ⁿd͡ʒ
Fricative ʒ h
Nasal voiceless ɲ̊ ŋ̊
voiced m n ɲ ŋ
Flap ɾ
Approximant j w

/h/ can also have an allophone of a velar [x].[3]


  1. ^ a b Krenak at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Krenak". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Pessoa, Katia N. (2012). Análise fonética e fonológica da língua Krenak e abordagem preliminar de contos Botocudo. Campinas.