A lancer was a type of cavalryman who fought with a lance. Lances were used in mounted warfare by the Assyrians as early as 700 BC and subsequently by Greek, Persian, Gallic, Chinese, and Roman horsemen. The weapon was widely used in Asia and Europe during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance by armoured cavalry, before being adopted by light cavalry in Europe and Asia. In a modern context, a lancer regiment usually denotes an armoured unit.
17th, 18th, and 19th century lancers
The lancer (called ułan in Polish and Ulan in German) had become a common sight in almost every European, Ottoman, and Indian cavalry during this time, but, with the exception of the Ottoman troops, they increasingly discarded the heavy armour to give greater freedom of movement in combat. The Polish "winged" lancers were amongst the last to abandon their armour in Eastern Europe. There was debate over the value of the lance in mounted combat during the 17th century and 18th century, with most armies having very few lancer units by the beginning of the 19th century.
However, during the Napoleonic Wars, lancers were to be seen in many of the combatant nations as their value in shock tactics became clear. During the wars, the Poles became a ready source of recruitment for several armies, willingly or unwillingly. Polish lancers served with distinction in the Austrian, Prussian, Russian, and French armies, most famously in Napoleon's French Imperial Guard as the 1er Regiment de Chevau-Legers-Lanciers de la Garde Impériale.
At the Battle of Waterloo, French lances were "nearly three meters (about nine feet, ten inches) long, weighed three kilograms (about six pounds, ten ounces), and had a steel point on a wooden staff," according to historian Alessandro Barbero. He adds that they were "terrifyingly efficient." Commander of the French 1st Corps, 4th Division General Durutte, who saw the battle from the high ground in front of Papelotte, would write later, "I had never before realized the great superiority of the lance over the sword."
Although having substantial impact in the charge, lancers could be vulnerable to other cavalry at close quarters, where the lance proved a clumsy and easily deflected weapon when employed against sabres. By the late 19th century, many cavalry regiments in European and Asian armies were composed of troopers with lances, as primary weapons, in the front rank and horsemen with sabres only in the second: the lances for the initial shock and sabres for the subsequent mêlée that would follow suit.
Lancers typically wore a double-breasted jacket (kurtka) with a coloured panel (plastron) at the front, a coloured sash, and a square-topped Polish cap (czapka). Their lances usually had small swallow-tailed flags (known as the lance pennon) just below the spear head. The pennons were normally removed or wrapped in a canvas cover on active service. With the improved range and accuracy of infantry rifles, the high-profile presented by lancers with their conspicuous weapons became a problem. The ułans or uhlans, as lancers are known in the Polish and German languages respectively, were trained to lower their lances when scouting on hill-tops.
20th century lancers
In 1914, lances were still being carried by regiments in the British, Indian, French, Prussian, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, Japanese, Ottoman, Belgian, Argentinian, and Russian armies, amongst others. Almost all German cavalry (hussars, dragoons and cuirassiers as well as uhlans) retained a steel lance as their primary weapon. As late as 1914, half of the troopers in each Russian regular cavalry regiment (hussars, uhlans and dragoons) carried lances on active service, as did all cossacks.
The British cavalry lost the lance for all but ceremonial use in 1903, following the Boer War; but a conservative backlash led to its reintroduction as an active service weapon from 1909 to 1928.[Note 1]
The French army did not have lancer regiments as such, but steel lances 2.97 metres in length were carried by the twenty-six dragoon regiments and some light cavalry units in 1914. The French had earlier tested the Indian bamboo lances used by the British cavalry, but had rated them as being too fragile for the shock of encounter. The six Italian lancieri regiments still in existence until 1920 and carried the 1870 model of ashwood lance, noted for its balance and manageability.
Prior to the outbreak of World War I, there had been controversy as to whether lances or sabres were the more effective armes blanches (i.e., edged weapons) for cavalry, but neither proved a match for modern firearms. Some armies continued to use lances throughout this war, but they seldom saw use on the Western Front after initial clashes in France and Belgium in 1914. On the Eastern Front, mounted cavalry still had a role and lances saw limited use by the Russian, German, and Austrian armies.
During the 1920s and 1930s, the use of lances ceased for active service in most armies. British and Indian lancer regiments continued to carry lances on mounted parades, until mechanization took place in the late 1930s. Some other armies retained lance-armed ceremonial units. The Polish cavalry did not discard the lance as a weapon until 1934 or 1937 and continued to use it for training purposes up to the outbreak of World War II.
Current lancer units
Some modern armored cavalry units are still designated as lancer regiments for historical and ceremonial reasons. There are examples in the armies of Spain (the King's Lancers Troop of the Royal Guard's Escort Squadron and the Bourbon's Lancers Group of the 11th Cavalry Regiment), United Kingdom (Royal Lancers), India (2nd Lancers (Gardner's Horse) and 20th Lancers), Belgium, Portugal (2nd Lancers Regiment), Pakistan, Italy (5th Lancieri di Novara, 6th Lancieri di Aosta, 8th Lancieri di Montebello), Australia (12th/16th Hunter River Lancers, 1st/15th Royal New South Wales Lancers), Argentina (2nd Tank Cavalry Regiment "General Paz's Lancers"), and Chile (5th Cavalry Regiment "Lancers").
The modern Italian Regiment "Lancieri di Montebello" (8th) parade detachments armed with the lances carried as combat weapons until 1920.
- Polish cavalry
- Lăncieri (Romanian Fascist militia)
- Companion Cavalry
- For an illustration of a fully armed lancer, see Michael Chappell's "Men at Arms Series British Cavalry Equipment 1800–1941" illustration G 1.
- Niels M. Saxtorph: "Warriors & Weapons of Early Times" ISBN 0-7137-0575-2.
- Barbero, pp. 161, 163.
- p150, Volume 16, Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition
- Rodolfo Puletti, page 54, "I Lancieri di Milano 1859–1985", published by Editrice Militare Italiana 1985
- John Terraine, page 68, "Mons. Retreat to Victory", 1960, ISBN 978-0713411638
- Nick Cornish, page 5 "The Russian Army 1914–18, ISBN 1-84176-303-9
- Alan Larsen & Henry Yallop, The Cavalry Lance, p. 16 and p.56, ISBN 978-1-4728-1618-4
- Christian Tollet "Les Dragons 1914" Histoire & Collections 2009
- Ronald Strom, page 154, "Great Regiments", SBN 297.17647.3, published by Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London 1969
- Rodolfo Puletti, pages 54–55, "I Lancieri di Milano 1859–1985", published by Editrice Militare Italiana 1985
- Vladimir Littauer, pages 115–116, "Russian Hussar", ISBN 1-59048-256-5
- Steven J. Zaloga, page 5 "The Polish Army 1939–45" ISBN 0-85045-417-4
- Alan Larsen & Henry Yallop, The Cavalry Lance, p. 76, ISBN 978-1-4728-1618-4
- Barbero, Alessandro, The Battle; A New History of Waterloo, Walker & Co., New York 2005,
- Chappell, Mike (2002). Men at Arms Series British Cavalry Equipment 1800–1941. Men–at–arms No. 138 (revised ed.). Oxford: Osprey Publishing. OCLC 48783714.