|Coordinator of the Political Commission||Catarina Martins|
|Founded||24 March 1999|
|Merger of||UDP, PSR, Politics XXI|
|Headquarters||Rua da Palma, 268|
|Political position||Left-wing to far-left|
|European affiliation||Party of the European Left|
Maintenant le Peuple
|European Parliament group||European United Left/Nordic Green Left|
|Colours||Red (official) |
|Assembly of the Republic|
19 / 230
2 / 21
4 / 104
12 / 2,074
The Left Bloc (Portuguese: Bloco de Esquerda, pronounced [ˈblɔku dɨ (ɨ)ʃˈkeɾdɐ]) is a left-wing political party in Portugal founded in 1999. It is often in print abbreviated to BE, but its name is usually said in full or colloquially abbreviated as O Bloco (The Bloc).
Notable members have included Fernando Rosas, Francisco Louçã, and Miguel Portas (brother of CDS–PP leader Paulo Portas, a prominent right-wing politician). Since 1 December 2014, the party has been headed by a six-member Permanent Commission whose spokeswoman is Catarina Martins.
Formation and early history
The Left Bloc (B.E.) was formed in March 1999 by the merger of the People's Democratic Union (União Democrática Popular, UDP, communist: Marxist), Revolutionary Socialist Party (Partido Socialista Revolucionário, PSR, ex-LCI, Trotskyist Mandelist), and Politics XXI (Política XXI, PXXI, democratic socialist). B.E. has had full party status since its founding, yet the constituent groups have maintained their existence as individual political associations, so restaining some levels of autonomy in a loose structure.
First parliamentary representation
At the 1999 election B.E. received 2.4% of the votes leading them to enter the Assembly of the Republic for the first time with 2 MPs for the Lisbon constituency. These were Francisco Louçã and Fernando Rosas. At the 2005 election B.E. received 6.5% of the votes winning them 8 MPs. In the Portuguese 2006 presidential elections, the Left Bloc's candidate, Francisco Louçã, received 288,224 votes (5.31%).
In the 2009 European election they received 10.73% winning them 3 MEPs. They also surpassed the CDU for the first time in an election. At the subsequent 2009 national election, the party obtained 9.81% of votes and 16 members of parliament in the 230-seat Assembly of the Republic.
The Financial crisis led socialist prime minister Sócrates to agreeing into a bailout memorandum with the Eurogroup. In the subsequent 2011 snap election, the country saw a massive shift to the right, with the Left Bloc losing nearly half of its previous popular support, obtaining only 5.17% of the vote and 8 members of parliament. This defeat is generally attributed to the partial support certain sections of the party appeared to offer the unpopular Socialist government while the latter pursued an austerity programme in response to the financial crisis.
Renewal, split and recovery
The historical merger of ideologies which gave rise to the Portuguese Left Bloc was a process that lasted sixteen years. Its main actors aged and times changed, which led to an awareness of the need for modernization and realism. Francisco Louçã is one of the founders who most insisted in restricting theory to the basic humanistic and ethical principles common to partisans and supporters in order to conquer a wider range of constituencies. The game would necessarily be played in the framework of democracy, active participation and defence of human rights. After thirteen years of intensive labor as a leader, Louçã quit the position of party chair-man in 2012 arguing that “it is time for renewal” and delegating his functions to a man and a woman. Catarina Martins, 39 years old, and João Semedo, a veteran, would be elected co-chairmen of the party on November 11, 2012. However, the renewal process would last for over one year.
In early 2014, the Left Bloc suffered a split, when elected Left Bloc MEP Rui Tavares, who already in 2011 had become an independent, founded left-ecologist LIVRE party. Left-wing intellectuals who had come together to the Manifesto 3D collective challenged the Left Bloc to converge with LIVRE towards a joined list in the upcoming 2014 European election. Two official meetings in late 2014 and early 2015 however failed with the Left Bloc referring to programmatic differences with Tavares. So while the severe austerity programs under prime minister Passos Coelho did backdrop on the Portuguese political right, the European election in May saw the Socialists and liberal Earth Party as relative winners, whereas the Left Bloc lost more than half of 2009's votes and two of its three mandates. LIVRE received 2.2% but failed to win any mandate.
On 10 November 2015, the Left Bloc signed an agreement with the Socialist Party that is aimed at identifying convergence issues, while also recognizing their differences. The Bloc supported the minority Socialist Costa Government (2015–2019) with a confidence and supply agreement.
The Left Bloc is often considered by foreign observers and conservative local commentators as a radical left-wing party. It actually occupies a flexible and moderate position to the left of the Socialist Party (PS).
The Bloc proposed a number of important laws on civil rights and guarantees, including the protection of citizens from racist, xenophobic, and homophobic discrimination, support for same-sex marriage, laws for the protection of workers and anti-bullfighting legislation. These included Portugal's first law on domestic violence, which was then passed in parliament with the support of the Portuguese Communist Party and the Socialist Party. At present, together with the PS, Left Bloc aims at "building a stable, long-lasting and reliable majority at the Parliament, in order to support the formation and subsequent action of a government committed to the change demanded through the ballot box". This purpose foreshadows changes taking place not only in the Iberian Peninsula but as in all European territory.
Assembly of the Republic
|Election||Assembly of the Republic||Government||Size||Leader||Notes|
2 / 230
3 / 230
8 / 230
16 / 230
8 / 230
19 / 230
|11||Opposition (2015)||3rd||Catarina Martins||Confidence and supply support for the PS minority government.|
|Election year||# of overall
|% of overall
|# of overall
0 / 25
1 / 24
3 / 22
|2||Two seats since 2011 after Rui Tavares' departure.|
1 / 21
2 / 21
- "Portal do Bloco de Esquerda - Mesa Nacional elege Comissão Política e Comissão Permanente". Portal do Bloco de Esquerda. 1 December 2014. Retrieved 1 December 2014.
- "European Social Survey 2012 - Appendix 3 (in English)" (PDF). European Science Foundation. 1 January 2014. Retrieved 6 May 2014.[permanent dead link]
- "Bloco de Esquerda comemora décimo aniversário", Público (newspaper), 28 February 2009, retrieved 21 August 2013
- Nordsieck, Wolfram (2015). "Portugal". Parties and Elections in Europe. Retrieved 15 August 2018.
- "Where is Portugal's Radical Left? — Global Politics". 11 February 2015. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
- Dinis, Rita (29 August 2014). "O que está a dividir o Bloco de Esquerda | Ainda não percebi bem. Então quais são hoje as correntes dentro do BE?" [What is dividing the Left Bloc | Still don't get it. So what are the current tendencies inside the BE?]. Observador (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 14 November 2017. Retrieved 30 July 2018.
- Wall, Derek (2010), The Rise of the Green Left: Inside the Worldwide Ecosocialist Movement, Pluto Press, p. 97
- "Country profile – Portugal - Euroviews 2014". www.euroviews.eu. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
- "Populism Report Q3 2018" (PDF). Foundation for European Progressive Studies. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
- "Risque pays du Portugal : Politique". Société Générale (in French). Retrieved 11 May 2019.
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- "Portugal : la coalition de droite conserve le pouvoir". perspective.usherbrooke.ca (in French). 26 October 2015. Retrieved 11 May 2019.
Deux autres partis de « gauche » étaient en lice pour les élections. Premièrement, le Bloc de gauche, considéré par le journal The Guardian comme étant une version portugaise du parti politique grec anti-austérité Syriza, a récolté 10,2 % des suffrages (8).
- "Portugal, Le paysage politique". BiblioMonde (in French). Retrieved 2018-12-11.
BE, le Bloc des gauches (Bloco da Esquerda) : formation regroupant l’extrême gauche portugaise depuis 1999. Influente dans les milieux intellectuels de la capitale, BE a obtenu 2,7 % des voix et 3 députés en mars 2002 (soit un siège de plus qu’en 1999). BE comprend notamment l'Union démocratique populaire (União Democràtica Popular), le Parti socialiste révolutionnaire (Partido Socialista Revolucionario ) et Politica XXI..
- "Left Bloc (BE)". The Democratic Society. 19 May 2014.
The Left Bloc is the more socially libertarian, and bohemian of Portugal’s two far-left structures.
- Cunha, Carlos (2008). Few but Pure and Good Members are Preferred to a Mass Party — The Portuguese Communist Party's Continued Orthodoxy. Communist and Post-Communist Parties in Europe. p. 197.
- March, Luke (2008). Contemporary Far Left Parties in Europe (PDF). Berlin: Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung. p. 4. ISBN 978-3-86872-000-6.
- "As Europe left struggles, Portugal's alliance wins over voters and Brussels". reuters.com. 31 March 2017. Retrieved 11 May 2019.
The unlikely alliance of center-left Socialists and two far-left parties has overcome deep scepticism since it was formed in 2015, achieving stability and maintaining economic recovery at a time of political uncertainty across Europe.
- "Portugal PM says open to new alliance with far left". Euronews. 11 July 2019.
- EL-Parties. Party of European Left (official website). Retrieved 2 June 2018.
- "Bloco de Esquerda - GUE/NGL - Another Europe is possible". GUE/NGL. Retrieved 31 December 2014.
- Francisco Louçã deixa liderança do Bloco ao fim de 13 anos - News TSF, 18 August 2012
- Portugal: Left Bloc in struggle to regain unity after convention at Links International Journal of Socialist Renewal, December 13, 2014
- Frederico Pinheiro (April 2014). "Out of the Trap". Luxemburg Online. Retrieved 12 November 2015.
- "Agreement signed between the Socialist Party and the Left Bloc". 6 November 2015. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
- "Left Bloc (BE)". The Democratic Society. 19 May 2014.
- Conn Hallinan (5 November 2015). "Portugal's Democracy Crisis". Foreign Policy in Focus. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
- Spain’s election will be felt across the whole continent – article by Owen Jones at The Guardian, December 18, 2015
- Governing Party in Spain Loses Majority in Parliamentary Election – article by Raphael Minder at The New York Times, December 20, 2015
- Splintered Spanish vote heralds arduous coalition talks – news by Julien Toyer Archived 2015-12-28 at the Wayback Machine and Sonya Dowsett at Reuters, December 20, 2015
- Parties in Spain Wrestle to Form a Government – article by Raphael Minder at The New York Times, December 21, 2015
- "Rui Tavares rompe com o Bloco de Esquerda". Expresso. 21 June 2011.