List of Category 2 Pacific hurricanes

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Hurricane Paul, one of the most impactful Category 2 systems, near peak intensity on September 28, 1982

Category 2 is the fourth-highest classification on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale, and categorizes tropical cyclones with 1-minute maximum sustained winds between 83 knots (96 mph; 154 km/h; 43 m/s) and 95 knots (109 mph; 176 km/h; 49 m/s). Tropical cyclones that strengthen to Category 2 status and make landfall are capable of causing severe damage to human lives and infrastructure. As of 2019, a total of 84 hurricanes have peaked at Category 2 intensity within the Northeast Pacific tropical cyclone basin, which is defined as the region of the Pacific Ocean north of the equator and east of the International Date Line. Collectively, 1,775 people have been killed as a result of Category 2 Pacific hurricanes. Storms that also attained Category 3, 4, or 5 status on the scale are not included.

There is a plethora of factors that influence tropical cyclogenesis, the formation of tropical cyclones, in the Northeastern Pacific. The North Pacific High and Aleutian Low, which occur from December to April, produce strong upper-level winds which prevents the formation of tropical cyclones. During the summer and early autumn months, sea surface temperatures are generally warm enough to support tropical cyclone development in the Northeast Pacific, and perhaps even rapid intensification. Additionally, El Niño events cause more powerful hurricanes to form by generating weaker wind shear and higher sea surface temperatures, while La Niña events reduce the number of such hurricanes by doing the opposite.

Background[edit]

Saffir–Simpson scale
TD TS C1 C2 C3 C4 C5

A Category 2 hurricane is defined by the National Hurricane Center as a tropical cyclone with winds of at least 83 knots (96 mph; 154 km/h; 43 m/s), but not greater than 95 knots (109 mph; 176 km/h; 49 m/s) on the Saffir-Simpson Scale, which was developed in 1971.[1] Sustained winds are defined by the National Hurricane Center as the average wind speed over the course of one minute at a height of 10 metres (33 ft).[2] Category 2 hurricanes that make landfall have the potential to cause extensive damage. There is also a substantial risk of injury or death to humans and animals due to flying debris.[1]

The Northeast Pacific tropical cyclone basin is the area of the Pacific Ocean north of the equator and east of the International Date Line. The basin is further divided into the east and central Pacific sub-basins. The east Pacific is located between the western coast of North America and the 140th meridian west. The east Pacific is monitored by the National Hurricane Center, the current Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) for that area. The central Pacific is located between the 140th meridian west and the International Date Line. It currently has the Central Pacific Hurricane Center as its RSMC.[3] Tropical cyclones occur less frequently in the central Pacific than in the east Pacific, with some years featuring no systems forming or crossing into the basin.[4][5] Since 1949, all tropical cyclones that have been recorded by RSMCs, both past and present, are listed in the Northeast and North Central Pacific hurricane database (HURDAT), which is produced and supported by the National Hurricane Center.[6][7]

Tropical cyclones occurring within the Northeast Pacific before 1970 were classified into three categories: tropical depression, tropical storm, and hurricane; these were assigned intensities of 30 mph (45 km/h), 50 mph (85 km/h), and 85 mph (140 km/h) respectively. The only deviations from these procedures occurred when humans were able to take pressure and/or wind measurements.[6] Due lack of specific wind and pressure records, there have been only two confirmed Category 2 hurricanes prior to 1970.[7]

Climatology[edit]

Hurricane Pali near peak intensity on January 13, 2016. Pali is the only Category 2 hurricane to develop outside of the defined boundaries of the Pacific hurricane season. It is also the earliest tropical cyclone on record to develop in the basin.

In the east Pacific and central Pacific sub-basins, hurricane season begins on May 15 and June 1, respectively, with both concluding on November 30.[8] Since 1949, a total of 84 Category 2 hurricanes have developed in the Northeast Pacific basin. Only one has occurred in the off-season: Hurricane Pali of 2016, which developed on January 7, and marks the earliest formation of a tropical cyclone in the Northeastern Pacific basin on record. In addition to Pali, 3 systems formed in May, 8 in June, 17 in July, 22 in August, 17 in September, 12 in October, and 4 in November.[7]

The majority of tropical cyclones form and organize in areas of warm sea surface temperatures, usually of at least 26.5 °C (79.7 °F) and low vertical wind shear; however, there are outliers to this general rule, such as storms that manage to intensify despite high amounts of vertical wind shear. When a pre-existing tropical disturbance – usually a tropical wave or a disturbance originating in the Intertropical Convergence Zone – enters an area where the aforementioned conditions are present, the disturbance can develop into a tropical cyclone, provided it is far enough from the equator to experience a sufficiently strong Coriolis force, which causes the counterclockwise rotation of hurricanes in the Northern Hemisphere.[9] Between the months of December and April, sea surface temperatures in the tropics, where most Northeast Pacific tropical cyclones develop, are usually too low to support significant development. Also, the presence of a semi-permanent high-pressure area known as the North Pacific High in the eastern Pacific greatly reduces tropical cyclone development in the winter months, as the North Pacific High results in vertical wind shear that causes environmental conditions to be unconducive to tropical cyclone formation. Another factor preventing tropical cyclones from forming during the winter is the presence of a semi-permanent low-pressure area called the Aleutian Low between January and April. Its effects in the central Pacific near the 160th meridian west cause tropical waves that form in the area to move northward into the Gulf of Alaska. As the disturbances travel northward, they dissipate or transition into an extratropical cyclone. The Aleutian Low's retreat in late-April allows the warmth of the Pacific High to meander in, bringing its powerful clockwise wind circulation with it. During the month of May, the Intertropical Convergence Zone migrates southward while vertical shear over the tropics decreases. As a result, the earliest tropical waves begin to form,[10] coinciding with the start of the eastern Pacific hurricane season on May 15.[8] During summer and early autumn, sea surface temperatures rise further, reaching 29 °C (84 °F) in July and August, well above the 26.5 °C (79.7 °F) threshold for the formation and intensification of tropical cyclones. This allows for tropical cyclones developing during that time to strengthen significantly, perhaps even rapidly.[10]

The El Niño-Southern Oscillation also influences the frequency and intensity of hurricanes in the Northeast Pacific basin. During El Niño events, sea surface temperatures increase in the Northeast Pacific and vertical wind shear decreases. Because of this, an increase in tropical cyclone activity occurs; the opposite happens in the Atlantic basin during El Niño, where increased wind shear creates an unfavorable environment for tropical cyclone formation.[11] Contrary to El Niño, La Niña events increase wind shear and decreases sea surface temperatures over the eastern Pacific, while reducing wind shear and increasing sea surface temperatures over the Atlantic.[10]

Within the Northeast Pacific, the easterly trade winds cause tropical cyclones to generally move westward out into the open Pacific Ocean. Only rarely do tropical cyclones forming during the peak months of the season make landfall. Closer to the end of the season, the subtropical ridge steers some storms northwards or northeastwards. Storms influenced by this ridge may bring impacts to the western coasts of Mexico and occasionally even Central America. In the central Pacific basin, the North Pacific High keeps tropical cyclones away from the Hawaiian Islands by forcing them southwards.[10] Combined with cooler waters around the Hawaiian Islands that tend to weaken tropical cyclones that approach them, this makes direct impacts on the Hawaiian Islands by tropical cyclones rare.[12]

Systems[edit]

Key
  • discontinuous duration Discontinuous duration (weakened below Category 2 then restrengthened to that classification at least once)
  • intensified further in another basin Intensified past Category 2 intensity after exiting basin
  • made landfall there Storm made landfall, see below for further information
  • not at peak intensity Pressure listed was not at peak intensity[nb 1]
Name Dates as a
Category 2 hurricane[nb 2]
Duration
(hours)
Sustained
wind speeds
Pressure Areas affected Deaths Damage
(USD)[nb 3]
Refs
Two August 13–14, 1957 12 105 mph (165 km/h) 987 hPa (29.15 inHg)not at peak intensity None N/A N/A [7]
Nine September 8, 1958 6 105 mph (165 km/h) 982 hPa (29.00 inHg) None N/A N/A [7]
Francesca July 3–4, 1970 24 100 mph (155 km/h) 991 hPa (29.26 inHg)not at peak intensity None N/A N/A [7]
Lorraine August 22–23, 1970 18 100 mph (155 km/h) 963 hPa (28.44 inHg) None N/A N/A [7]
Patricia October 6–9, 1970 78 110 mph (175 km/h) 972 hPa (28.70 inHg) None N/A N/A [7]
Agatha May 24, 1971 6 100 mph (155 km/h) 972 hPa (28.70 inHg) Mexicomade landfall there N/A Unknown [7]
Bridget June 16, 1971 6 100 mph (155 km/h) 998 hPa (29.47 inHg)not at peak intensity Mexicomade landfall there 17 $40 million [7][14][15]
Hilary July 30, 1971 6 100 mph (155 km/h) 964 hPa (28.47 inHg) None N/A N/A [7]
Nanette September 7, 1971 6 100 mph (155 km/h) 984 hPa (29.06 inHg) Baja California Sur N/A N/A [7]
Diana August 14, 1972 24 110 mph (175 km/h) 968 hPa (28.59 inHg) Hawaii N/A $75 thousand [7][16]
Joanne October 2–3, 1972 18 100 mph (155 km/h) 971 hPa (28.67 inHg) Baja California, California, Arizona, New Mexicomade landfall there 1 Unknown [7][17]
Irah September 24–25, 1973 24 110 mph (175 km/h) 955 hPa (28.20 inHg) Mexico, Baja California Surmade landfall there N/A Unknown [7]
Katherine October 2, 1973 24 100 mph (155 km/h) 978 hPa (28.88 inHg) None N/A N/A [7]
Gretchen July 19, 1974 6 100 mph (155 km/h) 982 hPa (29.00 inHg) Baja California Sur N/A N/A [7]
Orlene September 24, 1974 6 105 mph (165 km/h) Unknown Mexico, Arizonamade landfall there N/A N/A [7]
Ilsa August 22–25, 1975 72 105 mph (165 km/h) Unknown None N/A N/A [7]
Diana July 18, 1976 6 100 mph (155 km/h) Unknown None N/A N/A [7]
Kate September 27, 1976 12 100 mph (155 km/h) 971 hPa (28.67 inHg) Hawaii N/A N/A [18]
Florence September 22, 1977 6 105 mph (165 km/h) Unknown California N/A N/A [7]
John August 25, 1978 6 105 mph (165 km/h) Unknown None N/A N/A [7]
Kristy August 21–22, 1978 42 105 mph (165 km/h) Unknown None N/A N/A [7]
Andres June 4, 1979 6 100 mph (155 km/h) Unknown Mexicomade landfall there 2 Minimal [7][19]
Howard August 4, 1980 12 105 mph (165 km/h) Unknown Southern California, Baja California Peninsula N/A N/A [7]
Isis August 8, 1980 6 100 mph (155 km/h) Unknown None N/A N/A [7]
Fernanda August 10–11, 1981 30 105 mph (165 km/h) Unknown None N/A N/A [7]
Norman September 14–15, 1982 36 105 mph (165 km/h) Unknown None N/A N/A [7]
Paul September 29–30, 1982 30 110 mph (175 km/h) Unknown Guatemala, El Salvador, Baja California, Northwest Mexico, United Statesmade landfall there 1,625 $520 million [7][20][21][22][23][24]
Adolph May 24–25, 1983 36 110 mph (175 km/h) Unknown Southwestern Mexicomade landfall there N/A Minimal [7]
Ismael August 11, 1983 6 100 mph (155 km/h) Unknown Baja California Peninsula, California, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona 5 $19 million [7][25][26][27]
Cristina June 20, 1984 18 105 mph (165 km/h) Unknown None N/A N/A [7]
Fausto July 5–7, 1984 54 110 mph (175 km/h) Unknown Baja California Sur N/A N/A [7]
Odile September 22, 1984 12 105 mph (165 km/h) Unknown Southwestern Mexicomade landfall there 21 Unknown [7][28]
Waldo October 9, 1985 6 105 mph (165 km/h) 982 hPa (29.00 inHg) Sinaloa, New Mexico, Texas, Kansasmade landfall there 1 Unknown [7][29]
Paine October 10, 1986 6 100 mph (155 km/h) Unknown Mexico, inland United Statesmade landfall there N/A Unknown [7]
Eugene July 25, 1987 6 100 mph (155 km/h) Unknown Western Mexicomade landfall there 3 $142 million [7][30][31]
Jova August 17–18, 1987 12 105 mph (165 km/h) Unknown None N/A N/A [7]
Peke September 24–27, 1987 90 105 mph (165 km/h)intensified further in another basin Unknown None N/A N/A [32]
Iva August 7–9, 1988 42 105 mph (165 km/h) 968 hPa (28.59 inHg) None N/A N/A [33]
Lane September 23–24, 1988 24 105 mph (165 km/h) 970 hPa (28.64 inHg) None N/A N/A [34]
Genevieve July 15–16, 1990 30 105 mph (165 km/h) 970 hPa (28.64 inHg) None N/A N/A [35]
Vance October 26, 1990 24 100 mph (155 km/h) 975 hPa (28.79 inHg) Southwestern Mexico, Central America N/A N/A [36]
Nora November 9–10, 1991 24 105 mph (165 km/h) 970 hPa (28.64 inHg) Sinaloa, Nayarit N/A N/A [37]
Georgette July 17–22, 1992 84discontinuous duration 110 mph (175 km/h) 975 hPa (28.79 inHg) None N/A N/A [38]
Roslyn September 23, 1992 6 100 mph (155 km/h) 975 hPa (28.79 inHg) None N/A N/A [39]
Calvin July 6–7, 1993 36 110 mph (175 km/h) 966 hPa (28.53 inHg) Western Mexico, Baja California Surmade landfall there 37 $32 million [40]
Carlotta June 30–July 2, 1994 54 105 mph (165 km/h) 967 hPa (28.56 inHg) None N/A N/A [41]
Kristy August 31–September 1, 1994 18 105 mph (165 km/h) 992 hPa (29.29 inHg)not at peak intensity None N/A N/A [42]
Rosa October 13–14, 1994 18 105 mph (165 km/h) 974 hPa (28.76 inHg) Mexico, Texasmade landfall there 4 Unknown [43]
Henriette September 4, 1995 6 100 mph (155 km/h) 970 hPa (28.64 inHg) Northern Mexico, Baja California Peninsulamade landfall there N/A Minimal [44]
Alma June 22–24, 1996 42 105 mph (165 km/h) 969 hPa (28.61 inHg) Western Mexicomade landfall there 20 Unknown [45]
Rick November 9, 1997 6 100 mph (155 km/h) 973 hPa (28.73 inHg) Mexicomade landfall there N/A Unknown [46]
Adrian June 20–21, 1999 12 100 mph (155 km/h) 973 hPa (28.73 inHg) Mexico 6 Minimal [47]
Eugene August 9–10, 1999 42 110 mph (175 km/h) 964 hPa (28.47 inHg) None N/A N/A [48]
Aletta May 25, 2000 30 105 mph (165 km/h) 970 hPa (28.64 inHg) Southwestern Mexico N/A N/A [49]
Lane September 10, 2000 24 100 mph (155 km/h) 964 hPa (28.47 inHg) Socorro Island, Baja California Peninsula, Southwestern United States N/A N/A [50]
Flossie August 29–30, 2001 18 105 mph (165 km/h) 972 hPa (28.70 inHg) Northwestern Mexico, Baja California Sur N/A Moderate [51]
Gil September 6–7, 2001 18 100 mph (155 km/h) 975 hPa (28.79 inHg) None N/A N/A [52]
Douglas July 22–23, 2002 30 105 mph (165 km/h) 970 hPa (28.64 inHg) None N/A N/A [53]
Ignacio August 24–25, 2003 18 105 mph (165 km/h) 970 hPa (28.64 inHg) Baja California Peninsula, Sonora, Californiamade landfall there 2 $21 million [54][55]
Jimena August 30–31, 2003 42 105 mph (165 km/h) 970 hPa (28.64 inHg) Hawaii N/A N/A [56]
Marty September 22, 2003 6 100 mph (155 km/h) 970 hPa (28.64 inHg) Baja California Peninsula, Sonora, Sinaloa, Arizonamade landfall there 12 $100 million [57][58]
Nora October 4–5, 2003 30 105 mph (165 km/h) 969 hPa (28.61 inHg) Mexico, Texasmade landfall there N/A Minimal [57]
Hilary August 22, 2005 24 105 mph (165 km/h) 970 hPa (28.64 inHg) None N/A N/A [59]
Otis October 1, 2005 12 105 mph (165 km/h) 970 hPa (28.64 inHg) Western Mexico, Baja California Sur N/A Minimal [60]
Hector August 18–19, 2006 36 110 mph (175 km/h) 966 hPa (28.53 inHg) None N/A N/A [61]
Paul October 23, 2006 12 105 mph (165 km/h) 970 hPa (28.64 inHg) Oaxaca, Guerrero, Baja California Sur, Sinaloamade landfall there 4 $3.2 million [62][63]
Sergio November 15–16, 2006 24 110 mph (175 km/h) 965 hPa (28.50 inHg) Guerrero N/A N/A [64]
Elida July 16–17, 2008 18 105 mph (165 km/h) 970 hPa (28.64 inHg) Southwestern Mexico, Hawaii N/A N/A [65]
Carlos July 15, 2009 12 105 mph (165 km/h) 971 hPa (28.67 inHg) None N/A N/A [66]
Irwin October 7–8, 2011 12 100 mph (155 km/h) 976 hPa (28.82 inHg) Western Mexico N/A N/A [67]
Carlotta June 15–16, 2012 18 110 mph (175 km/h) 973 hPa (28.73 inHg) Southwestern Mexicomade landfall there 7 $12.4 million [68][69]
Fabio July 14–16, 2012 36 110 mph (175 km/h) 966 hPa (28.53 inHg) Baja California Peninsula, Western United States N/A N/A [70]
Henriette August 8–9, 2013 18 105 mph (165 km/h) 976 hPa (28.82 inHg) None N/A N/A [71]
Vance November 3–4, 2014 42 110 mph (175 km/h) 964 hPa (28.47 inHg) Western Mexico, Northwestern Mexico N/A N/A [72]
Guillermo July 31–August 2, 2015 54 110 mph (175 km/h) 967 hPa (28.56 inHg) Hawaii, Northern California N/A N/A [73]
Oho October 7, 2015 18 110 mph (175 km/h) 957 hPa (28.26 inHg) Western Canada, Alaska N/A N/A [74]
Pali January 12–13, 2016 12 100 mph (155 km/h) 977 hPa (28.85 inHg) None N/A N/A [75]
Celia July 11–12, 2016 18 100 mph (155 km/h) 972 hPa (28.70 inHg) Hawaii 2 N/A [76]
Orlene September 12–13, 2016 24 110 mph (175 km/h) 967 hPa (28.56 inHg) None N/A N/A [77]
Dora June 26–27, 2017 18 105 mph (165 km/h) 974 hPa (28.76 inHg) Southwestern Mexico N/A Minimal [78]
Hilary July 25–27, 2017 48 110 mph (175 km/h) 969 hPa (28.61 inHg) Southwestern Mexico N/A N/A [79]
Fabio July 3–4, 2018 36 110 mph (175 km/h) 964 hPa (28.47 inHg) None N/A N/A [80]
John August 7–8, 2018 18 110 mph (175 km/h) 964 hPa (28.47 inHg) Revillagigedo Islands, Baja California Peninsula, Southwestern Mexico, Southwestern United States N/A N/A [81]
Miriam August 31–September 1, 2018 6 100 mph (155 km/h) 974 hPa (28.76 inHg) None N/A N/A [82]
Overall reference for name, dates, duration, winds and pressure:[7]

Landfalls[edit]

Landfalls by month
Month Number of storms
May
2
June
4
July
2
August
1
September
6
October
6
November
1

Out of the 83 Category 2 hurricanes in the east and central Pacific, 22 have made landfall as a tropical cyclone, collectively resulting in 27 landfalls. As tropical cyclones tend to weaken before landfall due to the effects of land interaction, only seven Category 2 hurricanes actually made landfall while still at Category 2 strength. Five storms made landfall twice each, namely Irah (1973), Paul (1982), Adolph (1983), Calvin (1993), and Marty (2003); Paul made both landfalls at Category 2 strength. No Category 2 Pacific hurricane to date has made landfall more than twice. Multiple Category 2 hurricanes made landfall only in 2 years: 1971, with two systems (Agatha and Bridget) making landfall, and 2003, with three systems (Ignacio, Marty, and Nora) making landfall.[7]

Name Year Category 2 Category 1 Tropical storm Tropical depression Refs
Agatha 1971 Guerrero state (May 24) [83]
Bridget 1971 Colima state (June 17) [83]
Joanne 1972 Baja California state (October 7) [84]
Irah 1973 Baja California Sur state (September 25) Sinaloa state (September 26) [85]
Orlene 1974 Sinaloa state (September 24) [7]
Andres 1979 Guerrero state (June 4) [86]
Paul 1982 Baja California Sur state (September 28), Sinaloa state (September 29) [87]
Adolph 1983 Jalisco state (May 27), Sinaloa state (May 28) [88]
Odile 1984 Guerrero state (September 22) [89]
Waldo 1985 Sinaloa state (October 9) [90]
Paine 1986 Sinaloa state (October 2) [91]
Eugene 1987 Jalisco state (July 25) [92]
Calvin 1993 Jalisco state (July 7) Baja California Sur state (July 8) [40]
Rosa 1994 Sinaloa state (October 14) [43]
Henriette 1995 Baja California Sur state (September 4) [44]
Alma 1996 Michoacán state (June 24) [45]
Rick 1997 Oaxaca state (November 10) [46]
Ignacio 2003 Baja California Sur state (August 25) [54]
Marty 2003 Baja California Sur state (September 22) Sonora state (September 24) [93]
Nora 2003 Sinaloa state (October 9) [57]
Paul 2006 Sinaloa state (October 26) [94]
Carlotta 2012 Oaxaca state (June 16) [68]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Prior to 1988 for the Eastern Pacific and 2001 for the Central Pacific, pressure data was only able from direct measurements by reconnaissance aircraft that penetrated the storm or reports from ships and land-based weather stations, or estimates derived from satellite imagery.[13] Should any reading or estimate be available, the lowest is listed below.
  2. ^ Dates are given in Coordinated Universal Time.
  3. ^ All damage values are in USD of their respective years.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Schott, Timothy; Landsea, Christopher W; Hafale, Gene; Lorens, Jeffrey; Taylor, Arthur; Thurm, Harvey; Ward, Bill; Willis, Mark; Zaleski, Walt (February 1, 2012). "The Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale" (PDF). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 13, 2016. Retrieved May 24, 2018.
  2. ^ Landsea, Christopher W (April 21, 2006). "TCFAQ D4) What does "maximum sustained wind" mean? How does it relate to gusts in tropical cyclones?". Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory. Archived from the original on October 9, 2014. Retrieved May 24, 2018.
  3. ^ Landsea, Christopher W (June 1, 2018). "TCFAQ F1) What regions around the globe have tropical cyclones and who is responsible for forecasting there?". Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory. Archived from the original on November 13, 2012. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
  4. ^ "CPHC Climatology". Central Pacific Hurricane Center. Archived from the original on September 22, 2012. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
  5. ^ "Background Information: East Pacific Hurricane Season". Climate Prediction Center. May 27, 2015. Archived from the original on May 19, 2009. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
  6. ^ a b Blake, Eric S; Gibney, Ethan J; Brown, Daniel P; Mainelli, Michelle; Franklin, James L; Kimberlain, Todd B; Hammer, Gregory R (2009). Tropical Cyclones of the Eastern North Pacific Basin, 1949-2006 (PDF). Archived from the original on July 28, 2013. Retrieved June 14, 2013.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao National Hurricane Center; Hurricane Research Division; Central Pacific Hurricane Center. "The Northeast and North Central Pacific hurricane database 1949–2018". United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. A guide on how to read the database is available here.
  8. ^ a b Dorst, Neal (June 2, 2016). "TCFAQ G1) When is hurricane season?". Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory. Archived from the original on May 5, 2009. Retrieved July 24, 2018.
  9. ^ Landsea, Christopher W (2014). "TCFAQ A15) How do tropical cyclones form?". Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory. Archived from the original on August 27, 2009. Retrieved August 18, 2018.
  10. ^ a b c d Longshore, David (1998). Encyclopedia of hurricanes, typhoons, and cyclones (1st ed.). Facts on File, Inc. pp. 333, 334. ISBN 978-0-8160-3398-0. Archived from the original on August 18, 2018. Retrieved August 18, 2018.
  11. ^ Graham, Steve; Riebeek, Holli (November 1, 2006). "Hurricanes: The Greatest Storms on Earth: Feature Articles". Earth Observatory. United States: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Archived from the original on May 6, 2007. Retrieved July 24, 2018.
  12. ^ Belles, Jonathan (August 3, 2018). "Hawaii Hurricanes: How Unusual Are They?". The Weather Channel. Archived from the original on August 20, 2018. Retrieved August 20, 2018.
  13. ^ Brown, Gail M; Leftwhich, Preston W Jr; National Hurricane Center (August 1982). A Compilation of Eastern and Central North Pacific Tropical Cyclone Data (PDF) (NOAA Technical Memorandum NWS NHC 16). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 27, 2013. Retrieved July 27, 2013.
  14. ^ Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance (August 1993). "Significant Data on Major Disasters Worldwide 1990-present" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2013-09-21. Retrieved March 25, 2009.
  15. ^ William J. Denney (April 1972). "Eastern Pacific Hurricane Season of 1971" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 100 (4): 276–282. Bibcode:1972MWRv..100..276D. doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1972)100<0276:EPHSO>2.3.CO;2. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2011-07-21. Retrieved July 19, 2011.
  16. ^ "Annual Typhoon Report 1972" (PDF). Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2013-02-21. Retrieved April 5, 2014.
  17. ^ "High Water In Virginia, Arizona". The Evening Independent. October 7, 1972. Retrieved April 19, 2013.
  18. ^ The 1976 Central Pacific Tropical Cyclone Season. Central Pacific Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on 2018-09-21. Retrieved January 2, 2019.
  19. ^ United Press International (June 5, 1979). "Hurricane Andrew Hits". The Bryan Times. p. 2. Retrieved February 18, 2012.
  20. ^ "More flood victims found". The Spokesman-Review. Associated Press. September 28, 1982. p. 12. Retrieved August 18, 2011.
  21. ^ "Guatemala - Disaster Statistics". Prevention Web. 2008. Archived from the original on 2012-04-27. Retrieved April 12, 2010.
  22. ^ "Nicaragua - Disaster Statistics". Prevention Web. 2008. Archived from the original on 2012-04-02. Retrieved April 12, 2010.
  23. ^ "Mexico - Disaster Statistics". Prevention Web. 2008. Archived from the original on 2012-03-28. Retrieved April 12, 2010.
  24. ^ "More Flood Victims found". The Spokesman-Review. September 28, 1982. Retrieved August 5, 2011.
  25. ^ "Wind rain, slam into US coasts". The Deseret News. Associated Press. p. 2.
  26. ^ Aluival Fan Task Force (2005). "1 AFTF Study Area Flood History" (PDF). California State University. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2013-10-20. Retrieved May 31, 2013. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  27. ^ Jeff Wilson (August 18, 1983). "Domestic News". United Press International.
  28. ^ "Dateline: Mexico; Mexican stock market hits all time high". United Press International. September 26, 1984.
  29. ^ "One killed in flooding across the state". Junction City Daily Union. October 11, 1985. Retrieved July 23, 2011.
  30. ^ "Hurricane hits Mexican coast". Ellensburg Daily Record. United Press International. July 28, 1987. p. 7. Retrieved 2010-11-25.
  31. ^ Thomas, A. J. (1987). "World Weather Disasters: July 1987" (PDF). The Journal of Meteorology. 13 (125–134). p. 31. ISSN 0307-5966. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2019-01-24. Retrieved 2019-01-24.
  32. ^ The 1987 Central Pacific Tropical Cyclone Season. Central Pacific Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on 2014-10-14. Retrieved January 2, 2019.
  33. ^ Preliminary Report: Hurricane Iva. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on 2017-04-28. Retrieved January 2, 2019.
  34. ^ Preliminary Report: Hurricane Lane. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on 2017-04-28. Retrieved January 2, 2019.
  35. ^ Preliminary Report: Hurricane Genevieve. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on 2017-04-28. Retrieved January 2, 2019.
  36. ^ Preliminary Report: Hurricane Vance. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on 2017-04-28. Retrieved January 2, 2019.
  37. ^ Preliminary Report: Hurricane Nora. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on 2017-04-28. Retrieved January 2, 2019.
  38. ^ Preliminary Report: Hurricane Georgette. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on 2017-04-28. Retrieved January 2, 2019.
  39. ^ Preliminary Report: Hurricane Roslyn. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on 2017-04-28. Retrieved January 2, 2019.
  40. ^ a b Preliminary Report: Hurricane Calvin (Report). National Hurricane Center. Archived from the original on 2017-04-28. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
  41. ^ Avila, Lixion A. Preliminary Report: Hurricane Carlotta. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on 2017-04-28. Retrieved January 2, 2019.
  42. ^ Rappaport, Edward N. Preliminary Report: Hurricane Kristy. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on 2017-04-28. Retrieved January 2, 2019.
  43. ^ a b Lixion A. Avila (November 22, 1994). Preliminary Report: Hurricane Rosa (Report). National Hurricane Center. Archived from the original on 2017-04-28. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
  44. ^ a b Lawrence, Miles B. Preliminary Report: Hurricane Henriette (PDF). National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-03-28. Retrieved January 2, 2019.
  45. ^ a b Avila, Lixion A. Preliminary Report: Hurricane Alma (PDF). National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-02-08. Retrieved January 2, 2019.
  46. ^ a b Mayfield, Max. Preliminary Report: Hurricane Rick (PDF). National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-02-08. Retrieved January 2, 2019.
  47. ^ Lawrence, Miles B. Preliminary Report: Hurricane Adrian (PDF). National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-02-08. Retrieved January 2, 2019.
  48. ^ Pasch, Richard J. Preliminary Report: Hurricane Eugene (PDF). National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-02-08. Retrieved January 2, 2019.
  49. ^ Pasch, Richard J. Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Aletta (PDF). National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-02-08. Retrieved January 2, 2019.
  50. ^ Beven, Jack. Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Lane (PDF). National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-02-08. Retrieved January 2, 2019.
  51. ^ Stewart, Stacy R. Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Flossie (PDF). National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-12-13. Retrieved December 24, 2018.
  52. ^ Beven, Jack. Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Gil (PDF). National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-12-13. Retrieved December 24, 2018.
  53. ^ Pasch, Richard J. Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Douglas (PDF). National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-02-08. Retrieved December 24, 2018.
  54. ^ a b Miles B. Lawrence (December 8, 2003). Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Ignacio (pdf) (Report). National Hurricane Center. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-02-08. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
  55. ^ Foro Consultivo Cientifico y Technológio (2005). "Desastres mayores registrados en México de 1980 a 2003" (PDF) (in Spanish). p. 20. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 1, 2006. Retrieved August 10, 2006.
  56. ^ Pasch, Richard J. Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Jimena (PDF). National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-02-08. Retrieved December 24, 2018.
  57. ^ a b c Lixion A. Avila (November 4, 2003). Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Nora (pdf) (Report). National Hurricane Center. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-02-08. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
  58. ^ "Hurricane Marty". Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters. Archived from the original on September 23, 2010. Retrieved October 10, 2010.
  59. ^ Franklin, James L. Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Hilary (PDF). National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-04-26. Retrieved December 24, 2018.
  60. ^ Beven, Jack. Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Otis (PDF). National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-04-04. Retrieved December 24, 2018.
  61. ^ Brown, Daniel P. Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Hector (PDF). National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-02-08. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
  62. ^ Rhome, Jamie R.; Berg, Robert J. ropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Paul (PDF). National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-02-08. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
  63. ^ Consejo Directivo del Instituto Sinaloense de Acuacultura (2006). "Acta de la Sesión Ordinaria del Consejo Directivo del Instituto Sinaloense de Actuaculture, Celebrada el Día 10 de Noviembre de 2006, en la Ciudad de Culiacán, Sinaloa" (DOC) (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2012-02-18. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
  64. ^ Roberts, David P.; Pasch, Richard J. Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Sergio (PDF). National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-02-08. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
  65. ^ Franklin, James L. Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Elida (PDF). National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-02-08. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
  66. ^ Avila, Lixion A. Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Carlos (PDF). National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-02-08. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
  67. ^ Berg, Robbie. Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Irwin (PDF). National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-02-08. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
  68. ^ a b Pasch, Richard J.; Zelinsky, David A. Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Carlotta (PDF). National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-02-08. Retrieved 23 December 2018.
  69. ^ July 2012 Global Catastrophe Recap (PDF). AON (Report). AON. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2014-02-02. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
  70. ^ Beven, John L. Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Fabio (PDF). National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2018-09-21. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
  71. ^ Powell, Jeff; Berg, Robbie. Hurricane Henriette (EP082013) (PDF). National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-02-08. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
  72. ^ Blake, Eric S. Hurricane Vance (EP212014) (PDF). National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-02-08. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
  73. ^ Avila, Lixion A.; Powell, Jeff. Hurricane Guillermo (EP092015) (PDF). National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-02-08. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
  74. ^ Houston, Sam; Wroe, Derek. Hurricane Oho (CP072015). Central Pacific Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on 2018-03-20. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
  75. ^ Burke, Bob. Hurricane Pali Advisory Number 22. Central Pacific Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
  76. ^ Brown, Daniel P.; Jacobson, Chris. Hurricane Celia (EP042016) (PDF). National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2019-01-09. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
  77. ^ Avila, Lixion A. Hurricane Orlene (EP162016) (PDF). National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2019-01-15. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
  78. ^ Berg, Robbie. Hurricane Dora (EP042017) (PDF). National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-12-01. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
  79. ^ Stewart, Stacy R. Hurricane Hilary (EP092017) (PDF). National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2019-01-15. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
  80. ^ Brown, Daniel P. Hurricane Fabio (EP072018) (PDF). National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2019-01-15. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
  81. ^ Blake, Eric S. Hurricane John (EP122018) (PDF). National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2019-01-15. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
  82. ^ Wroe, Derek. Hurricane Miriam Advisory Number 23. Central Pacific Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on 2019-01-15. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
  83. ^ a b William J. Denney (January 17, 1972). Eastern North Pacific Hurricane Season of 1971 (pdf) (Report). NOAA. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
  84. ^ Robert A. Baum (January 16, 1973). Eastern North Pacific Hurricane Season of 1972 (pdf) (Report). NOAA. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
  85. ^ Robert A. Baum. Eastern North Pacific Hurricane Season of 1973 (pdf) (Report). NOAA. Archived from the original on 2019-01-03. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
  86. ^ Emil B. Gunther (January 21, 1980). Eastern North Pacific Tropical Cyclones of 1979 (pdf) (Report). NOAA. Archived from the original on 2019-01-03. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
  87. ^ E. B. Gunther; R. L. Cross; R. A. Wagoner. Eastern North Pacific Tropical Cyclones of 1982 (pdf) (Report). NOAA. Archived from the original on 2019-01-03. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
  88. ^ E. B. Gunther; R. L. Cross. Eastern North Pacific Tropical Cyclones of 1983 (pdf) (Report). NOAA. Archived from the original on 2018-09-21. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
  89. ^ E. B. Gunther; R. L. Cross. Eastern North Pacific Tropical Cyclones of 1984 (pdf) (Report). NOAA. Archived from the original on 2018-09-21. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
  90. ^ E. B. Gunther; R. L. Cross. Eastern North Pacific Tropical Cyclones of 1985 (pdf) (Report). NOAA. Archived from the original on 2018-09-21. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
  91. ^ E. B. Gunther; R. L. Cross. Eastern North Pacific Tropical Cyclones of 1986 (pdf) (Report). NOAA. Archived from the original on 2019-01-03. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
  92. ^ R. L. Cross. Eastern North Pacific Tropical Cyclones of 1987 (pdf) (Report). NOAA. Archived from the original on 2019-01-03. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
  93. ^ James L. Franklin (January 22, 2004). Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Marty (pdf) (Report). National Hurricane Center. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-02-08. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
  94. ^ Jamie R. Rhome; Robert J. Berg (November 20, 2006). Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Paul (pdf) (Report). National Hurricane Center. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-02-08. Retrieved December 23, 2018.