List of basic income models

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A basic income is a form of social security in which all citizens or residents of a country receive a regular, unconditional sum of money, either from a government or from some other public institution, independent of any other income.[1][2][3] This is a list of alternates to a full basic income that have been implemented or proposed.

Name Description Spokespersons Tested in Books Films/articles/interviews
Negative income tax Dependent on work income Milton Friedman, James Tobin, Juliet Rhys-Williams US and Canada (local experiments) Capitalism and Freedom Negative income tax & work, Negative income tax in Israel, Negative income tax in Ontario, Short info
Citizen's dividend Dependent on land value tax values from land and rents Henry George, Thomas Paine Alaska (Permanent Fund Dividend) Agrarian Justice, Progress and Poverty
Universal dividend Dependent on a portion of production, proxied by a fixed and flat tax on personal income and corporate net profits, distributed flat as a non-taxed benefit among all residents or citizens over a certain age. John Moser The American Citizen's Dividend, I approve this Facebook message, but you don't know that
National basic income "Equal to all" Philippe Van Parijs, Carole Pateman, Nancy Fraser, Claus Offe, Guy Standing among many others. The national basic income networks also focus on national basic income (and national negative income tax) The Iranian basic income is somewhat between a partial and a full basic income.
Group Currency and Crypto Universal Basic Income Greg Slepak et al
  • Andreas Fink
  • Martin Köppelmann
  • Jasper den Ouden
  • Scott Santens
  • Travis Uhrig
  • Steve Randy Waldman
  • Dionysis Zindros
VICE MotherBoard
Partial basic income (PBI) A partial basic income is any income guarantee set at a level that is less than enough to meet a person's basic needs.[4] Alaska (Permanent Fund of Alaska)[5]
Basic income for households In the form of BI or NIT
Basic income + negative income tax A combination of BI and NIT Hermonie Parker investigated several versions in Instead of the Dole Instead of the Dole
$8000 UBI, $4000 (Minimum income), $4000 Carbon tax dividend. For those under 65. Seniors system unchanged. Pascal J - in Canadian context.
Basic income and social insurance Andreas Bergh Bergh 2004
Stake holding grants Thomas Paine, Bruce Ackerman, Anne Alstott The Stakeholder Society, Redesigning distribution
European/regional basic income Basic income for a region, for example Europe Van Parijs, Steve Quilley, Phillippe C. Schmitter m.fl. Marc´s proposal, NAFTA-divident
Basic income with strings For example children going to school Brazil (Bolsa Famila)
Basic income for special regions (such as Israel-Palestine) Philippe Van Parijs
Basic income for food FIAN To poor countries
Global basic income Global Basic Income Foundation, Myron J. Frankman m.fl.
Local basic income For a village, city, district Otjivero (Namibia), 2 villages in China
Social credit Social credit movement, C.H. Douglas
Basic income + flat tax Equal tax rate M. Friedman, A.B. Atkinson
Basic income + VAT Basic income financed by tax on consumption Vivant Germany
Basic income + monetary reform See monetary reform C.H. Douglas, Michael Rowbotham, Richard C. Cook The Grip of Death
Basic income + demurrage A self stabilizing money supply that is resistant to inflation and deflation. Omar Syed, Aamir Syed Sound Money Without Commodities
Basic income financed by equal rights to natural resources Jay Hammond, Peter Barnes Alaska, Iran (from 2011) Capitalism 3.0
Social dividend Based on publicly owned enterprises, see market socialism James Meade, Oskar Lange, Abba Lerner, John Roemer, James Yunker
Basic income instead of subventions Iran (from 2011)
Carbon fee and dividend Basic income funded by a carbon tax Citizens' Climate Lobby British Columbia
Basic income to disaster regions Haiti-1, A way to peace
Basic income in the form of energy credits Cosmic Accounting
Basic Income Startup (ReCivitas) “Lifetime Basic Income” Marcus Brancaglione , Bruna Pereira Brazil Quatinga Velho (local experiment) Lessons from the Practice of Basic Income [1], Basic Income Startup [2] BRAZIL: Basic Income Startup gives “lifetime basic incomes” to villagers [3], NGO founds collaborative “projects network” [4]
Basic income + monetary reform + land value tax James Robertson, Herman Daly
Three Pillars National Dividend (ND) - a payment to all citizen-residents, paid for by a tax on the commons

National Income Supplement (NIS) - distributing all income taxes back to income earners, which would allow all income brackets to benefit from each others' success, and amplify their earnings (and underwrite labour costs)

Assisted Savings Program (ASP) - mandatory long-term savings/investment, and distributing all capital gains taxes to ASP accounts, ensuring savers benefit from each others' success, and amplify their savings [6]

Returning tax revenues to citizens through these programs is enabled by a shift to a form of Land Value Tax (called a ULT) for general revenues. The Three Pillars would also replace the minimum wage and state-run pensions.

The New Physiocratic League The New School of Economics


  1. ^ "Improving Social Security in Canada Guaranteed Annual Income: A Supplementary Paper". Government of Canada. 1994. Retrieved 30 November 2013.
  2. ^ "History of Basic Income". Basic Income Earth Network (BIEN). Archived from the original on 21 June 2008.
  3. ^ Universal Basic Income: A Review Social Science Research Network (SSRN). Accessed August 6, 2017.
  4. ^ Description at U.S. Basic Income Guarantee Network.
  5. ^ Description at U.S. Basic Income Guarantee Network.
  6. ^ "The New Physiocratic Platform". The New Physiocratic League. 2018. Retrieved 26 November 2018.