List of church buildings in Indonesia

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These are lists of church buildings in Indonesia, based on:

  • Completion year of the building
  • Region

Around 10% of Indonesia's total population are Christians, and there are approximately 61000 churches across Indonesia.[1] This list strictly only includes notable church buildings and their historic significance in Indonesian history.

History[edit]

The Old Dutch Church's first form, whose base is still visible in Museum Wayang
The lower picture shows the early church of Portuguese Binnenkerk (later burned) and the Portuguese Buitenkerk (a heritage building).

In Indonesia, church buildings in the first stage of their creation were simple, shed-like structures, built from bamboo or wood. Once sizable congregations had been established, more permanent buildings were erected, which seated hundreds or even over a thousand.[2]

Precolonial era[edit]

There is evidence of the presence of Christian communities (Chaldean Church) in north Sumatra as early as the 7th century.[3]

Portuguese arrival in Indonesia[edit]

The Portuguese were the first Europeans to arrive in Indonesia. They sought to dominate the sources of valuable spices[4] and to extend their Roman Catholic missionary efforts. Francis Xavier was the most well-known Portuguese missionary in the archipelago, the mission began in 1534 when some chiefs from Morotai came to Ternate asking to be baptised. He later returned to Moluccas and spent his time at Halmahera, Ternate and Amboina in 1546-1547, baptizing several thousand locals.[5]

Dutch documents state that nearly all inhabitants of Ambon were Catholics, introduced by the Portuguese Jesuits, mostly arrived from Goa. Ambon had four fine church buildings and a small hospital, La Misericordia. The Jesuit Church of St. James was from mid-1605 used for Protestant services. In 1630 it was replaced by a stone building called St. Paul's Church.[2]

Dutch East India company in Indonesia[edit]

Model of the New Dutch Church after the extension in 1736

Catholicism in Indonesia came into a dark age when the Protestant-Dutch VOC defeated the Portuguese and took over their possession at Mollucas in 1605 and Solor in 1613. Dutch East India Company or Vereniging Oost Indie Compagnie (VOC) suppressed the Catholic religion within their conquered territories and banned any Catholic missionary activities. Many Catholics were forcibly converted to Protestantism and Catholic churches were changed for Protestant purposes. As a result of their successful campaign in the East Indies and strong sentiment against the Catholics, many of the earliest surviving well-documented church buildings in the Indonesian archipelago are Protestant churches; most of them are concentrated along the north coast of Java and the islands of Moluccas.

Enslaved Catholics are also encouraged to adapt Protestantism and Dutch sounding names. This happened to the Mardijker people (who were a Portuguese speaking creole group) in Batavia and Depok. Catholicism didn't have any particular rights in Indonesia until 1808 under governor general Daendels, during the French occupation of the Netherlands.

The chapel of Kasteel Batavia

In Batavia, few of the earliest Protestant church structures in Indonesia are well documented. The first church building in the city was a provisional church, erected in 1625 together with the earlier city hall. In 1632 the foundation for a proper church was laid. This was followed by the first stone to be laid in 1640 and the building, known as Oude Hollandse Kerk ("Old Holland Church"), was finished in 1643.[6] The Old Holland Church was later expanded and renamed "Nieuw Hollandse kerk" ("New Holland Church") in 1736. The new church was shaped octagonally according to Calvinism's focus on the sermon and had a domed roof.[7] The church was toppled by an earthquake in 1808, and the remains were completely demolished by Governor General Daendels to obtain building materials for a new government center in Weltevreden. The base of the church can be seen in the Wayang Museum.

In 1644, Governor General Antonio van Diemen built a chapel in Batavia Castle at his own expense. Already in 1633, a simple wooden church with straw roof had been built for services in Malay. The Portuguese Binnenkerk (Portuguese church inside the city walls) was built between 1669 and 1672, initially for Malay services, but also to meet the needs of the Portuguese-speaking Christians. Another Portuguese-language church was built outside the city walls in 1695, the Portuguese Buitenkerk, now Gereja Sion, the oldest surviving church building in Indonesia.

On 18 May 1696, a former VOC officer Cornelis Chastelein bought the land with an area of 12.44 km2, 6.2% the area of today's Depok. There he established the first of its kind in Java, a Protestant congregation consisting of native Indonesians which was named De Eerste Protestante Organisatie van Christenen (DEPOC). A Protestant church (id), dating back to 1714, can still be seen standing. Its church bell was made in 1675.[8]

Dutch East Indies and post-independent Indonesia[edit]

In 1799 VOC officially went bankrupt and was dissolved in 1800 with its possessions taken over by the Dutch crown as the Dutch East Indies. Later in 1817, the Dutch government founded the Protestantsche Kerk in Nederlandsch-Indie ("Indische Kerk") as a union of Reformed, Lutheran, Baptists, Arminian and Mennonite denominations.[9] During the 18th to 19th century the new architectural trends were Neoclassical architecture. Examples of these were Batavia's Immanuel Church, Semarang's Blenduk Church and GKJ Mojowarno.

Missionary activities increased with territorial gain. Works were mostly aimed to convert native Animist population such as the Bataks, Torajans, Minahasans, Papuans and Dayaks (who today form the Christian majority of both Catholic and Protestant). These missionaries established many mission churches, schools and institutions across the country.

In the late 19th century until the end of the Dutch rule in 1942, Indonesia followed the Neogothic architecture that was common in Europe at that time.[10] The best example of neogothic architecture built in Indonesia is Jakarta Cathedral. Art Deco and its various Dutch architectural branches, such as the Amsterdam School or Nieuwe Zakelijkheid, became the new fashion of the Indies during this period. A few examples of this architectural influence on churches are Bandung's Bethel church, Jakarta's St Joseph's Church, Semarang's Cathedral and Zion Church of Tomohon.

Apart from Art Deco as a form of modernism, there were also attempts by many Dutch architect to modernize the indigenous architecture by creating a synthesized form of architecture which combined Western architecture with indigenous Indonesian elements.[11] In 1936, Henri Maclaine Pont designed the Pohsarang Church in Kediri, which incorporated Hindu-Buddhist elements into a Western building.[11] This legacy lived on even after the independence of Indonesia, and was applied to various public buildings, including churches in the country. In 1972, native Balinese I Wayan Mastra became head of the Balinese Protestant church, and began a process of Balinization. When Blimbingsari church, a basic stone and wood building, was destroyed by earthquake in 1976, it was rebuilt in more Balinese pendopo style, with a garden with running water, traditional Balinese entrance and a semi-open aspect. A similar trend occurred in other islands, such as Batak Karo architecture of St. Francis Asisi's Church in Berastagi, and the Ganjuran Church, which used Javanese Joglo architecture.

Many Indonesian Protestants tend to congregate based more on ethnicity than liturgical differences. As a result, after the independence of Indonesia the Protestant Church of Indonesia was broke down into various denominations based on ethnicity, resulting in a relatively higher number of Protestant denomination per capita in the country. This was also due to the cultural and languages preferences among each of the different ethnic groups in Indonesia.[12]

Today[edit]

Although Protestantism and Catholicism are two of the six recognized religions in Indonesia, prosecution against Christians is common in the country. Many of the conflicts are linked to the extremist groups in the country. In 1999, the Maluku sectarian conflict occurred, a religion and ethnicity based violence which claimed many lives of both Muslims and Christians. During this event the historic Immanuel Church in Hila was destroyed; however, it was later rebuilt with the help of the Muslim community. Another church in Ambon was set on fire in 2011, forcing the people inside to flee.[13]

In December 2011, GKI Taman Yasmin had been sealed. Local authorities refused to lift a ban on the activities of the church, despite an order from the Supreme Court of Indonesia.[14] Local authorities persecuted the Christian church for four years. In 2013 another church in Bekasi was forced to shut down due to the lack of an official permit for building the premise.[15] While the state has ordered religious tolerance, it has not enforced these orders to protect the religious minority in the country.[16] Three churches were burned and damaged in Temanggung, Central Java in 2011, as Christians were accused of distributing pamphlets that were "insulting" Islam.[17]

In Aceh where Sharia law is applied, it is against Governor Regulation No. 25/2007 about Guidelines for the Construction of Houses of Worship. In the regulations, the construction of a church in Aceh requires 150 congregations to apply for a church construction permit.[18] Indonesia is also notorious for its church bombing by extremists on Christmas Eve of 2000.

Oldest churches in Indonesia[edit]

Below is a list of oldest church buildings in Indonesia based on year of completion. To be listed here, the completion of the church building needs to be at least before the 20th century. Churches with alterations which completely changed their appearance after the 20th century should not be placed in this table.

Name Image Location Year (current building) Affiliation Architectural style Remarks
GPIB Sion Jakarta Church
COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM De Portugese Buitenkerk in Batavia TMnr 60018301.jpg
Jakarta 1695[19][20] Protestant (formerly Roman Catholic) Portuguese colonial/Indies The oldest church in Jakarta and possibly the oldest surviving church structure in Indonesia.[19] It contains a Baroque pipe organ from the 17th century, which was built in Taiwan.
GPM Eben Haezer Church Sila, Nusa Laut, Maluku 1719 Protestant Portuguese colonial/Indies
GPIB Tugu Jakarta Church Jakarta 1747 Protestant Portuguese colonial/Indies
Pasundan Christian Church of Cirebon
COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Protestantse kerk naast gebouw met agentschappen in Cheribon TMnr 60005166.jpg
Cirebon, West Java 1788[21] Reformed Dutch Indies The church was founded by zendeling A. Dijkstra who arrived on Cirebon in 1864. Later, the church moved into a small colonial building which has been built by the colonial government around 1788. The building is now a heritage building in Cirebon.[21]
GPM Beth Eden Church Nusa Laut, Maluku 1817[22] Protestant Portuguese colonial/Indies
GPIB Tamansari Salatiga Church Salatiga, Central Java 1823[23] Protestant Dutch Indies The year of the church's founding is mentioned in the building.
GPIB Pniel Pasuruan Church Pasuruan, East Java 1829 Protestant Dutch Indies The year of the church's founding is mentioned in the building.
All Saints Church Jakarta 1829 Anglican Georgian Style The only Anglican Church in Indonesia. It was established by London Missionary Society and is the first English institution in the country.
GPM Baithlehem Church Hutumuri, Southern Leitimur, Ambon Island, Maluku 1832 Protestant Dutch Indies
GPIB Bethel Tanjung Pinang Church Tanjung Pinang, Riau Islands 1836 Reformed Neogothic The oldest church in the region, was known as "De Nederlandse Hervormde Kerk te Tandjoengpinang", the building was renovated in 1962 with some minor changes on the facade.
GPIB Immanuel Jakarta Church
Gereja Immanuel, Gambir, Jakarta.jpg
Jakarta 1839 Protestant Palladian
Old Immanuel Church
COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Interieur van de kerk Hila Res. Amboina TMnr 10013690.jpg
Hila, Ambon Island, Maluku 1854 Protestant Dutch colonial / Indies The first building was built between 1780-1781 during the governance of governor Bernardus van Pleuren. The first building was wooden, later rebuilt using a more permanent material in 1854. On 20 January 1999, the building was destroyed by arson during Maluku secretarian conflict, but soon was rebuilt without altering its original form.[24]
Old Church of Banda
COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Protestantse kerk Bandanaira TMnr 10016603.jpg
Banda Neira, Maluku 1852 Protestant Neoclassical The church was established in the early year of Dutch colonization of the island, the old wooden church was destroyed by earthquake and rebuilt in 1852.
GPIB Marga Mulya Yogyakarta Church (id)
Margamulya.jpg
Yogyakarta 1857 Protestant Neoclassical
Old Church of Nolloth Nolloth, Saparua, Maluku 1860 Protestant Dutch colonial / Indies
GPIB Immanuel Probolinggo Church
Immanuel Church, Probolinggo, 2016 (03).jpg
Probolinggo, East Java 1862 Protestant Neogothic Locally known as the "Red Church" for its bright red facade and is the oldest church in town.
Old Church of Watumea Watumea, North Sulawesi 1872 Protestant Indies The church is the original wooden church building of Watumea, the first church in the city. The heritage wooden church was built in 1868 using local materials and was inaugurated on December 8, 1872. The design and construction were overseen by Hessel Rooker, a Dutch missionary. The church bell and other church appliances were imported from Germany. On March 4, 2003, the building was made a heritage building by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism.[25]
St. Joseph's Church
Exterior, Gedangan Church, 2014-06-18.jpg
Semarang, Central Java 1875 Catholic Neogothic The oldest Catholic church in Semarang.
GPM Soya Church Negeri Soya, Ambon Island, Maluku 1876 Protestant Unknown foundation time. In 1876, Raja Stephanus Jacob Rehatta expanded the original building with permanent material. During the leadership of Leonard 8 Rehatta, the church was renovated in 1927. In 1996, the church was restored and made heritage building under the Maluku Department of History and Archeology. On April 28, 2002, riot occurred in Negeri Soya and the church was destroyed. The building was later rebuilt without altering the original form.
GKE Immanuel Church Mandomai, Kapuas Regency, Central Kalimantan 1876 Protestant Neogothic This church is part of Evangelist Church of Kalimantan (id), it was established by Germans missionary of Zending Bazel mission (Rheinische Missionsgesellschaft) in 1855.
GPIB Griya Mulya Purworejo Church
Kerk Purworejo.jpg
Purworejo, Central Java 1879 Protestant Neogothic
St. Joseph's Church Cirebon, West Java 1878-1880 Catholic Neo-Renaissance
Jawi Wetan Christian Church of Mojowarno
COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Interieur van een kerk Madjawarna nabij Soerabaja Java TMnr 10013685.jpg
Mojowarno, East Java 1879–1881 Protestant Neoclassical The building of the church was pioneered by Kyai Paulus Tosari (Kasan Jariyo), early leader of the Mojowarno congregation. The first laying of the stone was done by Christina Chaterina Kruyt, daughter of the zendeling of Mojowarno at that time, Jan Kruyt, on February 24, 1879. The church was officially inaugurated on March 8, 1881. The church is the center of a local harvest festival called Unduh-unduh annually enacted on May.
St. Fidelis Church of Sejiram Sejiram, West Kalimantan 1890-1892 Catholic Neogothic, vernacular
St. Anthony of Padua's Church Pasuruan, East Java 1895[26] Catholic Neogothic
Jakarta Cathedral
Jakarta Cathedral Afternoon.JPG
Jakarta 1891-1901 Catholic Neogothic The current building was built on top of a former Catholic church that collapsed in 1890. Lack of funding halted the construction for nearly 10 years.
GPIB Immanuel Semarang Church
Exterior of Blenduk Church, Semarang, 2014-06-18.jpg
Semarang, Central Java 1894 Protestant Neo-Baroque The oldest church established in Central Java, it was first built in 1753. The initial church building had a joglo-style. In 1894 it was renovated to current form with dome and two spire.
GMIM Sentrum Langowan Church Langowan, North Sulawesi 1895 Protestant Indies The church was founded by Johan Gotlieb Schwarz to convert the local population of animistic belief (Alifuru) into Christianity. The first church was established on 18 April 1847. The current building was built and completed on top of the former church building on 18 April 1895.[27]
Bogor Cathedral
COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Rooms-katholieke kerk Buitenzorg TMnr 60016616.jpg
Bogor, West Java 1905[28] Catholic Neogothic Designed by M.J. Hulswit initiate February 12, 1905 . Churchtower has a later date: 1929 designed by R.Baumgarten
Old Church of Sikka Sikka, Flores, West Nusa Tenggara 1899 Catholic Dutch Indies Designed by Antonius Dijkmans, the Pasteur who also designed Jakarta Cathedral in 1893. The Church was finished in 1899.[29]
Church of the Birth of Our Lady, Surabaya
Gereja Katolik Kelahiran Santa Perawan Maria, Surabaya.jpg
Surabaya, East Java 1899-1900 Catholic Neogothic Oldest church in Surabaya. First built in 1822 as Maria Geboorte Kerk by Mgr Lambertus Prinsen, it was re-built to its current form in 1899 by Fr J van Zanten SJ, and was consecrated as Onze Lieve Vrouw Geboorte Kerk in 1900 by the Archbishop of Batavia, Mgr Edmundus Luypen SJ. It suffered fire damage during the Battle of Surabaya.
Gereja Lahai Roi Cijantung, Pasar Rebo, East Jakarta 1925 Reformed Neogothic

Largest churches in Indonesia[edit]

Below is a list of the largest church buildings in Indonesia, based on capacity. To be listed here, the building's capacity must exceed 5,000 and the building must used exclusively for church-related activities.

Name Image Building capacity Area Year Location Remarks
Bethany Graha Nginden 35,000 2000 Surabaya
Holy Stadium - Gospel of the Kingdom 12,000 2007 Semarang
GBI Mawar Saron 10,000 2003 Kelapa Gading, Jakarta
Messiah Cathedral 8,000[30] 20 September 2008[31] Kemayoran, Jakarta
GBI Rock Denpasar 5,000 Denpasar
GBI Keluarga Allah Solo 5,000 Surakarta

By region[edit]

Java[edit]

DKI Jakarta

West Java

  • Bandung Cathedral, Bandung (1922, oofffficial name: St. Peter's Cathedral)
  • Blessed Virgin Mary, Mother of Seven Sorrows Church, Pandu, Bandung (1935, locally known as "Gereja Pandu")[39]
  • GKI Taman Cibunut Church, Bandung (1916)[40]
  • GPIB Bethel Church, Bandung (1924)[41]
  • GPIB Maranatha Church, Bandung (1927)[42]
  • St. Albanus Free Catholic Church, Bandung (1920)[43]
  • Bogor Cathedral, Bogor (1896, official name: St. Mary the virgin Cathedral)
  • GPIB Zebaoth Church, Bogor (1920)[44]
  • Pasundan Christian Church (GKP), Palalangon, Cianjur Regency (1902)[45]
  • St. Ignatius Church, Cimahi (1906-1908)[46]
  • Pasundan Christian Church (GKP), Cirebon (around 1788, became a church in 1864)[21]
  • St. Joseph's Church, Cirebon (1880)[47]
  • GPIB Immanuel Church (id), Depok (1998, contain a bell dating back to 1675) (established in 1714, destroyed by earthquake in 1834 and rebuilt in 1854, later expanded in 1980 and 1998 due to overcapacity)[48]
  • St. Mary the Immaculate Church, Garut (1917)[49]
  • GKI Indramayu Church, Indramayu (1912)[50]
  • Trial of Christ's Church, Sukabumi (1911)[51]
  • Sacred Heart of Jesus Parish Church, Tasikmalaya (established 1931, current structure 1955)[52]

Central Java

  • St. Willibrordus's Church, Cepu, Blora Regency (1930)
  • Javanese Gospel Church (GITJ), Donorojo, Jepara Regency (1935)[53]
  • GPIB Beth-el Church, Magelang (1817)[54]
  • GPIB Beth-el Kebon Polo Church, Magelang (1927)
  • Javanese Christian Church (GKJ), Magelang (1921)[55]
  • St. Joseph the worker's Church, Mertoyudan, Magelang (1911)[56]
  • St. Ignatius Church, Magelang (established 1899, expanded in 1926 and later damaged by conflict, current form are from 1962)[57]
  • GPIB Griya Mulya Church, Purworejo (1879)[58]
  • Javanese Christian Church (GKJ), Jenar, Purworejo (1933)[59]
  • St. Mary the Virgin Church, Purworejo (1927)[60]
  • St. Anthony's Church, Muntilan (established in 1862, current structure 1911)[61]
  • GPIB Tamansari Church, Salatiga (1823)[62]
  • Javanese Christian Central-Northern Church (GKJTU), Salatiga (1918)
  • St. Paul Miki's Church, Salatiga[63]
  • St. Joseph's Church, Ambarawa, Semarang Regency (1924, locally known as "Gereja Jago")[64]
  • GPIB Immanuel Church, Semarang (1753, current form 1894)
  • GKI Gereformeerd Church, Semarang (1918)[65]
  • Holy Rosary Cathedral, Semarang (1927)
  • Holy Family Atmodirono Church, Semarang (1940)[66]
  • St. Joseph's Church, Semarang (1875)
  • GPIB Penabur Church, Surakarta (1980) (The church was built over an older Calvinist church known as Indische Kerk (1832). The older church was destroyed by a flood in 1966)[67]
  • Javanese Christian Church Margoyudan (GKJ), Surakarta (1916)[68]
  • St. Anthony's Church, Surakarta (1905)[69]
  • St. Peter's Church, Surakarta (1938)[70]

East Java

  • St. Joseph's Church, Blitar (1931)[71]
  • St. John the Evangelist's Church, Bondowoso (1935-1936)
  • Jawi Wetan Christian Church (GKJW), Mojowarno, Jombang Regency (1881)[72]
  • Pohsarang Church (id), Pohsarang village (1936), Kediri
  • GPIB Immanuel Church, Kediri (1904, Known locally as Gereja Merah or "red church")[73]
  • Cathedral of Our Lady of Mount Carmel, Malang (1934)[74]
  • Sacred Heart of Jesus Church, Malang (1905, tower added in the 1930s, locally known as Gereja Kayutangan)[75]
  • GPIB Immanuel Church, Malang (1912)[76]
  • Jawi Wetan Christian Church (GKJW), Peniwen, Malang Regency
  • St. Cornelius Church, Madiun (established 1899, current form 1937)[77]
  • GPIB Immanuel Church, Probolinggo (1862) (Known locally as Gereja Merah or "red church")[78]
  • GPIB Pniel Church, Pasuruan (1829) (The church was built on November 15, 1829)[59]
  • St. Anthony of Padua's Church, Pasuruan (1932)[79]
  • Church of the Birth of Our Lady, Surabaya, Surabaya (1899)[80]
  • Christ the King Catholic Church, Ketabang, Surabaya (built in 1933, current form 1957)
  • Christ the God Methodist Church, Surabaya (current church are built in 1952, Founded by Chinese Presbyterian movement in 1910 and later transferred to American Methodist Church in 1928)[81]
  • Jawi Wetan Christian Church (GKJW), Gubeng, Surabaya (1924)
  • GPIB Immanuel Church, Surabaya (1920)[82]
  • GPIB Maranatha Church, Surabaya
  • GKI Pregolan Bunder Church, Surabaya (1914-1920, formerly known as "Gereformeerd Surabaya")[83]
  • Sacred Heart Cathedral, Surabaya (1921)[84]
  • St. Bonafacius Free Catholic Church, Surabaya (1923)[85]

Special Region of Yogyakarta

Sumatra[edit]

Aceh

Riau Islands

  • GPIB Bethel Church, Tanjung Pinang, Bintan Island (1836, formerly known as "De Nederlandse Hervormde Kerk te Tandjoengpinang")
  • St. Mary the Immaculate Heart Church, Tanjung Pinang, Bintan Island

North Sumatra

West Sumatra

Bangka Belitung Islands

  • GPIB Maranatha Church, Pangkal Pinang (1927, formerly known as "Kerkeraad der Protestansche Gemeente")[100]
  • St. Joseph Cathedral, Pangkal Pinang (1934)[101]

South Sumatra

  • GPIB Immanuel Church, Palembang (1948, Known locally as Gereja Ayam or "Cock Church")
  • GPIB Siloam Church, Palembang (1933)[102]
  • St. Mary the Immaculate Church, Pagarjati (1932)
  • St. Michael Church, Tanjung Sakti (1898)[103]

Lampung

Borneo[edit]

West Kalimantan

Central Kalimantan

South Kalimantan

Sulawesi[edit]

North Sulawesi

  • Schwarz Sentrum Church, Langowan (1895)[109]
  • Manado Cathedral, Manado (founded 1919, official name: Holiest heart of Mary Cathedral)
  • Sentrum Church, Manado (1952)[110]
  • Zion Church, Tomohon (1930) (The original wooden church was built at least before 1878, according to the first establishment of the bell tower, which was built in 1878. In 1929, the current church building was built above the original church. The building was inaugurated in 1930. The building is 30x20 meter)[111]
  • Sacred Heart of Jesus Church, Tomohon
  • Old Church of Watumea, Watumea (1872)[112]

South Sulawesi

  • Makassar Cathedral (id), Makassar (built in 1898 as a neogothic church, later expanded and tower added in the 1940s, official name: Sacred Heart of Jesus Cathedral)[113]
  • GPIB Immanuel Church, Makassar (1885)[114]

West Sulawesi

Bali[edit]

  • Sacred Heart of Jesus Church, Palasari
  • Pniel Protestant Church, Blimbingsari[116]

Lesser Sunda Islands[edit]

  • Mater Boni Consili (MBC) Church, Bajawa, Flores
  • Christo Regi Cathedral, Ende, Flores
  • Sacred heart Church, Wolowaru, Ende, Flores (1937)
  • Reihna Rosari Cathedral, Larantuka, Flores
  • Christ the King Mbau Muku Church, Ruteng, Manggarai Regency, Flores
  • Old Cathedral of Ruteng, Manggarai Regency, Flores (1929–1939)[117]
  • Old Church of Sikka, Sikka, Flores (1899)[118]

The Moluccas[edit]

Ambon Islands

In Ambon Island, many of the church buildings, including the 18th-century St. Immanuel's Old Church of Hila, were destroyed during the Maluku sectarian conflict.[24] Some of these churches have been restored by the community.

  • Ambon Cathedral, Ambon (founded in 1901, official name: St. Francis Xaverius Cathedral)
  • Maranatha Church (id), Ambon (1954)
  • Baithlehem Church, Hutumuri, Southern Leitimur (1832)[119]
  • Joseph Kam's Church[120]
  • Old Church of Hatu, West Leihitu[121]
  • St. Immanuel's Old Church, Hila (1781, current form 1854)[122]
  • Soya Church (founded 1546, current form 1876)[123]

Nusalaut Islands

Saparua Islands

Banda Islands

  • Old Church of Banda, Banda Neira (established early 1600s, damaged by earthquake and rebuilt in 1852)[126]

Papua[edit]

West Papua

  • Orange Church, Doom Island (1911)[127]

Papua

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ a b Jan Sihar Aritonang; Karel Adriaan Steenbrink (2008). A History of Christianity in Indonesia. 35. BRILL. p. 153. ISBN 9789004170261. Retrieved July 19, 2013.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "histochrist48" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  3. ^ Fox, James J. (1998). Indonesian Heritage - Religion and Ritual. Jakarta: Buku Antar Bangsa. pp. 58–59. ISBN 9813018585. 
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  6. ^ Jan Sihar Aritonang; Karel Adriaan Steenbrink (2008). A History of Christianity in Indonesia. 35. BRILL. p. 122. ISBN 9789004170261. Retrieved July 19, 2013. 
  7. ^ Kleinbauer, W. Eugene (1988): Modern perspectives in Western art history. An anthology of twentieth-century writings on the visual arts. Toronto : Published by University of Toronto Press in association with the Medieval Academy of America, s.318.
  8. ^ Han Soedira. "Sejarah Depok Lama". soedira.com (in Indonesian). Depok Lama. Retrieved February 2, 2015. 
  9. ^ Aritonang, Jan Sihar; Steenbrink, Karel, eds. (2008), A history of Christianity in Indonesia, Leiden, The Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill NV, p. 384, ISBN 978-90-04-17026-1, retrieved 30 November 2010 
  10. ^ Jan Sihar Aritonang; Karel Adriaan Steenbrink (2008). A History of Christianity in Indonesia. 35. BRILL. p. 933. ISBN 9789004170261. Retrieved July 19, 2013. 
  11. ^ a b Gunawan Tjahjono (1998). Indonesian Heritage - Architecture. Singapore: Archipelago Press. p. 122. ISBN 9813018305. 
  12. ^ Aritonang, Jan Sihar; Steenbrink, Karel, eds. (2008), A history of Christianity in Indonesia, Leiden, The Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill NV, p. 617, ISBN 978-90-04-17026-1, retrieved 30 November 2010, It is remarkable that in the merger of the BKP with the BNKP the choice for unification was made on cultural rather than denominational grounds. While the Batunese congregations show distinctly Lutheran traits, especially in liturgical matters, the sense of communion is determined by ethno-cultural relations. Similar language and customary law, and especially family links between Nias and the Batu Islands, by far outweigh ecclesiastical tradition. 
  13. ^ Profil Gereja, Jakarta correspondent (11 September 2011). "Ambon Violent Clashes Between Christian and Muslims, Triggered by Provocative Text Message". international.kabargereja.tk. Archived from the original on 4 September 2012. Retrieved 25 May 2012. 
  14. ^ "Second Bogor Church Under Threat by Officials in Indonesia". 23 December 2011. Retrieved 28 March 2014. 
  15. ^ "Ini Alasan Gereja HKBP Setu Bekasi Disegel". 7 March 2011. 
  16. ^ "3 years on, GKI Yasmin church remains victim of absence of the state". 24 December 2011. 
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Cited works[edit]

  • Akihary, Huib (1990). Architectuur & Stedebouw in Indonesië 1870/1970. Zutphen: De Walburg Pers. ISBN 9072691024. 
  • Tjokrosaputro, Teddy; Satriani, Lewi (2012). Triani Retno A., Rini Nurul Badariah, eds. 100 Gereja Terindah Indonesia [100 Most Beautiful Churches in Indonesia]. Jakarta: PT. Andalan Media. ISBN 9786029973112. 

External links[edit]

Media related to Churches in Indonesia at Wikimedia Commons