List of empires

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

This is an alphabetical list of empires. The table may be resorted by other columns if your browser supports this function.

Empires and dynasties[edit]

Empire Origin Capital From To Duration Note First Leader Last Leader
Achaemenid Empire Iran Various, including Pasargadae, Ecbatana, Persepolis, Susa, Babylon 550 BC 330 BC 220 The first Persian empire, and the largest one in classical antiquity, founded by Cyrus the Great.
Afsharid Dynasty Iran Mashhad 1736 1796 60 Founded by Nader Shah, at its peak expanded Persia as far west as Baghdad, and as far east as Delhi.
Abbasid Caliphate Iraq Baghdad, Raqqa, Kufa, Samarra, Anbar 750 1258 508 Successor of the Umayyad Caliphate. As-Saffah Al-Musta'sim
Ahom Dynasty North East India Charaideo, Garhgaon, Rangpur (Ahom capital), Jorhat 1228 1838 610 It is well known for maintaining its sovereignty for nearly 600 years and successfully resisting Mughal expansion in Northeast India.
Akkadian Empire Sumer Akkad 2300 BC 2200 BC 100 The Second Empire On The Earth.
Aksumite Empire Ethiopia Axum 150 940 790 Succeeded by the Ethiopian Empire.
Akwamu West Africa Akwamufie, Nyanoase 1505 1867 362
Almohad Caliphate Morocco Marrakech, Seville 1121 1269 148
Almoravid dynasty Morocco Aghmat (1040–1062), Marrakech (1062–1147) 1040 1147 107
Angevin Empire England, France No official capital. Court was generally held at Angers and Chinon 1154 1242 88
Armenian Empire Armenia Tigranakert 190 BC 428 618 Tigranes the Great took the title King of Kings.
Assyria Mesopotamia Assur, later Nineveh 2025 BC 609 BC 1119
Ashanti Empire West Africa Kumasi 1670 1902 232
Austrian Empire Austria Vienna 1804 1867 63 Preceded by the Holy Roman Empire.
Austria-Hungary Austria, Hungary Vienna, Budapest 1867 1918 51 Often referred to as the "Austro-Hungarian Empire". Formed out of the Austrian Empire as a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867. Officially a real union of the rump Austrian Empire (Cisleithania) and the Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen/Transleithania. Ruler was therefore referred to as Kaiser und König ("Emperor-King", literally "Emperor and King"). F.F.von Beust Charles IV
Ayyubid dynasty Middle East Cairo, Damascus, Hama 1171 1341 170 Founded by Saladin, See also List of Muslim states and dynasties.
Aztec Empire Mesoamerica Tenochtitlan 1428 1521 93 The capital of Mexico, Mexico City, is built on the ruins of Tenochtitlan.
Aulikara Empire India Mandsaur, 528 550 22 Empire disintegrated after Shiladitya, the second king's death. Yashodharman Shiladitya (ruler of Malwa)
Babylonian Empire Mesopotamia Babylon 1900 BC 1600 BC 300 See also Neo-Babylonian Empire.
Balhae North Korea, Manchuria Sanggyeong 698 926 228 Successor of Goguryeo.
Bamana Empire West Africa Ségou 1712 1861 149 Also known as the Bambara Empire or Ségou Empire
Belgian colonial empire Belgium Brussels 1901 1962 61 Overseas possessions were referred to as "the colonies" rather than an empire.
Benin Empire Nigeria Benin City 1440 1897 457
Kadamba dynasty Karnataka Banavasi 345 540 200 The Kadambas (345–540 CE) were an ancient royal family of Karnataka, India, that ruled northern Karnataka and the Konkan from Banavasi in present-day Uttara Kannada district. The kingdom was founded by Mayurasharma in 345 C.E
Bornu Empire Nigeria Ngazargamu 1387 1893 506 The continuation of the Kanem Empire.
Empire of Brazil Brazil Rio de Janeiro 1822 1889 67 Established after Pedro I of Brazil declared the independence of Brazil from Portugal. Pedro I Pedro II
Britannic Empire Britain Londinium 286 296 10 Was a break-away state of the Roman Empire. See also the Carausian Revolt.
British Empire United Kingdom London 1603 Either surviving until present or ended in 1997 417 as of 2020 or 394 as of 1997 The largest empire in world history. Precursor to the modern Commonwealth of Nations. Empire (though the word empire has fallen into disuse when describing British overseas possessions) still continues in the form of British Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies. Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II remains as sovereign. Some consider the handover of Hong Kong to the People's Republic of China on 1 July 1997 as the end of the British Empire.[1] James I Elizabeth II
British Raj Indian Subcontinent Calcutta (1858–1912), New Delhi (1912–1947) 1858 1947 89 Governed by the Crown and part of the British Empire. Queen Victoria was proclaimed Empress of India in 1876.
Bruneian Empire Borneo Not specified, possibly Kota Batu 1368 1888 520 Lasted until it became a British protectorate in 1888.
First Bulgarian Empire Balkans, Eastern Europe and Central Europe Pliska (680–893), Preslav (893–972), Skopie (972–992), Ohrid (992–1018) 680 1018 338 Founded by Khan Asparukh. Under Tsar Simeon I became the first powerful Slavic Empire. Falls to the Byzantine Empire under Emperor Basil II.
Second Bulgarian Empire Balkans Tarnovo 1185 1422 237 Successor of the First Bulgarian Empire. Under the Tsars Kaloyan and Ivan Asen II became the most powerful state in the Balkans.
Duchy of Burgundy Western Europe Dijon 1364 1477 113 Theorically vassal of France. Ruled a very large territory from Alps to North Sea.
Buyid dynasty Persia Shiraz 934 1055 121
Byzantine Empire Eastern Roman Empire (Greece, Anatolia, Africa, Palestine, Syria, Italy) Constantinople 284 1460 1176 The eastern half of the Roman Empire. Term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages.
Caliphate of Córdoba Iberian Peninsula Córdoba 756 1031 275 See also Islamic Empire.
Cao Wei China Luoyang 220 265 45 See also Three Kingdoms.
Carthaginian Empire North Africa Carthage 814 BC 146 BC 668
Cebu Rajahnate Philippines Cebu City 1279 1565 286 An Indianized state founded by a minor Chola prince.
Chagatai Khanate Transoxania Almaliq, Qarshi 1225 1687 462 Division of the Mongol Empire.
Chalukya dynasty India Badami 543 753 210
Chauhan dynasty Northern India Delhi 800 1200 400
Chenla Cambodia Isanapura 550 802 252 Succeeded by the Khmer Empire.
Chera dynasty South India Vanchi Muthur, Karur, Kodungallur, Kollam. 400 BC 1729 2129 A Tamil (Later, Malayalam) dynasty which includes Early Cheras, Medieval Cheras, Kodungallur Cheras and Venadu Cheras.
Chola dynasty South India Uraiyur, Pazhaiyaarai, Thanjavur, Gangaikonda Cholapuram 400 BC 1540 1940 A Tamil dynasty which includes Early Cholas, Medieval Cholas and Later Cholas till the reign of Virasekhara Chola (opponent of Nagama Nayak).
Commonwealth of England British Isles London 1649 1660 11 Short puritan and republican period in Britain. The Cromwell's army conquered Ireland and Jamaica.
Congo Free State actual Congo-Kinshasa Vivi then Boma 1885 1908 23 Private kingdom of Leopold II. Annexed by Belgium after the revelation of committed atrocities in rubber plantations.
Crimean Khanate Black Sea Bakhchysarai 1441 1783 342 One of the last Turkic kingdoms, annexed by Russia.
Dacian Empire Romania Sarmizegetusa Regia 168 BC 106 274 Reached its territorial expansion under King Burebista (82 BC – 44 BC) and also had the title of King of Kings.
Danish colonial empire Denmark (as Denmark–Norway 1536 – 1814) Copenhagen 1536 1953 417 See also Danish overseas colonies.
Delhi Sultanate India Delhi 1206 1527 321
Durrani Empire Afghanistan Kandahar, Kabul 1747 1823 75
Dutch Empire Netherlands Amsterdam 1568 1975 407 See also Dutch East India Company and Dutch West India Company.
Egyptian Empire Egypt Various, including Thebes, Akhetaten, Pi-Ramesses, Memphis 1550 BC 1077 BC 473 See also 18th Dynasty, 19th Dynasty & 20th Dynasty.
Elamite Empire South West Iran Susa 2800 BC 300 BC 2500
Ethiopian Empire Ethiopia Addis Ababa 1137 1974 837
Fatimid Caliphate Egypt Mahdia (909–969), Cairo (969–1171) 909 1171 262 See also Islamic Empire.
First French Empire France Paris 1804 1814/1815 10
Second French Empire France Paris 1852 1870 18
French colonial empire France Paris 1534 Either surviving until present or ended in 1980 486 as of 2020 or 446 as of 1980 Some consider the Empire ending with the end of French presence in Vanuatu (see New Hebrides) France still maintains overseas possessions in the form of Overseas France.
Frankish Empire Western Europe Various, including Soissons, Paris, Reims, Orléans, Metz & Aachen 250 950 700
Funan Cambodia Vyadhapura 50 550 500 Succeeded by the Chenla.
Gallic Empire Rhineland-Palatinate Colonia Agrippina 260 274 14 Broke off from the Roman Empire during the Crisis of the Third Century.
Gaza Empire Southern Africa Not specified 1824 1895 71
Republic of Genoa Italy Genoa 1096 1797 701 Major commercial power during the Late Middle Ages. Established colonies across the Mediterranean and Black Sea.
Georgian Empire Georgia Kutaisi, Tbilisi 1008 1490 482 Established in 1008 as an unified kingdom. Georgian kings took title "King of Kings" and ruled over large territory consisting of Georgian, Armenian and Muslim areas, as well as numerous client states. Officially dissolved at 1490.
German Empire Germany Berlin 1871 1918 47 See also German colonial empire/Also known as "The Second Reich". Otto Von Bismark as Prime minister of Prussia, uniter of Germany and then Chancellor of Germany(1871-1890) likely had far more political pull than Wilhelm I. Wilhelm I Wilhelm II
Ghana Empire Mauritania, and Western Mali Koumbi Saleh 300 1240 940 The empire became known in Europe and Arabia as the "Ghana Empire" by the title of its ruler (meaning "Warrior King"). Also known as Wagadou.
Ghaznavid dynasty Afghanistan Ghazni later Lahore 963 1187 224
Ghurid dynasty Afghanistan Firuzkuh 1148 1215 67
Goguryeo Korea[2] Jolbon, Gungnae City, Pyongyang 37 BC 668 705 Predecessor of Balhae and Goryeo.
Goryeo Korea Gaegyeong, Ganghwa 918 1392 474 Successor of Goguryeo. Unification of the Korean Peninsula. State maintained as an empire between 918 and 1274.
Gorkha Empire Greater Nepal 1600 1850 250 Unification of Greater Nepal. State maintained as an empire between 1600 and 1840.
Göktürk Khaganate Inner Asia Ötüken 552 747 195 552–603 First empire, 603–658 Double empire, 658–681 Dark age, 681–747 Second empire.
Golden Horde Central Asia Sarai Batu 1240 1502 260 Break-away state of the Mongol Empire.
Empire of Great Fulo Senegal Tekrur 1514 1776 262
Great Moravian Empire Central Europe Mikulčice-Valy 833 900 67 The word "Moravia" did not refer only to present-day Moravia.
Great Seljuq Empire Aral Sea, Asia Minor, Persia Nishapur and later on Rey 1037 1194 157 Turkish empire, predecessor of the Sultanate of Rum.
Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty India Kannauj 600 1136 660 Founded by great king of Gujjars.
Gupta Empire India Pataliputra 320 550 230 Founded by Sri Gupta.
Han dynasty China Chang'an, Luoyang, Xuchang 206 BC 220 426 Founded by Liu Bang the High Ancestor.
Hanseatic League North and Baltic Sea Lübeck 1356 1648 292 Alliance of German and Baltic merchant city-states.
Empire of Harsha Northern India Kannauj 606 647 41 Founded by Harshavardhana; collapsed after his death.
Hephthalite Empire Afghanistan Kabul 420 567 147
Hittite Empire Anatolia Hattusa 1460 BC 1180 BC 280 See also Syro-Hittite states.
Holy Roman Empire Central Europe Not specified 962 1806 844 Referred to simply as the Roman Empire (not to be confused with the actual Roman Empire) before 1157, when it became the Holy Empire. The Holy Roman Empire is attested from 1254. Was officially known as the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation after 1512, although this designation had fallen out of use again by the 18th century. See Holy Roman Empire § Name.
Hotak dynasty Persia Isfahan 1709 1738 29
Hoysala Empire India Belur, Halebidu 1026 1343 317
Hunnic Empire Eurasia Not specified 370 469 99
Idrisid dynasty Morocco Fes 788 974 186 Founders of the first Moroccan state.
Ilkhanate Persia Maragheh, Tabriz, Soltaniyeh 1256 1335 79 Division of the Mongol Empire.
Kingdom of Judah (united monarchy) Israel Jerusalem 1050 BC 586 BC 486 Considers the Start of Saul's reign, through the dual kingdoms of the Kingdom of Israel (Samaria) and the Kingdom of Judah, until the Babylonian conquest of Judah.
Inca Empire (Tawantinsuyo) Andes (Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, parts of Chile, Argentina and Colombia) Cusco 1438 1533 95 The largest empire in pre-Columbian America.
Italian Empire Italy Rome 1885 1943 58 See also Italian imperialism under Fascism.
Empire of Japan Japan Tokyo 1868 1947 79 Emperor's government took control of the country in 1868. Regional hegemony in East Asia ended in 1945. The new constitution of 1947 formally abolished the empire.[3] Meiji Hirohito
Jin dynasty (265–420) China Luoyang (265–311), Chang'an (312–316), Jiankang (317–420) 265 420 155 Subdivided into two dynasties. Western Jìn dynasty (265–316), Eastern Jìn dynasty (317–420).
Jin dynasty (1115–1234) Northern China, Manchuria Huining, Zhongdu, Kaifeng 1115 1234 119 Also known as the Jurchens, were the ancestors of the Manchus who established the Qing dynasty.
Jolof Empire West Africa Linguère 1350 1549 199 Also known as the Wollof Empire. Succeeded by the Kingdom of Jolof (1549–1875).
Kaabu Empire West Africa Kansala 1537 1867 330 Also written Gabu, Ngabou, and N’Gabu'.
Kalmar Union Scandinavia Roskilde then Copenhagen 1397 1523 126 Personal union of Denmark, Pomerania, Norway and Sweden.
Kanem Empire Chad Njimi 700 1387 687
Kanva dynasty India Pataliputra, Vidisha 75 BC 30 BC 45 Replaced the Shunga Empire.
Kara-Khanid Khanate Turkistan Kashgar 840 1212 372 First Turkic dynasty to embrace Islam.
Khazar Khaganate Pontic steppe, North Caucasus Balanjar, later Atil 700 1000 300 Founded by Western Turks, the members of the royal family embraced Judaism.
Khmer Empire Cambodia Hariharalaya (802–889), Angkor (889–1431) 802 1431 629 Succeeded from the kingdom of Chenla.
Khilji dynasty Afghanistan Kabul, Delhi 1290 1320 30
Khwarazmian dynasty Persia Urgench 1077 1221 144
Konbaung dynasty Myanmar Mandalay 1752 1885 133
Kong Empire West Africa Kong 1710 1898 298 Also known as the Wattara Empire or Ouattara Empire.
Korean Empire Korean Peninsula Hanseong 1897 1910 13 Was the last ruling Korean dynasties.
Kushan Empire Afghanistan Various, including Mathura, Peshawar, Begram, Taxila 30 345 315
Kingdom of Kush Northeast Africa, Nubia Not specified 1070 BC 350 1420
Lakota people Great Plains Great winter camps 1700 1877 circa 177 Main Native power in North America until Black Hills annexation by United States.
Latin Empire Thrace, Asia Minor Constantinople 1204 1261 57 See also Latinokratia.
Later Lê dynasty Vietnam Đông Kinh 1428 1789 361
Liao dynasty China Shangjing 915 1125 210
Lodi Sultanate Afghanistan Delhi 1451 1526 75
Macedonian Empire Macedonian Kingdom Pella 334 BC 323 BC 11 Founded by Alexander the Great.
Madurai Nayak dynasty South India Madurai,


1529 1736 207 Branched out from the Vijayanagara Empire by Viswanatha Nayak.
Majapahit Empire Indonesian Archipelago Majapahit, Wilwatikta 1293 1527 234 Founded by Raden Wijaya.
Mali Empire West Africa Niani, later Ka-ba 1235 1610 375 A Mandinka empire founded by Sundiata Keita.
Mamluk Sultanate Egypt, Syria Cairo 1250 1517 267 See also Islamic Empire.
Manchukuo Manchuria Hsinking 1932 1945 13 Created as a puppet state of the Japanese Empire, with Emperor Puyi (the last emperor of the Qing dynasty) installed as nominal regent and emperor.
Maratha Empire India Raigad, later Satara 1674 1818 144 Founded by Shivaji Maharaj, also known as the Maratha Confederacy.
Shatavahana Dynasty India 3 BC 6 BC 300 Ruled by Semukha / Gouthamiputhra.
Marinid dynasty Morocco Fes 1244 1465 221
Massina Empire West Africa Hamdullahi 1820 1862 42
Mauryan Empire Ancient India Pataliputra 321 BC 185 BC 136 Founded by Chandragupta Maurya. The Mauryan Empire became the largest ever Indian empire under Ashoka.
Median Empire Persia Ecbatana 625 BC 549 BC 76 First Iranian empire, Founded by Deioces.
First Mexican Empire Mexico Mexico City 1821 1823 2 Preceded the Second Mexican Empire which was short lived (1864–1867). See also Mexican Imperial Orders.
Second Mexican Empire Mexico Mexico City 1864 1867 3 Succeeded the First Mexican Empire which was short lived (1821–1823). See also Mexican Imperial Orders.
Ming dynasty China Nanjing (1368–1421), Beijing (1421–1644) 1368 1644 276 Founded by Zhu Yuanzhang the Great Marshal.
Mitanni Empire Syria, Iran, Iraq, Turkey Washukanni 1500 BC 1300 BC 200
Mongol Empire Mongolia Karakorum 1206 1368 162 Split into four empires (Yuan dynasty, Ilkhanate, Chagatai Khanate and Golden Horde). Largest contiguous land empire.
Mughal Empire India Agra, Delhi 1526 1758 232 Founded by Babur. "Mughal" is a Persian word for the Mongols.
Nanda Empire India Pataliputra 450 BC 350 BC 100
Neo-Babylonian Empire Mesopotamia Babylon 626 BC 539 BC 87 See also Babylonia.
Nguyễn dynasty Vietnam Phú Xuân 1802 1945 143 Was the last ruling Vietnamese dynasty.
North Sea Empire Denmark Ribe 1016 1035 19 As one historian put it: "When the 11th century began its fourth decade, Canute was, with the single exception of the Emperor, the most imposing ruler in Latin Christendom. ... [H]e was lord of four important realms and the overlord of other kingdoms. Though technically Canute was counted among the kings, his position among his fellow-monarchs was truly imperial. Apparently he held in his hands the destinies of two great regions: the British Isles and the Scandinavian peninsulas. His fleet all but controlled two important seas, the North and the Baltic. He had built an Empire."[4]
Empire of Nicaea Bithynia Nicaea 1204 1261 57 Successor state of the Byzantine Empire.
Northern Yuan dynasty Mongolia, North China Shangdu, Yingchang, Karakorum 1368 1635 267 Created after the expulsion of the Yuan dynasty from China proper in 1368.
Omani Empire Oman Muscat 1698 1856 260 See Oman.
Ottoman Empire Anatolia Söğüt, Bursa, Edirne, İstanbul 1299 1922 623 Predecessor of the Republic of Turkey. Osman I Mehmed VI
Oyo Empire Southwestern Nigeria Oyo-Ile 1400 1905 505
Pagan Empire Myanmar Bagan 849 1297 448
Pahlavi dynasty Persia Tehran 1925 1979 53 The last Imperial dynasty of the Persian Empire.
Pala Empire India Pataliputra 750 1174 424
Palmyrene Empire Syria Palmyra 270 273 3 Broke off from the Roman Empire during the Crisis of the Third Century.
Pandya dynasty South India Madurai, Korkai, Tenkasi, Tirunelveli 400 BC 1759[5] 2159 A Tamil dynasty which includes Early Pandyas, First Empire, Second Empire and Later Pandyas of Tenkasi and Tirunelveli.
Parthian Empire Persia Various, including Asaak, Hecatompylos, Ecbatana, Ctesiphon, Nisa 247 BC 224 471 Third Iranian empire, Founded by Arsaces I.
Pontic Empire Pontus Amaseia, Sinope 120 BC 47 BC 73 Mithridates VI had the title: King of Kings.
Portuguese Empire Portugal Lisbon, Rio de Janeiro (1815–1821) 1415 1999 584 It was one of the first global empires and one of the longest lived of the colonial Western European empires. See also United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves. João I Maunel II
Kingdom of Prussia Germany Berlin 1701 1871 170 Was a great power during the 18th century. Unificated Germany after the War of 1870 against France. Frederick III Wilhelm II
Ptolemaic Empire Egypt Alexandria 305 BC 30 BC 275 See also Diadochi.
Qajar dynasty[citation needed] Persia Tehran 1794 1925 131
Qin dynasty China Xianyang 221 BC 206 BC 15 First dynasty of the imperial period.
Qing dynasty China Shenyang, Beijing 1644 1912 268 Last dynasty of the imperial period.
Ramnad Sethupathis India Ramanathapuram 1590 1979 389
Rashidun Caliphate Saudi Arabia Medina, Kufa 632 661 29 Predecessor of the Umayyad Caliphate, See also Islamic Empire. Abu Bakr Hassan
Rashtrakuta dynasty India Manyakheta 753 982 229
Roman Empire Italy Rome, Milan, Ravenna 27 BC 395 (undivided)
473 (Western)
500 Together with the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic, direct Roman states lasted from 753 BC until 1453 AD, 1229 years. Formed from the Roman Republic as a consequence of the dictatorship and political assassination of Julius Caesar. The Empire was divided into the Western Roman Empire and the Eastern Roman/Byzantine Empire in 395 AD, although the latter is usually considered to have become a sort of distinct civilization. However, given that this half of the Empire fell only in 1453 AD, this extends the whole year count to 2206 years. Octavianus Augustus Theodosius I (undivided)
Romulus Augustus (Western)
Rouran Khaganate Inner China Not specified 330 555 225
Rozwi Empire Southern Africa Danangombe 1660 1866 206
Russian Empire (Romanov) Russia Saint Petersburg 1721 1917 196 Successor state of the Tsardom of Russia. Peter The Great Nicolas II
Saadi dynasty Morocco Marrakech 1554 1659 105 Destroyed the Songhai Empire.
Safavid dynasty Persia Tabriz, Qazvin, Esfahan 1501 1736 235
Saffarid dynasty Persia Zaranj 867 1002 135
Sassanid dynasty Persia Ctesiphon 224 651 427 Fourth Iranian Empire.
Satavahana dynasty India Amaravathi village, Guntur district Dharanikota 230 BC 220 450 An Andhra dynasty which preceded the Vengi dynasty of Andhra.
Samanid Empire Persia Balkh, Bukhara 819 999 180
Duchy of Savoy Savoy Chambéry then Turin 1416 1713 297 Theorically member state of Holy Roman Empire then vassal of France. Ruled a territory from Romandy to Nice.
Seleucid Empire Persia, Mesopotamia, Syria Seleucia, Antioch 312 BC 63 BC 249 See also Diadochi.
Serbian Empire Balkans (Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Epirus, Thessaly, Albania) Skopje, Prizren 1346 1371 25 Founded by Stephen Uroš IV (Dušan the Mighty), fell into feudal disarray after his death.
Shu Han China Chengdu 221 263 42 See also Three Kingdoms.
Siam Empire Thailand Bangkok 1782 1932 150
Sikh Empire Punjab region Lahore 1733 1849 116 Preceded the British Empire in the Indian subcontinent.
Sokoto Caliphate West Africa Sokoto (1804–1850), (1851–1902), Gudu (1804), Birnin Konni (1850, 1903) 1804 1903 99
Song dynasty China Bianjing (960–1127), Lin'an (1127–1279) 960 1279 319 Founded by Zhao Kuangyin.
Songhai Empire West Africa Gao 1340 1591 251 Former vassal of the Mali Empire which became one of the largest African empires in history.
Spanish Empire Iberian Peninsula Madrid 1479 1975 483 Was founded with Columbus’s funding, by the Catholic monarchs of Castille and Aragon, to his first voyage (that would land in America). Ferdinand V & Isabella I Fransisco Franco
Srivijaya Empire Indonesian Archipelago Palembang, Mataram 683 1293 610 It was a powerful ancient thalassocratic Malay empire based on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia, then based on Mataram (Medang Kingdom) under Sailendra's dynasty.
Sui dynasty China Chang'an 581 618 37
Wadiyar dynasty (Kingdom of Mysore) Mysuru, Karnataka Yaduraya Wodeyar (1399-2020) 1399 700
Shunga Empire India Pataliputra, Vidisa 185 BC 73 BC 112 Magadha dynasty that controlled North-central and Eastern India.
Swedish Empire Sweden Stockholm 1611 1721 110 See also Swedish overseas colonies.
Tahirid dynasty Persia Nishapur 821 873 52
Tang dynasty China Chang'an (618–904), Luoyang (904–907) 618 907 289 Founded By Li Yuan (aka. Emperor Gaozu of Tang).
Thanjavur Nayak dynasty South India Thanjavur 1532 1673 141 Founded by Sevappa Nayak.
Tây Sơn dynasty Vietnam Phú Xuân 1778 1802 24
Empire of Thessalonica Epirus, Kingdom of Thessalonica Thessaloniki 1224 1246 42 Evolved from the Despotate of Epirus.
Third Reich Germany Berlin, Hamburg (1933–1945), Flensburg (1945) 1933 1945 12 Nazi Germany signed a treaty (Tripartite Pact) with the Japanese and Italian Empire. Only lasted at its height from winter 1941-42 when the Soviet Union started counterattacks. Adolf Hitler General Alfred Jodl (Signed surrender terms on May 7, 1945)[6]
Tibetan Empire Tibet Lhasa 755 842 87 Expansion of Tibet started ~626. The death of the last leader lead to a civil war which destroyed the empire.[7] Trisong Dretsen Tsenpo Langadarma
Tondo dynasty Philippines Tondo 900 1587 687
Timurid Empire Uzbekistan, Persia and Central Asia Samarkand, Herat 1370 1526 156 Persianized form of the Mongolian word kürügän, Turko-Mongol Empire.
Tlemcen Algeria Tlemcen 1235 1556 321 Zayyanid dynasty
Empire of Trebizond Pontus Trebizond 1204 1461 257 Successor state of the Byzantine Empire and a client state of the Kingdom of Georgia.
Toltec Empire Mesoamerica Tollan-Xicocotitlan 496 1122 626 Ce Técpatl Mixcoatl or Huémac (Unsure/potentially mythical) Topiltzin or Huemac (Accounts differ)
Toungoo dynasty Toungoo Myanmar 1510 1752 242
Toucouleur Empire West Africa Ségou 1848 1893 45
Tu'i Tonga Empire Tonga, Pacific Ocean Mu'a 950 1865 915 See History of Tonga.
Turgesh Khaganate Turkistan Balasagun 699 766 67 Founded as a successor of West Turkish empire.
Umayyad Caliphate Syria Damascus, Córdoba (capital-in-exile) 661 750 89 Successor of the Rashidun Caliphate, See also Islamic Empire.
Uyunid Emirate Arabian Al-Hasa, Qatif 1076 1253 163 The Uyunids were a Sunni Arab dynasty that ruled Bahrain for 163 years, from the 11th to the 13th centuries.
Uyghur Khaganate Central Asia Ordubaliq 742 848 106 742–848 Founded as a successor of Göktürk Khaganate, 848–1036 Gansu state, 856–1209 Turfan state.
Vijayanagara Empire Karnataka, India Vijayanagara 1336 1646 310 A Kannada kingdown, where Gold use to be traded in streets, most richest kingdom in the world.
Republic of Venice Italy Venice 697 1797 1100 Major great power during the Middle Ages and the Early modern period.
Wari Empire Peru, Bolivia Huari/Tiwanaku 500 1100 600 It is a matter of conflict as to whether it was a real organized state that could be called an empire. If so, it would be considered the first empire in the Americas.
Wassoulou Empire West Africa Bissandugu 1878 1895 45 Also known as the Mandinka Empire.
Western Chalukya Empire South India Manyakheta, Basavakalyan 973 1189 216
Western Roman Empire Italy Mediolanum, Ravenna 395 476 81 The western half of the Roman Empire.
Eastern Wu China Wuchang, Jianye 229 280 51 See also Three Kingdoms.
Western Xia dynasty China Xingqing 1038 1227 189 Also called the Tangut dynasty.
Xin dynasty China Chang'an 9 23 14 The Xin dynasty had only one ruling emperor.
Yuan dynasty China, Mongolia Dadu 1271 1368 97 Division of the Mongol Empire. The Yuan emperors had nominal supremacy over western khanates.
Zand dynasty Persia Shiraz 1750 1794 44
Zhou dynasty China Fenghao, Wangcheng, Chengzhou 1046 BC 256 BC 794 Zenith of bronze age in China.
Zulu Empire South Africa KwaBulawayo, Ulundi 1818 1897 79

Possible and informal empires[edit]

These governments, confederations and other entities have sometimes been informally referred to as "empires". Some did not fit the modern definition of empire (e.g. the Delian League), some were self-proclaimed by their first and often last ruler, others were short-lived attempts to turn an existing government into an empire, and there are also instances of the word "empire" being used to refer to unofficial spheres of influence which do not consider themselves empires.

"Empire" Origin Capital From To Duration Note
American Empire United States Washington, D.C. 1776 Present 244 The concept of an American Empire was first popularized during the presidency of James K. Polk who led the United States into the Mexican–American War of 1846. In recent times the concept has been revived to refer to the sphere of influence of the United States by its critics.
Athenian Empire (Delian League) Ancient Greece Delos island 478 BC 404 BC 74 Also known as the Delian League. It was an association of Greek city-states.
Second Athenian League Ancient Greece Athens 378 BC 355 BC 23 Second Athenian League, headed by Athens primarily for self-defense against the growth of Sparta and the Persian Empire.
Central African Empire Central African Republic Bangui 1976 1979 3 President Jean-Bédel Bokassa declared himself Emperor Bokassa I in 1976. Along he proclaiming the empire as a constitutional monarchy. The Central African Empire was a hypothetical empire in Africa.
Empire of China China Beijing 1915 1916 1 Was a short-lived attempt by Yuan Shikai to reinstate the Imperial Monarchy.
First Empire of Haiti Haiti Port-au-Prince 1804 1806 2

First Haitian Empire, Jean-Jacques Dessalines declared himself Emperor Jacques I.

Second Empire of Haiti Haiti Port-au-Prince 1849 1859 10

Second Haitian Empire, Faustin Soulouque is proclaimed Emperor Faustin I.

European Union (EU) Various member nations No capital as it is a political, economic, and military alliance between the member nations.

If there were a capital it would be Brussels or Strasbourg.

1993 Present 27 The EU is a political, economic, and military alliance between the member nations which adhere to certain centralized law-sets and has its own governmental positions. While the EU isn't considered an empire, it still has a large amount of political and economic sway (GDP of $18.292 trillion in 2019) in the world such as bailing out member states in Bankruptcy (Greece) and standing as a militaristic unity to curb aggressive powers such as Russia

The EU is comparable to the US except far less centralized in government.

The EU has often been referred to as "The Fourth Reich" to critics due to the large political and economic influence of Germany.

Grand Duchy of Lithuania Lithuania Vilnius 1200 1569 369 It was the largest state in Europe in the 15th century.
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Poland, Lithuania Kraków 1569 1795 226 It was formed by the Union of Lublin in 1569, between the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. It was one of the largest and one of the most populous countries of 16th and 17th-century Europe, with some 390,000 square miles (1,000,000 km2) and a multi-ethnic population of 11 million at its peak in the early 17th century.[8][9][10][11][12][13]
Roman Republic Italy Rome 509 BC 27 BC 482 Predecessor of the Roman Empire. Technically a Republic, had imperial holdings throughout its existence.
Kingdom of Romania Romania Bucharest 1920 1944 24 Following the post–World War I treaties that ratified its borders (the last one being the 1920 Treaty of Trianon), the newly-enlarged Romanian monarchy was rated by the Comintern as a multi-national imperial state that subjugated ethnic minorities.[14][15] Indeed, according to the 1930 Romanian census, just over 28% of Romania's inhabitants were not ethnic Romanians. Non-Romanians formed the majority in 14 out of Romania's 71 counties. In 11 Romanian counties, Romanians formed less than 40% of the population: Caliacra (22.6% Romanians), Cernăuți (21.8% Romanians), Cetatea Albă (18.5% Romanians), Ciuc (14.4% Romanians), Durostor (19% Romanians), Hotin (35% Romanians), Ismail (31.9% Romanians), Odorhei (4.9% Romanians), Storojineț (33.9% Romanians), Timiș-Torontal (37.6% Romanians) and Trei Scaune (16% Romanians).

The issue of "Romanian imperialism" (as Romanian leading politician Iuliu Maniu put it) was further exacerbated by the 1941 creation of the Romanian Transnistria Governorate from parts of the Ukrainian SSR, under the rule of "Conducător" Ion Antonescu.[16] These new borders lasted until 1944. According to the 1941 Romanian census, 21 out of the now 73 Romanian counties were inhabited by a non-Romanian ethnic majority, including all of the 13 Transnistrian counties (the entire Transnistrian region was over 75% Ukrainian). Two of the 21 counties did have Romanian plurality (meaning that the Romanians were the largest ethnic group, but still less than half of the county population).

Soviet Empire Soviet Union (U.S.S.R: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) Moscow 1922 1991 69 A political term for the sphere of influence of the Soviet Union used by its critics. March 8, 1983 Ronald Reagan declared the Soviet Union to be an "Evil Empire"

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Friends Of The British Overseas Territories
  2. ^ "Koguryŏ". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2019-07-26.
  3. ^ "Chronological table 5 1 December 1946 – 23 June 1947". National Diet Library. Retrieved September 30, 2010.
  4. ^ Larson, Laurence M (1912). Canute the Great, 995(Circ)–1035, and the Rise of Danish Imperialism During the Viking Age. Putnam.
  5. ^ Sethuraman, N. (1993). The Later Pandyas (1371 - 1759 AD). Tiruchirapalli: The Epigraphical Society of India.
  6. ^,at%20Reims%2C%20in%20northeastern%20France. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  7. ^ "The Rise and Fall of the Tibetan Empire".
  8. ^ Davies, Norman (1996). Europe: A History. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 554. ISBN 978-0-19-820171-7. Poland-Lithuania was another country which experienced its 'Golden Age' during the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. The realm of the last Jagiellons was absolutely the largest state in Europe.
  9. ^ Wandycz, Piotr Stefan (2001). The Price of Freedom: A History of East Central Europe from the Middle Ages to the Present (2nd ed.). London [u.a.]: Routledge. p. 66. ISBN 978-0-415-25491-5. The multinational character of the Habsburg monarchy was comparable to that of the Commonwealth [...]
  10. ^ McKenna, Amy, ed. (2014). Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland. The Britannica Guide to Countries of the European Union. Chicago: Britannica Educational Publishing. p. 203. ISBN 978-1-61530-991-7. Lithuania was also a powerful empire and dominated much of eastern Europe in the 14th–16th centuries in close alignment with Poland; then, from 1569, it was part of a confederation with Poland [...]
  11. ^ Lozny, Ludomir (2005). "Poland". In Skutsch, Carl (ed.). Encyclopedia of the World's Minorities. 3. New York [u.a.]: Routledge. p. 963. ISBN 978-1-135-19388-1. It was indeed an Eastern European empire, a multiethnic and multicultural state with great economic strength and strong military power, controlling most of central and eastern European politics.
  12. ^ Kupisz, Dariusz (2012). "The Polish-Lithuanian Army in the Reign of King Stefan Bathory (1576–1586)". In Davies, Brian L. (ed.). Warfare in Eastern Europe, 1500–1800. History of Warfare. 72. Boston: Brill. p. 63. ISBN 978-90-04-22196-3. In terms of territorial expanse in Europe the Polish-Lithuanian state was surpassed only by Russia and the Ottoman Empire and in respect to population was behind only France, Spain, and the German Empire.
  13. ^ Davies, Brian L. (2011). Empire and Military Revolution in Eastern Europe: Russia's Turkish Wars in the Eighteenth Century. Continuum Studies in Military History. London [u.a.]: Continuum. p. 29. ISBN 978-1-4411-7004-0. Poland-Lithuania had entered the seventeenth century as one of the great powers in Eastern Europe.
  14. ^ van de Grift, Liesbeth (2012). Securing the Communist State: The Reconstruction of Coercive Institutions in the Soviet Zone of Germany and Romania, 1944–1948. The Harvard Cold War Studies Book Series. Lanham: Lexington Books. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-7391-7178-3.
  15. ^ Fehér, Ferenc; Arato, Andrew, eds. (1991). Crisis and Reform in Eastern Europe. Transaction Publishers. p. 162. ISBN 978-0-88738-311-3.
  16. ^ Deletant, Dennis (2006). Hitler's Forgotten Ally: Ion Antonescu and his Regime, Romania 1940–1944. Springer. pp. 85, 267.

External links[edit]