List of governors general of Canada

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The following is a list of the governors and governors general of Canada. Though the present-day office of the Governor General of Canada is legislatively covered under the Constitution Act, 1867, and legally constituted by the Letters Patent, 1947, the institution is, along with the institution of the Crown it represents, the oldest continuous and uniquely Canadian institution in Canada, having existed in an unbroken line since the appointment of Samuel de Champlain in 1627.[1]

Viceroys of Canada, 1541–1627[edit]

Arms of France (France Moderne).svg Viceroys representing the monarchs of France
# Name Image Viceroy from Viceroy until
Under Francis I (1541–1547)
1 Jean-François de la Roque de Roberval[2][3] Jean-François de la Roque de Roberval.jpg 1541 1543
Under Henry III (1574–1589)
2 Troillus des Mesgoüets[2][4] Grand Royal Coat of Arms of France.svg 1578 ?
Under Henry IV (1589–1610)
Troillus des Mesgoüets
(continued)
1598 ?
3 Aymar Chaste[citation needed] Grand Royal Coat of Arms of France.svg 1602 1603
Under Louis XIII of France (1610–1627)
4 Henri, Prince of Condé[5] Henri Prince of Conde Moncornet.jpg 1614 1619
5 Henri II de Montmorency[6] Henri II de Montmorency.jpg 1619 1625
6 Henri de Lévis de Ventadour[7] Grand Royal Coat of Arms of France.svg 1625 1627

Governors of New France, 1627–1663[edit]

Arms of France (France Moderne).svg Governors representing the monarchs of France
# Name Image Governor from Governor until
Under Louis XIII of France (1627–1643)
1 Samuel de Champlain
(1574–1635)
GG-Champlain.jpg 1627 1635
2 Charles de Montmagny
(c. 1599–1654)
CharlesHuaultMontmagny.jpg 1635
Under Louis XIV (1643–1663)
Charles de Montmagny
(continued)
1648
3 Louis d'Ailleboust de Coulonge
(c. 1612–1660)
Louis d'Ailleboust de Coulonge.jpg 1648 1651
4 Jean de Lauson
(1584–1666)
Lausonjean.JPG 1651 1657
5 Pierre de Voyer d'Argenson, Vicomte de Mouzay
(c. 1599–1654)
Grand Royal Coat of Arms of France.svg 1658 1661
6 Pierre Dubois Davaugour
(1625–1709)
Pierre du Bois d'Avaugour.jpg 1661 1663

Governors General of New France, 1663–1760[edit]

Arms of France (France Moderne).svg Governors general representing the monarchs of France
# Name Image Governor from Governor until
Under Louis XIV of France (1663–1715)
7 Augustin de Saffray de Mésy
(1598–1665)
Augustin de Saffray de Mezy.jpg 1663 1665
8 Daniel de Rémy de Courcelle
(1626–1698)
Daniel Remy de Courcelles.JPG 1665 1672
9 Louis de Buade de Frontenac
(1622–1698) (first time)
Frontenac bust.jpg 1672 1682
10 Joseph-Antoine de La Barre
(1622–1688)
Joseph-Antoine Le Febvre de La Barre.jpg 1682 1685
11 Jacques-René de Brisay de Denonville, Marquis de Denonville
(1637–1710)
Denonville.jpg 1685 1689
9 Louis de Buade de Frontenac
(1622–1698; second appointment)
Frontenac bust.jpg 1689 1698
12 Louis-Hector de Callière
(1648–1703)
Hector-Calliere.jpg 1698 1703
13 Philippe de Rigaud Vaudreuil
(c. 1643–1725)
GG-Vaudreuil.jpg 1703
Under Louis XV (1715–1760)
Philippe de Rigaud Vaudreuil
(continued)
1725
14 Charles de la Boische, Marquis de Beauharnois
(1671–1749)
Marquis de Beauharnois.jpg 1725 1747
15 Roland-Michel Barrin de La Galissonière
(1693–1756)
GG-La Galissoniere.jpg 1747 1749
16 Jacques-Pierre de Taffanel de la Jonquière, Marquis de la Jonquière
(1685–1752)
GG-Jonquiere.jpg 1749 1752
17 Michel-Ange Duquesne de Menneville
(c. 1700–1778)
GG-Quesne.jpg 1752 1755
18 Pierre de Rigaud, Marquis de Vaudreuil-Cavagnal
(1698–1778)
GG-Vaudreuil2.jpg 1755 1760

Governors of the Province of Quebec, 1760–1786[edit]

Royal Arms of Great Britain (1714-1801).svg Governors representing the monarchs of Great Britain
# Name Image Governor from Governor until
Under George III of the United Kingdom (1760–1786)
19 Jeffery Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst
(1717–1797)
GG-Jeffrey Amherst.jpg 1760 1763
20 James Murray
(1721–1794)
GG-James Murray.jpg 1764 1768
21 Guy Carleton, 1st Baron Dorchester
KB
(1724–1808)
General-Sir-Guy-Carleton 2.jpg 1768 1778
22 Sir Frederick Haldimand
KB
(1718–1791)
Sir Frederick Haldimand by Sir Joshua Reynolds.jpg 1778 1786

Governors-in-Chief/Governors General of the Canadas, 1786–1841[edit]

Royal Arms of Great Britain (1714-1801).svg Governors representing the monarchs of Great Britain
# Name Image Governor from Governor until
Under George III of the United Kingdom (1786–1820)
23 Guy Carleton, 1st Baron Dorchester
KB
(1724–1808)
General-Sir-Guy-Carleton 2.jpg 1786 1796
24 Robert Prescott
(c. 1726–1815)
GG-Robert Prescott.jpg 1796 1799
25 Sir Robert Milnes, 1st Baronet
(1754–1837)
GG-Milnes.jpg 1799
Royal Arms of United Kingdom (1801-1816).svg Governors representing the monarchs of the United Kingdom
Sir Robert Milnes
(continued)
1805
26 Thomas Dunn
(1729–1818)
Can GG NoPic.svg 1805 1807
27 Sir James Henry Craig
KB
(1748–1812)
GG-James Henry Craig.jpg 1807 1811
28 Sir George Prévost
Bt
(1767–1816)
GG-George Prevost.jpg 1811 1815
29 Sir Gordon Drummond
(1767–1816)
GG-Drummond.jpg 1815 1816
30 Sir John Coape Sherbrooke
(1764–1830)
GG-John Coape Sherbrooke.jpg 1816 1818
31 Charles Lennox, 4th Duke of Richmond
KG PC
(1764–1865)
GG-Charles Lennox.jpg 1818 1819
Under George IV of the United Kingdom (1820–1830)
32 George Ramsay, 9th Earl of Dalhousie
GCB
(1770–1838)
GG-George Ramsay.jpg 1820 1828
33 Sir James Kempt
GCB
(c. 1765–1854)
Sir James Kempt by William Salter cropped 5 6 ratio.jpg 1828 1830
Under William IV (1830–1837)
34 Matthew Whitworth-Aylmer, 5th Baron Aylmer
(1775–1850)
GG-Matthew Whitworth-Aylmer.jpg 1830 1835
35 Archibald Acheson, 2nd Earl of Gosford
GCB
(1776–1849)
GG-Archibald Acheson.jpg 1835 1837
Under Victoria (1837–1841)
36 John Colborne, 1st Baron Seaton
GCB GCMG GCH AdC(P)
(1778–1863)
GG-John Colborne.jpg 1837 1838
37 John Lambton, 1st Earl of Durham
(1792–1840)
GG-John George Lambton.jpg 1838 1839
38 Charles Poulett Thomson, 1st Baron Sydenham
PC
(1799–1841)
GG-Charles Poulett Thomson.jpg 1839 1841

Governors General of the Province of Canada, 1841–1867[edit]

Arms of the United Kingdom.svg Governors general representing the monarchs of the United Kingdom
# Name Image Governor from Governor until
Under Queen Victoria (1841–1867)
The Lord Sydenham
(continued)
1841
39 Sir Charles Bagot
(1781–1843)
GG-Charles Bagot.jpg 1842 1843
40 Charles Metcalfe, 1st Baron Metcalfe
Bt PC
(1785–1844)
GG-Charles T. Metcalfe.jpg 1843 1845
41 Charles Cathcart, 2nd Earl Cathcart
GCB
(1783–1859)
GG-Charles Murray Cathcart.jpg 1846 1847
42 James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin
PC GCB
(1811–1863)
GG-James Bruce Elgin.jpg 1847 1854
43 Sir Edmund Walker Head
Bt KCB
(1805–1868)
GG-Edmund Walker Head.jpg 1854 1861
44 Charles Monck, 4th Viscount Monck
PC GCMG
(1819–1894)
GG-Charles Monck.jpg 1861 1867

Governors General of Canada, 1867–present[edit]

Arms of the United Kingdom.svg Governors general representing the monarchs of the United Kingdom
# # Name Image Profession Governor from Governor until Prime Minister
Under Queen Victoria (1867–1901)
1 The Viscount Monck
(continued)
politician[8] 1 July 1867 14 November 1868 Macdonald
45 2 John Young, 1st Baron Lisgar
GCMG GCB PC
(1807–1876)
GG-John Young.jpg politician[9] 2 February 1869 25 June 1872 Macdonald
46 3 Frederick Hamilton-Temple-Blackwood, 1st Marquess of Dufferin and Ava
KP GCB GCMG PC
(1826–1902)
GG-Frederick Hamilton-Temple-Blackwood.jpg diplomat[10] 25 June 1872 25 November 1878 Macdonald
Mackenzie
Macdonald
47 4 John Campbell, 9th Duke of Argyll
KG KT GCMG GCVO PC
(1845–1914)
GG-John Campbell.jpg author[11] 25 November 1878 23 October 1883 Macdonald
48 5 Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, 5th Marquess of Lansdowne
KG GCMG PC
(1845–1927)
GG-Henry Petty-FitzMaurice.jpg politician[12] 23 October 1883 11 June 1888 Macdonald
49 6 Frederick Stanley, 16th Earl of Derby
KG GCB GCVO PC
(1841–1908)
GG-Frederick Stanley.jpg politician[13] 11 June 1888 18 September 1893 Macdonald
Abbott
Thompson
50 7 John Hamilton-Gordon, 1st Marquess of Aberdeen and Temair
KT GCMG GCVO PC
(1847–1934)
John Hamilton Gordon Earl of Aberdeen 1884.jpg politician[14] 18 September 1893 12 November 1898 Thompson
Bowell
Tupper
Laurier
51 8 Gilbert Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, 4th Earl of Minto
KG GCMG PC
(1845–1914)
GG-Gilbert Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound.jpg military officer[15] 12 November 1898 Laurier
Under Edward VII (1901–1910)
The Earl of Minto
(continued)
10 December 1904 Laurier
52 9 Albert Grey, 4th Earl Grey
GCMG GCVO PC
(1851–1917)
GG-Albert Grey.jpg politician[16] 10 December 1904 Laurier
Under George V (1910–1931)
The Earl Grey
(continued)
13 October 1911 Laurier
Borden
53 10 Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn
KG KT KP GCB GCSI GCMG GCIE GCVO GBE TD PC ADC
(1850–1942)
GG-Prince Arthur.jpg military officer[17] 13 October 1911 11 November 1916 Borden
54 11 Victor Cavendish, 9th Duke of Devonshire
KG GCMG GCVO PC JP
(1868–1938)
GG-Victor Cavendish.jpg politician[18] 11 November 1916 11 August 1921 Borden
Meighen
55 12 Julian Byng, 1st Viscount Byng of Vimy
GCB GCMG MVO
(1862–1935)
GG-Julian Byng.jpg military officer[19] 11 August 1921 2 October 1926 Meighen
King
Meighen
King
56 13 Freeman Freeman-Thomas, 1st Marquess of Willingdon
GCSI GCMG GCIE GBE PC
(1866–1941)
GG-Freeman Freeman-Thomas.jpg politician[20] 2 October 1926 King
Bennett
Canadian Coat of Arms Shield.svg Governors general representing the monarchs of Canada
The Marquess of Willingdon
(continued)
4 April 1931 Bennett
57 14 Vere Ponsonby, 9th Earl of Bessborough
GCMG PC
(1880–1956)
GG-Vere Ponsonby.jpg businessman[21] 4 April 1931 2 November 1935 Bennett
King
58 15 John Buchan, 1st Baron Tweedsmuir
GCMG GCVO CH PC
(1875–1940)
GG-John Buchan.jpg author[22] 2 November 1935 King
Under Edward VIII (1936)
The Lord Tweedsmuir
(continued)
King
Under George VI (1936–1952)
The Lord Tweedsmuir
(continued)
11 February 1940 King
59 16 Alexander Cambridge, 1st Earl of Athlone
KG GCB GCMG GCVO DSO PC ADC FRS
(1874–1957)
GG-Alexander Cambridge.jpg military officer[23] 21 June 1940 12 April 1946 King
60 17 Harold Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis KG GCB OM GCMG CSI DSO MC CD PC PC
(1891–1969)
GG-Harold Alexander.jpg military officer[24] 12 April 1946 King
St. Laurent
Under Elizabeth II (1952–present)
The Earl Alexander of Tunis
(continued)
28 February 1952 St. Laurent
61 18 Vincent Massey
PC CH CD FRSC(hon)
(1887–1967)
Vincent Massey 1927.jpg diplomat[25] 28 February 1952 15 September 1959 St. Laurent
Diefenbaker
62 19 Georges Vanier
PC DSO MC CD
(1888–1967)
GG-Vanier.jpg army officer, diplomat[26] 15 September 1959 5 March 1967 Diefenbaker
Pearson
63 20 Roland Michener
PC CC CMM CD QC FRHSC
(1900–1991)
Governor General Roland Michener at Alma College graduation ceremonies 1972 (crop).jpg politician[27] 17 April 1967 14 January 1974 Pearson
P. E. Trudeau
64 21 Jules Léger
CC CMM CD
(1913–1980)
diplomat[28] 14 January 1974 22 January 1979 P. E. Trudeau
65
[a]
22 Edward Schreyer
CC CMM CD
(b. 1935)
Edward Schreyer (crop).jpg politician[29] 22 January 1979 14 May 1984 P. E. Trudeau
Clark
P. E. Trudeau
66 23 Jeanne Sauvé
PC CC CMM CD
(1922–1993)
Jeanne Sauvé 1984 Ottawa Canada (crop).jpg journalist, politician[30] 14 May 1984 29 January 1990 P. E. Trudeau
Turner
Mulroney
67 24 Ray Hnatyshyn
PC CC CMM CD QC FRHSC(hon)
(1934–2002)
politician[31] 29 January 1990 8 February 1995 Mulroney
Campbell
Chrétien
68 25 Roméo LeBlanc
PC CC CMM CD
(1928–2009)
journalist, politician[32] 8 February 1995 7 October 1999 Chrétien
69 26 Adrienne Clarkson
PC CC CMM COM CD FRSC(hon) FRAIC(hon) FRCPSC(hon)
(b. 1939)
GG-Adrienne Clarkson2.jpg journalist[33] 7 October 1999 27 September 2005 Chrétien
Martin
70 27 Michaëlle Jean
PC CC CMM COM CD FRCPSC(hon)
(b. 1957)
GG-Michaëlle Jean.jpg journalist[34] 27 September 2005 1 October 2010 Martin
Harper
71 28 David Johnston
PC CC CMM COM CD FRSC(hon) FRCPSC(hon)
(b. 1941)
GG-Johnston.jpg university administrator[35] 1 October 2010 2 October 2017[36] Harper
J. Trudeau
72 29 Julie Payette
CC CMM COM OQ CD
(b. 1963)
Julie Payette 2017.jpg astronaut, engineer[37] 2 October 2017[36] Incumbent J. Trudeau
  1. ^  †  denotes living former Governors General

Living former governors general of Canada[edit]

As of September 2020, there are four living former governors general of Canada. The most recently deceased governor general, Roméo LeBlanc (1995–1999), died on 24 June 2009.

Living as of 26 November 2020
Name Term of office Date of birth
Edward Schreyer 1979–1984 (1935-12-21) 21 December 1935 (age 84)
Adrienne Clarkson 1999–2005 (1939-02-10) 10 February 1939 (age 81)
Michaëlle Jean 2005–2010 (1957-09-06) 6 September 1957 (age 63)
David Johnston 2010–2017 (1941-06-28) 28 June 1941 (age 79)

Administrators[edit]

The following is a list of Administrators of the Government, Justices of the Supreme Court of Canada who were acting governors appointed as the result of the death or prolonged absence of the sitting viceroy, or for any other reason:

# Name Image Date Reason
1 Lyman Duff
Puisne Justice of the Supreme Court of Canada
Lyman Poore Duff.jpg 1931 Served between the departure of the Earl of Bessborough for India and the arrival of the Lord Tweedsmuir.
1 Lyman Duff
Chief Justice of Canada
Lyman Poore Duff.jpg 1940 Served following the death of the Lord Tweedsmuir and the arrival of Alexander Cambridge, 1st Earl of Athlone
2 Thibaudeau Rinfret
Chief Justice of Canada
Thibaudeau Rinfret.JPG 1952 Served after the appointment of the Earl Alexander of Tunis to the British Cabinet until the appointment of Vincent Massey as his successor.
3 Robert Taschereau
Chief Justice of Canada
Robert Taschereau.png 1967 Served following the death of Georges Vanier and appointment of Roland Michener as his successor.
4 Beverley McLachlin
Chief Justice of Canada
Beverley McLachlin.jpg 2005 Served for several weeks in July, while Adrienne Clarkson was hospitalized for heart surgery.
5 John C. Major
Puisne Justice of the Supreme Court of Canada
Can GG NoPic.svg 2005 Served on behalf of Adrienne Clarkson, from the morning of 27 September until the installation of Michaëlle Jean the same day.[38]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Department of Canadian Heritage (2015). A Crown of Maples: Constitutional Monarchy in Canada (PDF). Ottawa: Queen's Printer for Canada. p. 34. ISBN 978-1-100-20079-8.[permanent dead link]
  2. ^ a b Senate of Canada. "Canada: A Constitutional Monarchy". Queen's Printer for Canada. Archived from the original on 9 May 2011. Retrieved 18 September 2015.
  3. ^ La Roque de Roquebrune, R. (1979) [1966]. "La Rocque de Roberval, Jean-François de". In Brown, George Williams (ed.). Dictionary of Canadian Biography. I (1000–1700) (online ed.). University of Toronto Press.
  4. ^ Government of Canada. "The Kings and Queens of Canada: The Crown in Canadian History > Henri III (1551–1589)". Queen's Printer for Canada. Archived from the original on 28 January 2016. Retrieved 9 October 2014.
  5. ^ Wrong, George M. (2009), Langton, H. H. (ed.), The Chronicles of Canada, II: The Rise of New France, Fireship Press, pp. 33–35, ISBN 9781934757451, retrieved 18 September 2015
  6. ^ Wrong 2009, p. 35
  7. ^ Wrong 2009, p. 51
  8. ^ "The Viscount Monck". The Governor General of Canada. Office of the Secretary to the Governor General. Missing or empty |url= (help); |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  9. ^ "Sir John Young, Baron Lisgar". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  10. ^ Harris, Carolyn. "Lord Dufferin". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  11. ^ Harris, Carolyn. "John Douglas Sutherland Campbell, Marquess of Lorne". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  12. ^ Harris, Carolyn. "The Marquess of Landsdowne, Governor General of Canada". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  13. ^ Harris, Carolyn. "Lord Stanley". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  14. ^ Harris, Carolyn. "John Campbell Hamilton-Gordon, Earl of Aberdeen". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  15. ^ Harris, Carolyn. "Gibert John Murray Kynynmound Elliot, 4th Earl of Minto". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  16. ^ "Albert Grey, 4th Earl Grey". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  17. ^ Harris, Carolyn. "Prince Arthur, 1st Duke of Connaught and Strathearn". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  18. ^ Harris, Carolyn. "Victor Cavendish, 9th Duke of Devonshire". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  19. ^ Harris, Carolyn. "Viscount Byng of Vimy". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  20. ^ "The Marquess of Willingdon". Governor General of Canada. Office of the Governor General. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  21. ^ Hillmer, Norman. "Vere Barbazon Ponsonby, 9th Earl of Bessborough". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  22. ^ Hillmer, Norman. "John Buchan, 1st Baron Tweedsmuir". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  23. ^ {{cite web |last1=Harris |first1=Carolyn |title=Alexander Cambridge, Earl of Athlone |url=https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/alexander-cambridge-earl-of-athlone |website=The Canadian Encyclopedia
  24. ^ Hillmer, Norman. "Harold Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada.
  25. ^ Granatstein, J.L. "Vincent Massey". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  26. ^ Monet, Jacques. "Georges Vanier". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  27. ^ Hillmer, Norman. "Roland Michener". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  28. ^ Monet, Jacques. "Jules Leger". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  29. ^ Hillmer, Norman. "Ed Schreyer". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  30. ^ Tremblay, Jean-Noel. "Jeanne Sauvé". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  31. ^ Hillmer, Norman. "Ray Hnatyshyn". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  32. ^ "Roméo LeBlanc". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  33. ^ "Adrienne Clarkson". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  34. ^ "Michaëlle Jean". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  35. ^ Azzi, Stephen. "David Lloyd Johnston". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  36. ^ a b "Incoming Governor General Julie Payette drops attempt to seal U.S. court records". ctvnews.ca. 21 August 2017.
  37. ^ Raymond, Katrine. "Julie Payette". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  38. ^ Fidelis (2005). "The Installation of the Governor General in 2005: Innovation and Evolution?" (PDF). Canadian Monarchist News. Toronto: Monarchist League of Canada. Fall-Winter 2005 (24): 4. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 8, 2009. Retrieved 15 July 2009.

External links[edit]