List of lynching victims in the United States
If you add a lynching to this list, and an article on the lynching exists, please also add it to Template:Lynching in the United States. If no article exists, consider writing one.
This is a sortable table. Click on the heading you want it sorted by. Complex sorts are possible. For example, to produce a list sorted by state, and then alphabetically by county/parish within the state, and if there is more than one in a county, by last name — click first on the Name tab, then County/Parish tab, then State. One clicks first on the narrowest sort (by last names within a county), then by more general (counties/parishes), and finally the most general (states).
Instances of the perpetrators being punished through the judicial system are marked in bold.
|Name||Age||Ethnicity||City||County or Parish||State||Year||Accusation||Comment|
|Perry McChristian||White||Grenada||Grenada||Mississippi||1885||Murder of white peddler|||
|Felix Williams||White||Grenada||Grenada||Mississippi||1885||Murder of white peddler|||
|Bartley James||African-American||Grenada||Grenada||Mississippi||1885||Suspicion of murder of white peddler|||
|John Campbell||African-American||Grenada||Grenada||Mississippi||1885||Suspicion of murder of white peddler|||
|Williams, Eugene||African-American||Chicago||Cook||Illinois||1919||Racial unrest||A white officer refused to arrest the murderer, and instead arrested a black man who complained about it.|
|Robinson, Robert||African-American||Chicago||Cook||Illinois||1919||He was black, and they wanted to kill a black||Robinson was an Army Reserve veteran.|
|Ashley, Bob||African-American||Dublin||Laurens||Georgia||1919||Hoped to shoot someone else||A group of men thought another man might be inside Ashley's house, so they shot into the house, mortally wounding Ashley.|
|Wright, Cleo||African-American||Sikeston||Scott||Missouri||1942||Home invasion, attempted murder, attempted rape, resisting arrest||Around 100 black people left Sikeston and never returned.|
|Walters, Lemuel||African-American||Longview||Gregg||Texas||1919||Consensual sex with white woman||The report of the affair and the subsequent coverup led to the Longview riots.|
|Richards, Benny||African-American||Georgia||Warren||Georgia||1919||Accused of murdering his ex-wife and shooting 5 others||300 men lynched Richards, a farmer.|
|Clay, Lloyd||African-American||Vicksburg||Warren||Mississippi||1919||False rape accusation||1000 men broke through three steel doors to abduct Clay from jail before hanging, shooting, and burning him.|
|Waters, Jim||African-American||Johnson||Georgia||1919||Rape accusation||Investigation closed in one hour with no witnesses interviewed.|
|Livingston, Frank||African-American||El Dorado||Union||Arkansas||1919||False murder accusation||One of many returning WW I veterans lynched in 1919.|
|Miller, William||African-American||Brighton||Jefferson||Alabama||1908||Labor activist||Jefferson County had the highest number of lynchings in Alabama (29).|
|Berry Washington||72||African-American||Milan||Dodge and Telfair||Georgia||1919||Defended black girls from white home invaders.||Many black homes burned to discourage citizens from coming forward|
|Chaney, James||21||African-American||Philadelphia||Neshoba||Mississippi||1964||Civil rights worker||A federal jury in 1967 convicted the sheriff and six others of conspiracy to violate civil rights; they received minor punishment. A state jury in 2005 found the Ku Klux Klan organizer, Edgar Ray Killen, guilty of three counts of manslaughter; he died in prison. National outrage contributed to passage of Civil Rights Act of 1964.|
|Marian Pyszko||54||Polish Jew||Detroit||Wayne||Michigan||1975||Random violence during riot|
|Jordan, James||adult||African-American||Waverly||Sussex||Virginia||1925||Married woman "attacked" in her home.||The case and two others helped lead to the Virginia Anti-Lynching Law of 1928, the first state law against lynching.|
|Armwood, George||23||African-American||Princess Anne||Somerset||Maryland||1933||Attempted assault and rape||Grand jury declined to indict any of the lynchers identified by State Police. Last lynching in Maryland.|
|Sydney Randolph||adult||African-American||Gaithersburg||Montgomery||Maryland||1896||Killing a white girl||Taken from the jail by a mob.|
|Taylor, George||African-American||Rolesville||Wake||North Carolina||1918||Rape of a white woman||No charges were filed. There is a Web site on this lynching.|
|Divers, Emmett||adult||African-American||Mexico||Audrain||Missouri||1893||Murder of a white woman||"Horrible fury of the mob...500 horsemen." Hung from bridge until dead, taken down and hung a second time from a telegraph pole at the fairground, "at the request of the murdered woman's husband". Body and cabin burned.|
|Estes, Siles||African-American||Hodgenville||LaRue||Kentucky||1901||"Forcing...a 15 year old boy...to commit a crime."|||
|Lundy, Dick||adult||African-American||Edgefield||Edgefield||South Carolina||1891||Murder of son of sheriff||Coroner's jury: "by persons unknown"|
|Steers, Jennie||adult||African-American||rural area near Shreveport||Caddo||Louisiana||1903||Poisoning daughter of a planter||:70|
|Great Hanging at Gainesville||adult men (number >16)||White||Gainesville||Cooke||Texas||1862||Lynching, plus "legal" executions, of Union supporters by Confederate supporters||Many lynched before trial was concluded. Prosecution of perpetrators "half-hearted"; only one convicted.|
|Peterson, John||adult||African-American||Denmark||Bamberg (at the time, Barnwell County)||South Carolina||1893||Attack on a white girl|
|Morris, Frank||adult||African-American||Ferriday||Concordia||Louisiana||1964||"Flirting" with white females||:152|
|Byrd Jr., James||49||African-American||Jasper||Jasper||Texas||1998||None (white supremacists)||Dragged to death behind a car, until his head hit a culvert. Perpetrators convicted, one executed, one on death row, one to life imprisonment.|
|Young, Albert (or Arthur)||21||African-American||Perry||Taylor||Florida||1922||Murder of a white schoolteacher||Tortured, then burned alive|
|Reeb, James (Unitarian minister)||38||White||Selma||Dallas||Alabama||1965||Northerner coming to help blacks; ate in "nigger" restaurant.||Denied treatment in Selma for severe blow to head; condition deteriorated on the two-hour trip to a hospital that would treat him (in Birmingham, Alabama); died two days later. Four indicted; three acquitted by all-white juries, fourth fled to Mississippi and never faced trial. Huge national outcry. The Federal Voting Rights Act was passed within four months as a direct result of his lynching and the violent attacks on the Selma to Montgomery marchers.|
|McClelland, Brandon||23–24||African-American||Paris||Lamar||Texas||2008||None (white supremacists)||Dragged to death behind car. Prosecutor dropped charges, "lack of evidence".|
|Reed, Joseph||African-American||Nashville||Davidson||Tennessee||1875||Killing a police officer||Taken out of his jail cell by an unmasked mob and hanged on a suspension bridge.|
|Baker, Frazier B.||41||African-American||Lake City||Florence||South Carollna||1898||Appointed Postmaster||
Grand jury did not indict. Since it was a Federal crime (attack on a postmaster) there were 13 Federal indictments; no one convicted
|Scott, James T.||Janitor at University of Missouri||African-American||Columbia||Boone||Missouri||1923||Raping the white daughter of a professor.||Before he could stand trial, a mob broke him out of jail and hanged him. The daughter would later identify a different man as her rapist. Jury found perpetrator innocent in 11 minutes. Memorial plaque erected 2016.|
|Smith, Joseph (founder of Mormonism) and brother Hyram Smith||38,
|White||Carthage||Hancock||Illinois||1844||Technically, treason against state of Illinois, but lynching was for religious views, especially plural marriage/polygamy.||In jail awaiting trial. Five men were tried and acquitted.|
|McIntosh, Francis||Adult||African-American||St. Louis||N/A (independent city)||Missouri||1836||Complicated, but culminating in death of one constable/deputy sheriff and wounding another||Burned alive. Lynching had broad local support. Reported on by abolitionist editor Elijah Lovejoy, who was soon lynched himself.|
|White, George||Adult||African-American||Wilmington||New Castle||Delaware||1903||Assaulting teenage girl and leaving her to die||Taken from county workhouse and burned alive. No one was prosecuted.|
|Walker, Zachariah||20-24||African-American||Coatesville||Chester||Pennsylvania||1911||Killing of a police officer, possibly in self-defense||Taken from hospital room and burned alive. Fifteen men and teenage boys were indicted, but all were acquitted at trials.|
|Moss, Tom||Adult||African-American||Memphis||Shelby||Tennessee||1892||Complaint from competing white grocery store owner.||So-called Curve Riot (not a riot). Reported on by Ida B. Wells, whose newspaper was destroyed and had to leave the state.|
|McDowell, Calvin||Adult||African-American||Memphis||Shelby||Tennessee||1892||Complaint from competing white grocery store owner.||So-called Curve Riot (not a riot). Reported on by Ida B. Wells, whose newspaper was destroyed and had to leave the state.|
|Clayton, Elias, Elmer Jackson, and Isaac McGhie||20-23||African-American||Duluth||St. Louis||Minnesota||1920||Rape of a teenage girl||Taken from jail by mob, given mock trials, beaten and hanged from light-post. No one was prosecuted.|
|Stewart, Will||Adult||African-American||Memphis||Shelby||Tennessee||1892||Complaint from competing white grocery store owner.||So-called Curve Riot (not a riot). Reported on by Ida B. Wells, whose newspaper was destroyed and had to leave the state.|
|White||San Jose||Santa Clara||California||1933||Kidnapping and murder of department store heir Brooke Hart||An estimated 10,000 people witnessed the lynching. California Governor James Rolph called the act "a fine lesson for the whole nation."|
|Lovejoy, Elijah||35||White||Alton||Madison||Illinois||1837||Abolitionist newspaper editor and publisher||Had moved to Alton to escape violence in St. Louis. Four successive printing presses destroyed. "Not guilty" verdict; jury foreman member of mob.|
|Miller, Amos||23||African-American||Franklin||Williamson||Tennessee||1888||Assaulting a white woman||Taken from the courthouse during his trial and lynched on the balcony railings.|
|Taylor, Jim||African-American||Franklin||Williamson||Tennessee||1891||Shooting a policeman||Taken from his jail cell by a mob and lynched on Murfreesboro Road.|
|Higginbotham, Elwood||28||African-American||Oxford||Lafayette||Mississippi||1935||Killed in self-defense a white man that attacked him after he complained about the white man's cattle running over his field.||Killed when jury did not bring back guilty verdict promptly. Widow and extended family immediately left Mississippi.|
|Thomas, Wade||African-American||Jonesboro||Craighead||Arkansas||1920||Killing a policeman||Taken from jail by a mom, hung, then riddled with bullets.|
|Patton, Nelse||African-American||Oxford||Lafayette||Mississippi||1908||Killing a white woman||Prominent attorney and former U.S. Senator William V. Sullivan, in his own words, "led the mob...and I'm proud of it".|
|Jones, David||African-American||Nashville||Davidson||Tennessee||1872||Murdering Henry Murray.||Taken out of his prison cell and lynched by a mob on the public square.|
|Grizzard, Ephraim||African-American||Nashville||Davidson||Tennessee||1892||Assaulting two white girls in Goodlettsville.||Taken out of his prison cell and lynched on a bridge in Downtown Nashville in front of 10,000 onlookers. Later taken back to Goodlettsville.|
|Smith, Samuel||15||African-American||Nolensville||Williamson||Tennessee||1924||Stealing spark plugs in a garage.||Taken out of his hospital room in Nashville and lynched by a mob of masked men where he was first caught.|
|11 Italian Americans||Italian-American||New Orleans||Orleans||Louisiana||1891||Killing of police chief||3 had been acquitted; 3 had a mistrial; 5 never tried. Lynching organized by local leaders, including future mayor Walter C. Flower and future governor John M. Parker. Grand jury brought no charges.|
|Albano, Angelo and Castenge Ficarotta||Italian||Tampa||Hillsborough County||Florida||1910||Complicity in a shooting|
|Villarosa, Federico||Italian||Vicksburg||Warren County||Mississippi||1886||Assault of a white girl|
|Saladino, Lorenzo; Arena, Salvatore; and Giuseppe Venturella||33-36, 27, 48||Italian||Hahnville||St. Charles Parish||Louisiana||1896||Murder||Saladino was accused of murdering a wealthy merchant. Arena and Venturella happened to have been in the same prison, accused of a different murder. All rounded up together and lynched to "teach the lawless Italians a salutary lesson." After the lynching, another person confessed to the murder for which Arena and Venturella had been lynched.|
|DiFatta brothers (Francesco, Carlo, and Giuseppe); Cerami, Giovanni; Rosario Fiducia||Italian||Tallulah||Madison Parish||Louisiana||1899||Sicilian immigrant grocery store owners, the DiFatta brothers, quarreled with a local doctor. The doctor fired his pistol at brother Carlo and was immediately shot and injured by brother Giuseppe. Sicilian immigrants Cerami and Fiducia were not involved in the dispute and had simply been nearby when the lynching occurred; they were rounded up and lynched alongside the DiFatta brothers because they were Italian.|
|Lewis, Sanford||African-American||Fort Smith||Sebastian||Arkansas||1912||Shooting a constable||Five policemen fined $100 each for "nonfeasance of office". Entire police force fired. Mayor voted out. Man charged with lynching acquitted.|
|Phifer, Miles (or Relius)||African-American||Montgomery||Montgomery||Alabama||1919||Assault of a white woman||Was wearing military uniform|
|Temple, Will||African-American||Montgomery||Montgomery||Alabama||1919||Killing a police officer|||
|Crosky, Robert||African-American||Montgomery||Montgomery||Alabama||1919||Assault of a white woman|||
|Heath, John||28||White||Bisbee||Cochise||Arizona Territory||1884||Accessory to robbery||Mob unsatisfied with lenient sentence|
|Williams, Matthew||23||African-American||Salisbury||Wicomico||Maryland||1931||Killing his employer||Taken forcibly from hospital. No indictment despite numerous witnesses.:9–10|
|Walker, David, his wife and four children||African-American||Hickman||Fulton||Kentucky||1908||Using inappropriate language with a white woman|||
|Grant, George||African-American||Darien||McIntosh||Georgia||1930||Sheriff: "I don't know who killed the nigger and I don't give a damn.":10|
|Gunn, Raymond||African-American||Maryville||Nodaway||Missouri||1931||Burned to death. National Guard stood by and watched.:10|
|Lowry, Henry||"a negro sharecropper"||African-American||Nodena||Mississippi||Arkansas||1921||Asked for his wages||Burned to death; crowd of 500:3|
|Hose, Sam||c. 24||African-American||Noonan||Coweta||Georgia||1899||Killed his white employer in self-defense. Accusations of rape added to incite lynching.||Body parts for sale in a store. Widely publicized and privately investigated.|
|Hartfield, John||African-American||Ellisville||Jones||Mississippi||1919||Assaulting a young white woman||"The biggest newspaper in the state, Jackson Daily News, carried headlines announcing the exact time and place of the coming orgy. Ten thousand people answered the paper's invitation and they were addressed by the District Attorney, T. W. Wilson, while the lynching was going on.":9|
|Richardson, Bunk||African-American||Gadsden||Etowah||Alabama||1906||Sentenced to death without being charged with any crime; Governor commuted it to life imprisonment.||Mob seized him from the jail.|
|Heflin, Lee||White||Fauquier||Virginia||1892||Convicted murderer||Seized from police when they were trying to move him to a safer location.|
|Wise, Mrs.||African-American||Frankfort (Frankford?)||Virginia (West Virginia?)||1931||Objected to her daughter being taken out for "rides" with white Klansmen.||:8|
|Tillis, Dave||African-American||Crockett||Houston||Texas||1932||"Demanded an accounting from his landlord. Charged with 'entering the bedroom of a white woman'".||:4–5|
|Hughes, George||African-American||Sherman||Grayson||Texas||1930||Pled guilty to criminal assault.||Courthouse stormed (during trial), burned down with Hughes locked in vault, fire hoses cut. Body then dragged behind car and hung, and fire lit under it. Followed by riot and destruction of black businesses. Two persons received two-year sentences for violence.|
|Shorter, William||17||African-American||Winchester||N/A (independent city)||Virginia||1893||Assault on a white woman|||
|Dye, Joseph||White||Fauquier||Virginia||1892||Convicted murderer||Seized from police when they were trying to move him to a safer location.|
|Anderson, Orion||African-American||Leesburg||Loudoun||Virginia||1889||Hung from a derrick|
|Thompson, Benjamin||20||African-American||Alexandria||N/A (independent city)||Virginia||1899||Hung from a lamppost at Cameron and Lee Sts., site of several lynchings.|
|Parker, John||African-American||Conway||Faulkner||Arkansas||1931||Stealing some peaches||:4|
|McCoy, Joseph||20||African-American||Alexandria||N/A (independent city)||Virginia||1897||Assault on a young girl|||
|Adam||African-American||Tampa||Hillsborough||Florida||1859||A white man was murdered; "in keeping with local custom, a slave man was selected to be killed in retribution". State Supreme Court overturned conviction.||Mob broke into jail where he was awaiting a new trial and hung him. Defended by Ossian Hart.:269|
|Abram Smith||19||African-American||Marion||Grant||Indiana||1930||Accessory to homicide during holdup of white man; rumors of rape||No charges filed.|
|Joe Coe||"A married man with two children"||African-American||Omaha||Douglas||Nebraska||1891||Assault on a white girl of 5||The Governor and the Sheriff tried unsuccessfully to quiet the crowd in front of the Courthouse. Pieces of the lynching rope were sold as souvenirs. Despite 16 wounds to his body and three broken vertebrae, Coroner said he died of "fright". Grand jury declined to indict.|
|Till, Emmett||14||African-American||Money||LeFlore||Mississippi||1955||Flirting with white woman||Beaten and mutilated before shooting him in the head and sinking his body in the Tallahatchie River. Perpetrators acquitted by all-white jury, then openly admitted they did it. Historical markers shot and defaced 2006-2018.|
|Anthony Crawford||51||African-American||Abbeville||Abbeville||South Carolina||1916||Offensive language||Coroner's jury: "persons unknown"|
|Charles Wright||21||African-American||Rosewood||Levy||Florida||1930||Homicide during holdup of white man; rumors of rape||No charges filed.|
|Claude Neal||African-American||Greenwood||Jackson||Florida||1934||Rape and murder of 19 year old white female||Lynchers said he "didn't deserve a trial". Castrated, forced to consume his genitals, stabbed, burned with hot irons, toes and fingers removed, hung, body tied behind automobile. Followed by Marianna riots. Important case in helping to bring lynching to an end.|
|Dick Rowland (attempted lynching)||19||African-American||Tulsa||Tulsa||Oklahoma||1921||Sexual assault on white girl||Conflict between would-be lynchers and defenders led to the Tulsa Race Riot.|
|Ell Persons||about 50||African-American||Memphis||Shelby||Tennessee||1917||Raping and killing a white girl||No charges filed.|
|Fred Rochelle||16||African-American||Bartow||Polk||Florida||1901||Murder and rape of a white woman||Doused with kerosene and burned. Special train from Lakeland to see the "barbecue".|
|Henry Smith||17||African-American||Paris||Lamar||Texas||1893||Kidnapping and murder of white girl; Smith confessed.||Tortured, burned with hot irons, doused in oil and set on fire; his remains were sold as souvenirs.|
|McIlherron, Jim ||African-American||Estill Springs||Franklin||Tennessee||1918||Killing two whites||Tortured, then burned alive. Spectators came from as far as 50 miles away. Postcards sold. "No information sufficient to indict."|
|Jesse Washington||17||African-American||Waco||McLennan||Texas||1916||Murder; Washington confessed and a jury found him guilty.||Dragged behind car, castrated, fingers cut off, ear cut off, burned alive. Professionally photographed; pictures sold as postcards. Lynching of "political value" to Sheriff and to the Judge who presided over his trial. "On the way to the scene of the burning, people on every hand took a hand in showing their feelings in the matter by striking the Negro with anything obtainable, some struck him with shovels, bricks, clubs and others stabbed him and cut him until when he was strung up his body was a solid color of red.":5|
|John Carter||African-American||Little Rock||Pulaski||Arkansas||1927||Attacking a white woman and her mother||No charges filed; "mob" responsible.|
|July Perry||52||African-American||Ocoee||Orange||Florida||1920||Sign on body: "This is what we do to niggers that vote."||Prosperous Negro farmer. See Ocoee massacre.|
|Leo Frank||31||Jewish||Marietta||Cobb||Georgia||1915||Killing a 13 year old girl||No charges filed; posthumously pardoned.|
|Mary Turner||18||African-American||Bridge joining Brooks County and Lowndes County, Georgia||Georgia||1918||Publicly opposed and threatened legal action against whites who had murdered her husband, unfairly accused (according to her) of killing an abusive landowner.||"Hung her upside down from a tree, doused her in gasoline and motor oil and set her on fire. Turner was still alive when a member of the mob split her abdomen open with a knife and her unborn child fell on the ground. The baby was stomped and crushed as it fell to the ground. Turner's body was riddled with hundreds of bullets."|
|Hayes Turner||25||African-American||Morven||Brooks||Georgia||1918||Accused of helping kill an abusive landowner.||Wife Mary killed next day for defending him.|
|Reuben Stacey (also found as Rubin Stacy)||37||African-American||Fort Lauderdale||Broward||Florida||1935||Assault with a knife||Law enforcement officer; grand jury refused to indict.|
|Sam Carter||African-American||Rosewood||Levy||Florida||1923||Assault, rape, and robbery of a white woman||See Rosewood massacre. Tortured. Shot before being hung. See Rosewood massacre.|
|Slab Pitts||African-American||Toyah||Reeves||Texas||1906||Living with a white woman||Dragged to death before being hung.|
|Thomas Shipp||18||African-American||Marion||Grant||Indiana||1930||Accessory to homicide during holdup of white man; rumors of rape||No charges filed.|
|Willie Earle||24||African-American||Greenville||Greenville||South Carolina||1947||Killing of taxi driver||31 suspects charged; all acquitted.|
|Willie James Howard||15||African-American||Live Oak||Suwannee||Florida||1944||Sending Christmas card with "a note expressing his affection" to a white girl.||Forced to jump to his death in the Suwanee River. Grand jury refused to indict.|
|Ah Wing||Chinese||Los Angeles||Los Angeles||California||1871||None||Killed in retaliation for the homicide of a rancher.|
|Dr. Chee Long "Gene" Tong||Chinese||Los Angeles||Los Angeles||California||1871||None||Killed in retaliation for the homicide of a rancher.|
|Chang Wan||Chinese||Los Angeles||Los Angeles||California||1871||None||Killed in retaliation for the homicide of a rancher.|
|Leong Quai||Chinese||Los Angeles||Los Angeles||California||1871||None||Killed in retaliation for the homicide of a rancher.|
|Ah Long||Chinese||Los Angeles||Los Angeles||California||1871||None||Killed in retaliation for the homicide of a rancher.|
|Wan Foo||Chinese||Los Angeles||Los Angeles||California||1871||None||Killed in retaliation for the homicide of a rancher.|
|Tong Won||Chinese||Los Angeles||Los Angeles||California||1871||None||Killed in retaliation for the homicide of a rancher.|
|Ah Loo||Chinese||Los Angeles||Los Angeles||California||1871||None||Killed in retaliation for the homicide of a rancher.|
|Day Kee||Chinese||Los Angeles||Los Angeles||California||1871||None||Killed in retaliation for the homicide of a rancher.|
|Ah Waa||Chinese||Los Angeles||Los Angeles||California||1871||None||Killed in retaliation for the homicide of a rancher.|
|Ho Hing||Chinese||Los Angeles||Los Angeles||California||1871||None||Killed in retaliation for the homicide of a rancher.|
|Lo Hey||Chinese||Los Angeles||Los Angeles||California||1871||None||Killed in retaliation for the homicide of a rancher.|
|Ah Won||Chinese||Los Angeles||Los Angeles||California||1871||None||Killed in retaliation for the homicide of a rancher.|
|Wing Chee||Chinese||Los Angeles||Los Angeles||California||1871||None||Killed in retaliation for the homicide of a rancher.|
|Wong Chin||Chinese||Los Angeles||Los Angeles||California||1871||None||Killed in retaliation for the homicide of a rancher.|
- "Southern Gleanings". Magnolia Gazette. 17 July 1885. Retrieved 20 November 2018.
- McWhirter, Cameron (2011). Red Summer The Summer of 1919 and the Awakening of Black America. Henry Holt and Company. p. 129. ISBN 9780805089066.
- McWhirter, Cameron (2011). Red Summer The Summer of 1919 and the Awakening of Black America. Henry Holt and Company. p. 125. ISBN 9780805089066.
- McWhirter, Cameron (2011). Red Summer The Summer of 1919 and the Awakening of Black America. Henry Holt and Company. pp. 94–95. ISBN 9780805089066.
- Teachout, Terry (May 30, 1999). "Close to Home". Nytimes.com. Retrieved 26 December 2017.
- McWhirter, Cameron (2011). Red Summer The Summer of 1919 and the Awakening of Black America. Henry Holt and Company. pp. 81–95. ISBN 9780805089066.
- "Negro Kills One; Shoots Up Five, Fighting Posse". Atlanta Constitution. 2 May 1919.
- McWhirter, Cameron (2011). Red Summer The Summer of 1919 and the Awakening of Black America. Henry Holt and Company. p. 51. ISBN 9780805089066.
- "Mob uses Rope, to Lynch Negro". Atlanta Constitution. 15 May 1919.
- McWhirter, Cameron (2011). Red Summer The Summer of 1919 and the Awakening of Black America. Henry Holt and Company. p. 52. ISBN 9780805089066.
- McWhirter, Cameron (2011). Red Summer The Summer of 1919 and the Awakening of Black America. Henry Holt and Company. p. 52. ISBN 9780805089066.
- "Frank Livingston (Lynching of)". Retrieved 11 November 2018.
- Equal Justice Initiative (2015). "Lynching In America / The Lynching of William Miller". Historical Marker Database. Retrieved May 2, 2018.
- Voogd, Jan (2008). Race Riots and Resistance: the Red Summer of 1919. Peter Lang Publishing Group. ISBN 9781433100673.
- Green, Frank (March 2, 2014). "Memories of 1925 lynching linger in Waverly". Richmond Times-Dispatch. Retrieved October 15, 2018.
- "Lynching in Waverly, Virginia, Is Revisited". Equal Justice Initiative. March 7, 2014. Retrieved October 15, 2018.
- "Lynched a Suspected Negro". New York Times. July 5, 1896. p. 24.
- Hui, T. Keung (October 29, 2018). "A black man was lynched near Rolesville in 1918. Now Wake students are honoring him".
- Wake County Drum Majors for Social Justice. "The 1918 Lynching of George Taylor".
- Editorial Board (March 5, 2014). "Confronting Virginia's Racial History". News & Advance.
- "NEGRO LYNCHED / Murder of a White Woman in Missouri Swung from a Bridge". Evening Argus (Owosso, Michigan). August 16, 1895. p. 4.
- "Negro Lynched in Kentucky". Lewiston Daily Sun. November 1, 1901.
- Pfeifer, Michael James (2004). Rough Justice: Lynching and American Society, 1874-1947. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 9780252029172.
- McCaslin, Richard B. "Great Hamging at Gainesville". Handbook of Texas Online, Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved 2014-05-30.
- Smallwood, James (December 1976). "Disaffection in Confederate Texas: The Great Hanging at Gainesville". Civil War History. 22 (4). pp. 349–360.
- Newton, M. (2005). The FBI and the KKK: A Critical History. p. 151. ISBN 9781476605104. Retrieved January 6, 2016.
- "A Fearful Outrage. A Negro Murderer Lynched by a Few Citizens in Nashville--A Mob Looking On and Endorsing the Deed. The State Disgraced by a Supine Set of Officers--An Unmitigated Outrage Against Law and Decency. A Crime for Which the Perpetrators Out to be Made to Pay with Their Lives--The Whole State Demands It". Memphis Daily Appeal. May 3, 1875. p. 1. Retrieved June 5, 2018 – via Newspapers.com. (Registration required (help)).
- Marion, Ann (September 30, 2016). "New plaque memorializes 1923 lynching victim James T. Scott". Columbia Missourian. Retrieved May 25, 2018.
- Howe, Barton Grover (May 8, 2003). "Legacy of a lynching". Columbia Missourian. Retrieved May 25, 2018.
- Eric S. Smith, "Zachariah Walker's lynching haunts the city", Daily Local News (Chester County), 13 August 2011, accessed 5 January 2016
- Ball, Nathaniel C. (September 30, 2015). "Memphis and the Lynching at the Curve". The Benjamin L. Hooks Institute fo Social Changr, University of Memphis. Retrieved May 15, 2018.
- McPhate, Mike (November 29, 2017). "When a San Jose mob stormed a jail and lynched two men". The California Sun. Retrieved September 25, 2018.
- Tebbe, Jen (November 7, 2017). "Elijah Lovejoy: An American Martyr". Missouri Historical Society.
- Berger, Paul (December 20, 2014). "Midnight in Tennessee - The Untold Story of the First Jewish Lynching in America". Haaretz. Retrieved May 15, 2018.
In 1888, Amos Miller, a black man accused of raping a white woman, was dragged from court in Franklin and hung from the courthouse railings.
- "Judge Lynch Presided. Would-Be Murderer Strung Up at Franklin. His Most Atrocious Assault on an Officer Avenged. The Body Dangling by the Roadside on the Outskirts. He Also Shot a Circus Man, Who Was Brought to Nashville for Treatment--A Deserved Fate". The Daily American. Nashville, Tennessee. April 30, 1891. Retrieved May 14, 2018 – via Newspapers.com. (Registration required (help)).
- Gregory, Vanessa (April 25, 2018). "A Lynching's Long Shadow". New York Times Magazine.
- "Negro Is Lynched by Arkansas Mob". Ellensburg Daily Record. December 27, 1929.
- "Leader of Mob an Ex-U.S. Senator". Fredericksburg Daily Star. September 11, 1908.
- "Ex-Senator Sullivan Will Stand Consequences for Directing Shooting". New York Times. September 10, 1908. Retrieved May 7, 2018.
- Sassoubre, Ticien Marie. "Avoiding Adjudication in William Faulkner's Go Down, Moses and Intruder in the Dust". Criticism. 49 (2): 183–214. doi:10.1353/crt.0.0016.
- "A Night of Excitement. David Jones, the Murderer of Murray, Taken from the Jail by a Mob. Murderer Offers Resistance, and is Shot Twice. Afterwards Taken to the Public Square and Hanged in Front of the Station House. The Hanging Witnesses by Immense Crowd of Excited Citizens. Efforts of the Mayor to Restore Quiet. Gov. Brown Makes an Appeal in Behalf of Law and Order". Nashville Union and American. March 26, 2018. p. 4. Retrieved May 3, 2018 – via Newspapers.com. (Registration required (help)).
- "The Nashville Lynching Case". The Chicago Tribune. March 28, 1872. p. 3. Retrieved May 3, 2018 – via Newspapers.com. (Registration required (help)).
- "Finally Successful. An Attempt to Lynch Negroes At Nashville, Tenn., Successfully Resisted. The Government Takes Charge of the Jail Forces--One of the Lynchers Killed. Another Attempt Proves Successful, and the Negro Is Hanged. Crimes". The Courier. Waterloo, Iowa. May 2, 1892. p. 2. Retrieved April 27, 2018 – via Newspapers.com. (Registration required (help)).
- "Mob Lynches Negro Boy Who Shot Grocer. Body of Masked Men Take Him From Hospital. Samuel Smith, 15, Left Hanging Near Home of Ike Eastwood, Whom He Wounded Friday Night". Nashville Tennesssean. December 16, 1924. pp. 1, 5. Retrieved May 2, 2018 – via Newspapers.com. (Registration required (help)).
- Boulden, Ben. "The Lynching of Sanford Lewis". Fort Smith Historical Society. Retrieved April 28, 2018.
- Lyman, Brian (April 20, 2018). "'There will be lynchings': How the Advertiser failed victims of racial terror". Montgomery Advertiser.
- Haywood, Harry; Howard, Milton (1932). Lynching (PDF). Retrieved April 20, 2018.
- Associated Press (April 23, 2018). "New Lynching Memorial Evokes Terror of Victims".
- "3,000 Will Burn Negro — John Hartfield Will Be Lynched by Ellisville Mob at 5 o'clock This Afternoon — Negro Jerky and Sullen as Burning Hour Nears". New Orleans States (reprinted from Jackspn Daily News). June 26, 1919.
- Thomas-Lester, Avis (July 7, 2005). "From the archives: State Lives With a Legacy of Terror as Nation Pays Tribute to Victims' Descendants". Washington Post. Retrieved April 20, 2018.
- Thompson, Nolan (2010). "Sherman Riot of 1930". Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved May 28, 2018.
- Allman, T. D. (2013). Finding Florida. The True History of the Sunshine State. Atlantic Monthly Press. ISBN 9780802120762.
- Leroux, Charles (February 14, 1993). "Lynching Black Man, Now 78, Relates Narrow Escape, Tells How Two Companions Were Lynched In Indiana In 1930". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved January 2, 2018.
- Haag, Matthew (August 6, 2018). "Emmett Till Sign Is Hit With Bullets Again, 35 Days After Being Replaced". New York Times.
- "Anthony Crawford, a Negro of Wealth, Lynched Saturday". Abbeville Press and Banner. Abbeville, South Carolina. 1917-10-25. p. 1. Retrieved 2015-12-21.
- White, Walter F. (May 1918). "The Burning of James McIlherron. An N.A.A.C.P. Investigation" (PDF). The Crisis. pp. 16–20. Retrieved March 2, 2018.
- "The Waco Horror (supplement to The Crisis)". The Crisis. July 1916. Retrieved March 8, 2018.
- Harp, Stephanie. "John Carter: A Scapegoat for Anger". America's Black Holocaust Museum.
- Federal Writers' Project of the Work Projects Administration for the State of Florida. "The Ocoee Riot". Retrieved February 22, 2018.
- NAACP. "History of Lynchings". Retrieved March 2, 2018.
- "Hazel B "Hayes" Turner". Find A Grave. Retrieved March 14, 2018.
- Nolin, Robert (July 17, 2010). "Mob lynched black man in Fort Lauderdale 75 years ago". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved December 29, 2017.
- Brooks, Bryan (July 17, 1988). "The Day They Lynched Reuben Stacey". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved December 29, 2017.
- Wethersbee, Tonya J. (August 29, 2015). "Before Emmett Till's Death, Willie James Howard, 15, Was Murdered in Fla". The Root. Retrieved March 8, 2018.
- Pfeifer, Michael J. (2004). "Appendix: Confirmed lynchings and near lynchings, 1874–1947". Rough Justice: Lynching and American Society, 1874–1947. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0252029178.