List of lynching victims in the United States

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If you add a lynching to this list, and an article on the lynching exists, please also add it to Template:Lynching in the United States. If no article exists, consider writing one.

This is a sortable table. Click on the heading you want it sorted by. Complex sorts are possible. For example, to produce a list sorted by state, and then alphabetically by county/parish within the state, and if there is more than one in a county, by last name — click first on the Name tab, then County/Parish tab, then State. One clicks first on the narrowest sort (by last names within a county), then by more general (counties/parishes), and finally the most general (states).

Instances of the perpetrators being punished through the judicial system are marked in bold.

Name Age Ethnicity City County or Parish State Year Accusation Comment
Perry McChristian White Grenada Grenada Mississippi 1885 Murder of white peddler [1]
Felix Williams White Grenada Grenada Mississippi 1885 Murder of white peddler [1]
Bartley James African-American Grenada Grenada Mississippi 1885 Suspicion of murder of white peddler [1]
John Campbell African-American Grenada Grenada Mississippi 1885 Suspicion of murder of white peddler [1]
Williams, Eugene African-American Chicago Cook Illinois 1919 Racial unrest A white officer refused to arrest the murderer, and instead arrested a black man who complained about it.[2]
Robinson, Robert African-American Chicago Cook Illinois 1919 He was black, and they wanted to kill a black Robinson was an Army Reserve veteran.[3]
Ashley, Bob African-American Dublin Laurens Georgia 1919 Hoped to shoot someone else A group of men thought another man might be inside Ashley's house, so they shot into the house, mortally wounding Ashley.[4]
Wright, Cleo African-American Sikeston Scott Missouri 1942 Home invasion, attempted murder, attempted rape, resisting arrest Around 100 black people left Sikeston and never returned.[5]
Walters, Lemuel African-American Longview Gregg Texas 1919 Consensual sex with white woman The report of the affair and the subsequent coverup led to the Longview riots.[6]
Richards, Benny African-American Georgia Warren Georgia 1919 Accused of murdering his ex-wife and shooting 5 others 300 men lynched Richards, a farmer.[7][8]
Clay, Lloyd African-American Vicksburg Warren Mississippi 1919 False rape accusation 1000 men broke through three steel doors to abduct Clay from jail before hanging, shooting, and burning him.[9]
Prince, Henry African-American Hawkinsville Pulaski Georgia 1919 [10]
Waters, Jim African-American Johnson Georgia 1919 Rape accusation Investigation closed in one hour with no witnesses interviewed.[11]
Livingston, Frank African-American El Dorado Union Arkansas 1919 False murder accusation One of many returning WW I veterans lynched in 1919.[12]
Miller, William African-American Brighton Jefferson Alabama 1908 Labor activist Jefferson County had the highest number of lynchings in Alabama (29).[13]
Berry Washington 72 African-American Milan Dodge and Telfair Georgia 1919 Defended black girls from white home invaders. Many black homes burned to discourage citizens from coming forward[14]
Chaney, James 21 African-American Philadelphia Neshoba Mississippi 1964 Civil rights worker A federal jury in 1967 convicted the sheriff and six others of conspiracy to violate civil rights; they received minor punishment. A state jury in 2005 found the Ku Klux Klan organizer, Edgar Ray Killen, guilty of three counts of manslaughter; he died in prison. National outrage contributed to passage of Civil Rights Act of 1964.
Marian Pyszko 54 Polish Jew Detroit Wayne Michigan 1975 Random violence during riot
Jordan, James adult African-American Waverly Sussex Virginia 1925 Married woman "attacked" in her home. The case and two others helped lead to the Virginia Anti-Lynching Law of 1928, the first state law against lynching.[15][16]
Armwood, George 23 African-American Princess Anne Somerset Maryland 1933 Attempted assault and rape Grand jury declined to indict any of the lynchers identified by State Police. Last lynching in Maryland.
Sydney Randolph adult African-American Gaithersburg Montgomery Maryland 1896 Killing a white girl Taken from the jail by a mob.[17]
Taylor, George African-American Rolesville Wake North Carolina 1918 Rape of a white woman No charges were filed.[18] There is a Web site on this lynching.[19]
Carter, James African-American Amherst Amherst Virginia 1902 Unknown [20]
Divers, Emmett adult African-American Mexico Audrain Missouri 1893 Murder of a white woman "Horrible fury of the mob...500 horsemen." Hung from bridge until dead, taken down and hung a second time from a telegraph pole at the fairground, "at the request of the murdered woman's husband". Body and cabin burned.[21]
Estes, Siles African-American Hodgenville LaRue Kentucky 1901 "Forcing...a 15 year old boy...to commit a crime." [22]
Lundy, Dick adult African-American Edgefield Edgefield South Carolina 1891 Murder of son of sheriff Coroner's jury: "by persons unknown"
Steers, Jennie adult African-American rural area near Shreveport Caddo Louisiana 1903 Poisoning daughter of a planter [23]:70
Great Hanging at Gainesville adult men (number >16) White Gainesville Cooke Texas 1862 Lynching, plus "legal" executions, of Union supporters by Confederate supporters Many lynched before trial was concluded. Prosecution of perpetrators "half-hearted"; only one convicted.[24][25]
Peterson, John adult African-American Denmark Bamberg (at the time, Barnwell County) South Carolina 1893 Attack on a white girl
Morris, Frank adult African-American Ferriday Concordia Louisiana 1964 "Flirting" with white females [26]:152
Byrd Jr., James 49 African-American Jasper Jasper Texas 1998 None (white supremacists) Dragged to death behind a car, until his head hit a culvert. Perpetrators convicted, one executed, one on death row, one to life imprisonment.
Young, Albert (or Arthur) 21 African-American Perry Taylor Florida 1922 Murder of a white schoolteacher Tortured, then burned alive
Reeb, James (Unitarian minister) 38 White Selma Dallas Alabama 1965 Northerner coming to help blacks; ate in "nigger" restaurant. Denied treatment in Selma for severe blow to head; condition deteriorated on the two-hour trip to a hospital that would treat him (in Birmingham, Alabama); died two days later. Four indicted; three acquitted by all-white juries, fourth fled to Mississippi and never faced trial. Huge national outcry. The Federal Voting Rights Act was passed within four months as a direct result of his lynching and the violent attacks on the Selma to Montgomery marchers.
McClelland, Brandon 23–24 African-American Paris Lamar Texas 2008 None (white supremacists) Dragged to death behind car. Prosecutor dropped charges, "lack of evidence".
Reed, Joseph African-American Nashville Davidson Tennessee 1875 Killing a police officer Taken out of his jail cell by an unmasked mob and hanged on a suspension bridge.[27]
Baker, Frazier B. 41 African-American Lake City Florence South Carollna 1898 Appointed Postmaster

Grand jury did not indict. Since it was a Federal crime (attack on a postmaster) there were 13 Federal indictments; no one convicted

Scott, James T. Janitor at University of Missouri African-American Columbia Boone Missouri 1923 Raping the white daughter of a professor. Before he could stand trial, a mob broke him out of jail and hanged him. The daughter would later identify a different man as her rapist. Jury found perpetrator innocent in 11 minutes. Memorial plaque erected 2016.[28][29]
Smith, Joseph (founder of Mormonism) and brother Hyram Smith 38,
44
White Carthage Hancock Illinois 1844 Technically, treason against state of Illinois, but lynching was for religious views, especially plural marriage/polygamy. In jail awaiting trial. Five men were tried and acquitted.
McIntosh, Francis Adult African-American St. Louis N/A (independent city) Missouri 1836 Complicated, but culminating in death of one constable/deputy sheriff and wounding another Burned alive. Lynching had broad local support. Reported on by abolitionist editor Elijah Lovejoy, who was soon lynched himself.
White, George Adult African-American Wilmington New Castle Delaware 1903 Assaulting teenage girl and leaving her to die Taken from county workhouse and burned alive. No one was prosecuted.
Walker, Zachariah 20-24 African-American Coatesville Chester Pennsylvania 1911 Killing of a police officer, possibly in self-defense Taken from hospital room and burned alive. Fifteen men and teenage boys were indicted, but all were acquitted at trials.[30]
Moss, Tom Adult African-American Memphis Shelby Tennessee 1892 Complaint from competing white grocery store owner. So-called Curve Riot (not a riot). Reported on by Ida B. Wells, whose newspaper was destroyed and had to leave the state.[31]
McDowell, Calvin Adult African-American Memphis Shelby Tennessee 1892 Complaint from competing white grocery store owner. So-called Curve Riot (not a riot). Reported on by Ida B. Wells, whose newspaper was destroyed and had to leave the state.[31]
Clayton, Elias, Elmer Jackson, and Isaac McGhie 20-23 African-American Duluth St. Louis Minnesota 1920 Rape of a teenage girl Taken from jail by mob, given mock trials, beaten and hanged from light-post. No one was prosecuted.
Stewart, Will Adult African-American Memphis Shelby Tennessee 1892 Complaint from competing white grocery store owner. So-called Curve Riot (not a riot). Reported on by Ida B. Wells, whose newspaper was destroyed and had to leave the state.[31]
Holmes, John
Thurmond, Thomas
29
27
White San Jose Santa Clara California 1933 Kidnapping and murder of department store heir Brooke Hart An estimated 10,000 people witnessed the lynching. California Governor James Rolph called the act "a fine lesson for the whole nation."[32]
Lovejoy, Elijah 35 White Alton Madison Illinois 1837 Abolitionist newspaper editor and publisher Had moved to Alton to escape violence in St. Louis. Four successive printing presses destroyed. "Not guilty" verdict; jury foreman member of mob.[33]
Miller, Amos 23 African-American Franklin Williamson Tennessee 1888 Assaulting a white woman Taken from the courthouse during his trial and lynched on the balcony railings.[34]
Taylor, Jim African-American Franklin Williamson Tennessee 1891 Shooting a policeman Taken from his jail cell by a mob and lynched on Murfreesboro Road.[35]
Higginbotham, Elwood 28 African-American Oxford Lafayette Mississippi 1935 Killed in self-defense a white man that attacked him after he complained about the white man's cattle running over his field. Killed when jury did not bring back guilty verdict promptly. Widow and extended family immediately left Mississippi.[36]
Thomas, Wade African-American Jonesboro Craighead Arkansas 1920 Killing a policeman Taken from jail by a mom, hung, then riddled with bullets.[37]
Patton, Nelse African-American Oxford Lafayette Mississippi 1908 Killing a white woman Prominent attorney and former U.S. Senator William V. Sullivan, in his own words, "led the mob...and I'm proud of it".[38]

[39][40]

Jones, David African-American Nashville Davidson Tennessee 1872 Murdering Henry Murray. Taken out of his prison cell and lynched by a mob on the public square.[41][42]
Grizzard, Ephraim African-American Nashville Davidson Tennessee 1892 Assaulting two white girls in Goodlettsville. Taken out of his prison cell and lynched on a bridge in Downtown Nashville in front of 10,000 onlookers. Later taken back to Goodlettsville.[43]
Smith, Samuel 15 African-American Nolensville Williamson Tennessee 1924 Stealing spark plugs in a garage. Taken out of his hospital room in Nashville and lynched by a mob of masked men where he was first caught.[44]
11 Italian Americans Italian-American New Orleans Orleans Louisiana 1891 Killing of police chief 3 had been acquitted; 3 had a mistrial; 5 never tried. Lynching organized by local leaders, including future mayor Walter C. Flower and future governor John M. Parker. Grand jury brought no charges.
Albano, Angelo and Castenge Ficarotta Italian Tampa Hillsborough County Florida 1910 Complicity in a shooting
Villarosa, Federico Italian Vicksburg Warren County Mississippi 1886 Assault of a white girl
Saladino, Lorenzo; Arena, Salvatore; and Giuseppe Venturella 33-36, 27, 48 Italian Hahnville St. Charles Parish Louisiana 1896 Murder Saladino was accused of murdering a wealthy merchant. Arena and Venturella happened to have been in the same prison, accused of a different murder. All rounded up together and lynched to "teach the lawless Italians a salutary lesson." After the lynching, another person confessed to the murder for which Arena and Venturella had been lynched.
DiFatta brothers (Francesco, Carlo, and Giuseppe); Cerami, Giovanni; Rosario Fiducia Italian Tallulah Madison Parish Louisiana 1899 Sicilian immigrant grocery store owners, the DiFatta brothers, quarreled with a local doctor. The doctor fired his pistol at brother Carlo and was immediately shot and injured by brother Giuseppe. Sicilian immigrants Cerami and Fiducia were not involved in the dispute and had simply been nearby when the lynching occurred; they were rounded up and lynched alongside the DiFatta brothers because they were Italian.
Lewis, Sanford African-American Fort Smith Sebastian Arkansas 1912 Shooting a constable Five policemen fined $100 each for "nonfeasance of office". Entire police force fired. Mayor voted out. Man charged with lynching acquitted.[45]
Phifer, Miles (or Relius) African-American Montgomery Montgomery Alabama 1919 Assault of a white woman Was wearing military uniform[46]
Temple, Will African-American Montgomery Montgomery Alabama 1919 Killing a police officer [46]
Crosky, Robert African-American Montgomery Montgomery Alabama 1919 Assault of a white woman [46]
Heath, John 28 White Bisbee Cochise Arizona Territory 1884 Accessory to robbery Mob unsatisfied with lenient sentence
Williams, Matthew 23 African-American Salisbury Wicomico Maryland 1931 Killing his employer Taken forcibly from hospital. No indictment despite numerous witnesses.[47]:9–10
Walker, David, his wife and four children African-American Hickman Fulton Kentucky 1908 Using inappropriate language with a white woman [48]
Grant, George African-American Darien McIntosh Georgia 1930 Sheriff: "I don't know who killed the nigger and I don't give a damn."[47]:10
Gunn, Raymond African-American Maryville Nodaway Missouri 1931 Burned to death. National Guard stood by and watched.[47]:10
Lowry, Henry "a negro sharecropper" African-American Nodena Mississippi Arkansas 1921 Asked for his wages Burned to death; crowd of 500[47]:3
Hose, Sam c. 24 African-American Noonan Coweta Georgia 1899 Killed his white employer in self-defense. Accusations of rape added to incite lynching. Body parts for sale in a store. Widely publicized and privately investigated.
Hartfield, John African-American Ellisville Jones Mississippi 1919 Assaulting a young white woman "The biggest newspaper in the state, Jackson Daily News, carried headlines announcing the exact time and place of the coming orgy.[49] Ten thousand people answered the paper's invitation and they were addressed by the District Attorney, T. W. Wilson, while the lynching was going on."[47]:9
Richardson, Bunk African-American Gadsden Etowah Alabama 1906 Sentenced to death without being charged with any crime; Governor commuted it to life imprisonment. Mob seized him from the jail.
Heflin, Lee White Fauquier Virginia 1892 Convicted murderer Seized from police when they were trying to move him to a safer location.[50]
Wise, Mrs. African-American Frankfort (Frankford?) Virginia (West Virginia?) 1931 Objected to her daughter being taken out for "rides" with white Klansmen. [47]:8
Tillis, Dave African-American Crockett Houston Texas 1932 "Demanded an accounting from his landlord. Charged with 'entering the bedroom of a white woman'". [47]:4–5
Hughes, George African-American Sherman Grayson Texas 1930 Pled guilty to criminal assault. Courthouse stormed (during trial), burned down with Hughes locked in vault, fire hoses cut. Body then dragged behind car and hung, and fire lit under it. Followed by riot and destruction of black businesses. Two persons received two-year sentences for violence.[51]
Shorter, William 17 African-American Winchester N/A (independent city) Virginia 1893 Assault on a white woman [50]
Dye, Joseph White Fauquier Virginia 1892 Convicted murderer Seized from police when they were trying to move him to a safer location.[50]
Anderson, Orion African-American Leesburg Loudoun Virginia 1889 Hung from a derrick[50]
Bromley, H. Heathsville Northumberland Virginia 1955 [50]
Thompson, Allie African-American Culpeper Culpeper Virginia 1918 Assault [50]
Craven, Charles African-American Leesburg Loudoun Virginia 1902 Assault [50]
Thompson, Benjamin 20 African-American Alexandria N/A (independent city) Virginia 1899 Hung from a lamppost at Cameron and Lee Sts., site of several lynchings.[50]
Parker, John African-American Conway Faulkner Arkansas 1931 Stealing some peaches [47]:4
McCoy, Joseph 20 African-American Alexandria N/A (independent city) Virginia 1897 Assault on a young girl [50]
Fletcher, Magruder African-American Tasley Accomack Virginia 1889 [50]
Adam African-American Tampa Hillsborough Florida 1859 A white man was murdered; "in keeping with local custom, a slave man was selected to be killed in retribution". State Supreme Court overturned conviction. Mob broke into jail where he was awaiting a new trial and hung him. Defended by Ossian Hart.[52]:269
Abram Smith[53] 19 African-American Marion Grant Indiana 1930 Accessory to homicide during holdup of white man; rumors of rape No charges filed.
Joe Coe "A married man with two children" African-American Omaha Douglas Nebraska 1891 Assault on a white girl of 5 The Governor and the Sheriff tried unsuccessfully to quiet the crowd in front of the Courthouse. Pieces of the lynching rope were sold as souvenirs. Despite 16 wounds to his body and three broken vertebrae, Coroner said he died of "fright". Grand jury declined to indict.
Till, Emmett 14 African-American Money LeFlore Mississippi 1955 Flirting with white woman Beaten and mutilated before shooting him in the head and sinking his body in the Tallahatchie River. Perpetrators acquitted by all-white jury, then openly admitted they did it. Historical markers shot and defaced 2006-2018.[54]
Anthony Crawford[55] 51 African-American Abbeville Abbeville South Carolina 1916 Offensive language Coroner's jury: "persons unknown"
Charles Wright[53] 21 African-American Rosewood Levy Florida 1930 Homicide during holdup of white man; rumors of rape No charges filed.
Claude Neal African-American Greenwood Jackson Florida 1934 Rape and murder of 19 year old white female Lynchers said he "didn't deserve a trial". Castrated, forced to consume his genitals, stabbed, burned with hot irons, toes and fingers removed, hung, body tied behind automobile. Followed by Marianna riots. Important case in helping to bring lynching to an end.
Dick Rowland (attempted lynching) 19 African-American Tulsa Tulsa Oklahoma 1921 Sexual assault on white girl Conflict between would-be lynchers and defenders led to the Tulsa Race Riot.
Ell Persons about 50 African-American Memphis Shelby Tennessee 1917 Raping and killing a white girl No charges filed.
Fred Rochelle 16 African-American Bartow Polk Florida 1901 Murder and rape of a white woman Doused with kerosene and burned. Special train from Lakeland to see the "barbecue".
Henry Smith 17 African-American Paris Lamar Texas 1893 Kidnapping and murder of white girl; Smith confessed. Tortured, burned with hot irons, doused in oil and set on fire; his remains were sold as souvenirs.
McIlherron, Jim [56] African-American Estill Springs Franklin Tennessee 1918 Killing two whites Tortured, then burned alive. Spectators came from as far as 50 miles away. Postcards sold. "No information sufficient to indict."
Jesse Washington[57] 17 African-American Waco McLennan Texas 1916 Murder; Washington confessed and a jury found him guilty. Dragged behind car, castrated, fingers cut off, ear cut off, burned alive. Professionally photographed; pictures sold as postcards. Lynching of "political value" to Sheriff and to the Judge who presided over his trial. "On the way to the scene of the burning, people on every hand took a hand in showing their feelings in the matter by striking the Negro with anything obtainable, some struck him with shovels, bricks, clubs and others stabbed him and cut him until when he was strung up his body was a solid color of red."[57]:5
John Carter[58] African-American Little Rock Pulaski Arkansas 1927 Attacking a white woman and her mother No charges filed; "mob" responsible.
July Perry[59] 52 African-American Ocoee Orange Florida 1920 Sign on body: "This is what we do to niggers that vote." Prosperous Negro farmer. See Ocoee massacre.
Leo Frank 31 Jewish Marietta Cobb Georgia 1915 Killing a 13 year old girl No charges filed; posthumously pardoned.
Mary Turner[60] 18 African-American Bridge joining Brooks County and Lowndes County, Georgia Georgia 1918 Publicly opposed and threatened legal action against whites who had murdered her husband, unfairly accused (according to her) of killing an abusive landowner. "Hung her upside down from a tree, doused her in gasoline and motor oil and set her on fire. Turner was still alive when a member of the mob split her abdomen open with a knife and her unborn child fell on the ground. The baby was stomped and crushed as it fell to the ground. Turner's body was riddled with hundreds of bullets."
Hayes Turner 25 African-American Morven[61] Brooks Georgia 1918 Accused of helping kill an abusive landowner. Wife Mary killed next day for defending him.
Reuben Stacey (also found as Rubin Stacy) 37 African-American Fort Lauderdale Broward Florida 1935 Assault with a knife Law enforcement officer; grand jury refused to indict.
Sam Carter African-American Rosewood Levy Florida 1923 Assault, rape, and robbery of a white woman See Rosewood massacre. Tortured. Shot before being hung. See Rosewood massacre.
Slab Pitts African-American Toyah Reeves Texas 1906 Living with a white woman Dragged to death before being hung.
Thomas Shipp[62][63][53] 18 African-American Marion Grant Indiana 1930 Accessory to homicide during holdup of white man; rumors of rape No charges filed.
Willie Earle 24 African-American Greenville Greenville South Carolina 1947 Killing of taxi driver 31 suspects charged; all acquitted.
Willie James Howard[64] 15 African-American Live Oak Suwannee Florida 1944 Sending Christmas card with "a note expressing his affection" to a white girl. Forced to jump to his death in the Suwanee River. Grand jury refused to indict.
Ah Wing Chinese Los Angeles Los Angeles California 1871 None Killed in retaliation for the homicide of a rancher.

See: Chinese massacre of 1871

Dr. Chee Long "Gene" Tong Chinese Los Angeles Los Angeles California 1871 None Killed in retaliation for the homicide of a rancher.

See: Chinese massacre of 1871

Chang Wan Chinese Los Angeles Los Angeles California 1871 None Killed in retaliation for the homicide of a rancher.

See: Chinese massacre of 1871

Leong Quai Chinese Los Angeles Los Angeles California 1871 None Killed in retaliation for the homicide of a rancher.

See: Chinese massacre of 1871

Ah Long Chinese Los Angeles Los Angeles California 1871 None Killed in retaliation for the homicide of a rancher.

See: Chinese massacre of 1871

Wan Foo Chinese Los Angeles Los Angeles California 1871 None Killed in retaliation for the homicide of a rancher.

See: Chinese massacre of 1871

Tong Won Chinese Los Angeles Los Angeles California 1871 None Killed in retaliation for the homicide of a rancher.

See: Chinese massacre of 1871

Ah Loo Chinese Los Angeles Los Angeles California 1871 None Killed in retaliation for the homicide of a rancher.

See: Chinese massacre of 1871

Day Kee Chinese Los Angeles Los Angeles California 1871 None Killed in retaliation for the homicide of a rancher.

See: Chinese massacre of 1871

Ah Waa Chinese Los Angeles Los Angeles California 1871 None Killed in retaliation for the homicide of a rancher.

See: Chinese massacre of 1871

Ho Hing Chinese Los Angeles Los Angeles California 1871 None Killed in retaliation for the homicide of a rancher.

See: Chinese massacre of 1871

Lo Hey Chinese Los Angeles Los Angeles California 1871 None Killed in retaliation for the homicide of a rancher.

See: Chinese massacre of 1871

Ah Won Chinese Los Angeles Los Angeles California 1871 None Killed in retaliation for the homicide of a rancher.

See: Chinese massacre of 1871

Wing Chee Chinese Los Angeles Los Angeles California 1871 None Killed in retaliation for the homicide of a rancher.

See: Chinese massacre of 1871

Wong Chin Chinese Los Angeles Los Angeles California 1871 None Killed in retaliation for the homicide of a rancher.

See: Chinese massacre of 1871

References[edit]

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  7. ^ "Negro Kills One; Shoots Up Five, Fighting Posse". Atlanta Constitution. 2 May 1919.
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Further reading[edit]

  • Pfeifer, Michael J. (2004). "Appendix: Confirmed lynchings and near lynchings, 1874–1947". Rough Justice: Lynching and American Society, 1874–1947. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0252029178.

References[edit]