List of lynching victims in the United States
This is a List of lynching victims in the United States. Lynching is the summary execution of an offender, or supposed offender, without due process of law, by a self-constituted and irresponsible body of men. Lynchings in the United States rose in number after the American Civil War in the late 19th century, following the emancipation of slaves; they declined in the 1920s. Nearly 3,500 African Americans and 1,300 whites were lynched in the United States between 1882 and 1968. Most lynchings were of African-American men in the Southern United States, but women were also lynched. More than 73 percent of lynchings in the post–Civil War period occurred in the Southern states. White lynchings of black people also occurred in the Midwestern United States and the Border States, especially during the 20th-century Great Migration of black people out of the Southern United States. The purpose was to enforce white supremacy and intimidate black people through racial terrorism.
According to Ida B. Wells and the Tuskegee University, most lynching victims were accused of murder or attempted murder. Rape or attempted rape was the second most common accusation; such accusations were often pretexts for lynching black people who violated Jim Crow etiquette or engaged in economic competition with white people. Sociologist Arthur F. Raper investigated one hundred lynchings during the 1930s and estimated that approximately one-third of the victims were falsely accused.
On a per capita basis, lynchings were also common in California and the Old West, especially of Latinos, although they represented less than 10% of the national total. Native Americans and Asian Americans were also lynched. Other ethnicities, including Finnish-Americans, German-Americans and Italian-Americans were also lynched occasionally.
|Name||Age||Ethnicity||City||County or Parish||State||Year||Accusation||Comment|
|McIntosh, Francis||26||African-American||St. Louis||N/A (independent city)||Missouri||1836||Complicated, but culminating in death of one constable/deputy sheriff and wounding another||Burned alive. Lynching had broad local support. Reported on by abolitionist editor Elijah Lovejoy, who was soon lynched himself.|
|Lovejoy, Elijah||35||White||Alton||Madison||Illinois||1837||Abolitionist newspaper editor and publisher||Had moved to Alton to escape violence in St. Louis. Four successive printing presses destroyed. "Not guilty" verdict; jury foreman member of mob.|
|Smith, Joseph (founder of Mormonism) and brother Hyrum Smith||38,
|White||Carthage||Hancock||Illinois||1844||Technically, treason against state of Illinois, but lynching was for religious views, especially plural marriage/polygamy.||In jail awaiting trial. Five men were tried and acquitted.|
|Adam||African-American||Tampa||Hillsborough||Florida||1859||A white man was murdered; "in keeping with local custom, a slave man was selected to be killed in retribution". State Supreme Court overturned conviction.||Mob broke into jail where he was awaiting a new trial and hung him. Defended by Ossian Hart.:269|
|Great Hanging at Gainesville (number > 16)||Adult men||White||Gainesville||Cooke||Texas||1862||Lynching, plus "legal" executions, of Union supporters by Confederate supporters||Many lynched before trial was concluded. Prosecution of perpetrators "half-hearted"; only one convicted.|
|Campbell, John (Jack)||Mixed race (White/Dakota)||Mankato||Blue Earth, Nicollet, and Le Sueur||Minnesota||1865||Double murder||Lynched by a mob after an extrajudicial "trial".|
|Taylor, John||17||African-American||Mason||Ingham||Michigan||1866||attempted murder of his employer's wife following a wage dispute||John was a former slave, and had been a teenage soldier for the Union. A mob dragged him from a jail, tortured him and hanged him from a tree, and mutilated and decapitated his body; no one was prosecuted. In 2018 a local park was named the "John Taylor Memorial Park" after him.|
|Outlaw, Wyatt||49-50||African-American||Graham||Alamance||North Carolina||1870||Prominent local figure (no crime alleged)||63 indictments, but the North Carolina Legislature, to end their cases, repealed the law they were charged with violating.|
|Stephens, John W.||35||White||Yancyville||Caswell||North Carolina||1870||State senator who worked to help freedmen||Ku Klux Klan; no one charged.|
|Ah Wing and at least 15 others||Chinese||Los Angeles||Los Angeles||California||1871||None||Killed in retaliation for the homicide of a rancher.|
|Jones, David||African-American||Nashville||Davidson||Tennessee||1872||Murdering Henry Murray.||Taken out of his prison cell and lynched by a mob on the public square.|
|Reed, Joseph||African-American||Nashville||Davidson||Tennessee||1875||Killing a police officer||Taken out of his jail cell by an unmasked mob and hanged on a suspension bridge.|
|Five un-named men||African-American||Mount Vernon||Posey||Indiana||1878||Accused of rape||Largest recorded lynching in Indiana. No-one was ever indicted.|
|Gilmer, Bill||African-American||Memphis||Shelby||Tennessee||1879||Shot attorney Thomas J. Wood||Shot. Gilmer was accused of shooting Wood who had whipped Gilmer for using offensive language near his wife.|
|Harrington, Levi||African-American||Kansas City||Jackson||Missouri||1882||Killing a police officer||Newspapers reported he was innocent, but no one was held accountable for the lynching.|
|Heath, John||28||White||Bisbee||Cochise||Arizona Territory||1884||Accessory to robbery||Mob unsatisfied with lenient sentence|
|Conorly, Huie||16||African-American||Bogalusa||Washington||Louisiana||1884||Attempted rape|||
|McChristian, Perry||White||Grenada||Grenada||Mississippi||1885||Murder of white peddler|||
|Williams, Felix||White||Grenada||Grenada||Mississippi||1885||Murder of white peddler|||
|James, Bartley||African-American||Grenada||Grenada||Mississippi||1885||Suspicion of murder of white peddler|||
|Campbell, John||African-American||Grenada||Grenada||Mississippi||1885||Suspicion of murder of white peddler|||
|Mingo Jack||66||African-American||Eatontown||Monmouth||New Jersey||1886||Rape of a white woman||All suspects acquitted.|
|Woods, Eliza||"Colored"||Jackson||Madison||Tennessee||1886||Supposedly poisoning her employer.||Taken from the county jail, stripped naked, hung up in the courthouse yard and her body riddled with bullets and left exposed to view.|
|Villarosa, Federico (Francesco Valoto)||Italian||Vicksburg||Warren County||Mississippi||1886||Attempted rape of a 10-year-old white girl||Hanged from a tree by a mob despite the efforts of the sheriff and state militia.|
|Miller, Amos||23||African-American||Franklin||Williamson||Tennessee||1888||Assaulting a white woman||Taken from the courthouse during his trial and lynched on the balcony railings.|
|Fletcher, Magruder||about 35||African-American||Tasley||Accomack||Virginia||1889||Raping a white woman in her home|||
|Anderson, Orion||14||African-American||Leesburg||Loudoun||Virginia||1889||"Scaring a teenaged white girl"||Hung from a derrick|
|Martin, Albert||23||African-American||Port Huron||St. Clair||Michigan||1889||Assault and rape||A mob broke into his jail cell with sledge hammers, dragged him from the jail with a noose around his neck, beat and shot him to death, then hanged his corpse from a bridge.|
|Taylor, Jim||African-American||Franklin||Williamson||Tennessee||1891||Shooting a policeman||Taken from his jail cell by a mob and lynched on Murfreesboro Road.|
|11 Italian Americans||Italian-American||New Orleans||Orleans||Louisiana||1891||Killing of police chief||3 had been acquitted; 3 had a mistrial; 5 never tried. Lynching organized by local leaders, including future mayor Walter C. Flower and future governor John M. Parker. Grand jury brought no charges.|
|Joe Coe ("A married man with two children")||African-American||Omaha||Douglas||Nebraska||1891||Assault on a white girl of 5||The Governor and the Sheriff tried unsuccessfully to quiet the crowd in front of the Courthouse. Pieces of the lynching rope were sold as souvenirs. Despite 16 wounds to his body and three broken vertebrae, Coroner said he died of "fright". Grand jury declined to indict.|
|Lundy, Dick||Adult||African-American||Edgefield||Edgefield||South Carolina||1891||Murder of son of sheriff||Coroner's jury: "by persons unknown"|
|Gainesville||Alachua||Florida||1891||Murder||Taken together from jail by mob and hanged.|
|Ford, Andrew||African-American||Gainesville||Alachua||Florida||1891||Beating a man, aiding Harmon Murray||Taken from jail by mob and hanged.|
|Unknown||boy||African-American||Waldo||Alachua||Florida||1892||Suspicion of burglary and incendiarism||Hanged.|
|Moss, Tom||Adult||African-American||Memphis||Shelby||Tennessee||1892||Complaint from competing white grocery store owner.||So-called Curve Riot (not a riot). Reported on by Ida B. Wells, whose newspaper was destroyed and had to leave the state.|
|McDowell, Calvin||Adult||African-American||Memphis||Shelby||Tennessee||1892||Complaint from competing white grocery store owner.||So-called Curve Riot (not a riot). Reported on by Ida B. Wells, whose newspaper was destroyed and had to leave the state.|
|Stewart, Will||Adult||African-American||Memphis||Shelby||Tennessee||1892||Complaint from competing white grocery store owner.||So-called Curve Riot (not a riot). Reported on by Ida B. Wells, whose newspaper was destroyed and had to leave the state.|
|Grizzard, Ephraim||African-American||Nashville||Davidson||Tennessee||1892||Assaulting two white girls in Goodlettsville.||Taken out of his prison cell and lynched on a bridge in Downtown Nashville in front of 10,000 onlookers. Later taken back to Goodlettsville.|
|Heflin, Lee||White||Fauquier||Virginia||1892||Convicted murderer||Seized from police when they were trying to move him to a safer location.|
|Dye, Joseph||White||Fauquier||Virginia||1892||Convicted murderer||Seized from police when they were trying to move him to a safer location.|
|Shorter, William||17||African-American||Winchester||N/A (independent city)||Virginia||1893||Assault on a white woman|||
|Henry Smith||17||African-American||Paris||Lamar||Texas||1893||Kidnapping and murder of white girl; Smith confessed under duress.||Tortured, burned with hot irons, doused in oil and set on fire; his remains were sold as souvenirs.|
|Peterson, John||Adult||African-American||Denmark||Bamberg (at the time, Barnwell County)||South Carolina||1893||Attack on a white girl|
|Willis, Charles||African-American||Rochelle||Alachua||Florida||1894||Being a "desperado"||Shot and burned in bed.|
|Puryear, Richard||African-American||Stroudsburg||Monroe||Pennsylvania||1894||Murder||Lynched by a mob after escaping from jail.|
|Rawls, William||African-American||Newnansville||Alachua||Florida||1895||Murder||Hanged and shot.|
|Divers, Emmett||Adult||African-American||Fulton||Callaway||Missouri||1895||Murder of a white woman; Jennie E. Cain||"Horrible fury of the mob...500 horsemen." Hung from bridge until dead, taken down and hung a second time from a telegraph pole at the fairground, "at the request of the murdered woman's husband, John William Cain". Body and cabin burned.|
|Saladino, Lorenzo; Arena, Salvatore; Giuseppe Venturella||33–36, 27, 48||Italian||Hahnville||St. Charles Parish||Louisiana||1896||Murder||Saladino was accused of murdering a wealthy merchant. Arena and Venturella happened to have been in the same prison, accused of a different murder. All rounded up together and lynched to "teach the lawless Italians a salutary lesson." After the lynching, another person confessed to the murder for which Arena and Venturella had been lynched.|
|Daniels, Alfred||African-American||Gainesville||Alachua||Florida||1896||Suspicion of arson (barn burning) (no evidence)||Taken by mob on way to jail, hanged and shot.|
|Randolph, Sydney||Adult||African-American||Gaithersburg||Montgomery||Maryland||1896||Killing a white girl||Taken from the jail by a mob.|
|McCoy, Joseph||20||African-American||Alexandria||N/A (independent city)||Virginia||1897||Assault on a young girl|||
|James, John Henry||Adult||African-American||Charlottesville (near)||Albemarle||Virginia||1898||Rape||Hanged and shot by a mob.|
|Baker, Frazier B.||41||African-American||Lake City||Florence||South Carollna||1898||Appointed Postmaster||
Grand jury did not indict. Since it was a Federal crime (attack on a postmaster) there were 13 Federal indictments; no one convicted
|Thompson, Benjamin||20||African-American||Alexandria||N/A (independent city)||Virginia||1899||Attempting to criminally assault an eight year-old white girl||Hung from a lamppost at Cameron and Lee Sts., site of several lynchings.|
|DiFatta brothers (Francesco, Carlo, and Giuseppe);
|Italian||Tallulah||Madison Parish||Louisiana||1899||Shooting a doctor||Sicilian immigrant grocery store owners, the DiFatta brothers, quarreled with a local doctor. The doctor fired his pistol at Carlo and was immediately shot and injured by Giuseppe. Sicilian immigrants Cerami and Fiducia were not involved in the dispute and had simply been nearby when the lynching occurred; they were rounded up and lynched alongside the DiFatta brothers because they were Italian.|
|Hose, Sam||about 24||African-American||Noonan||Coweta||Georgia||1899||Killed his white employer in self-defense. Accusations of rape added to incite lynching.||Body parts for sale in a store. Widely publicized and privately investigated.|
|Name||Age||Ethnicity||City||County or Parish||State||Year||Accusation||Comment|
|Watt, W.W.||White||Newport News||N/A||Virginia||1900||Assault||Shot|
|Gause, Anderson||African-American||Henning||Lauderdale||Tennessee||1900||Aided escapees|||
|Pete, Dago||African-American||Tutwiler||Tallahatchie||Mississippi||1900||Assaulted colored woman||Killed by African American mob|
|Estes, Siles||African-American||Hodgenville||LaRue||Kentucky||1901||"Forcing...a 15 year old boy...to commit a crime."|||
|Carter, George||African-American||Paris||Bourbon||Kentucky||1901||"Assaulting a white woman."|||
|Fred Rochelle||16||African-American||Bartow||Polk||Florida||1901||Murder and rape of a white woman||Doused with kerosene and burned. Special train from Lakeland to see the "barbecue".|
|Taken by mob on way to jail, hanged and shot.|
|Steers, Jennie||Adult||African-American||rural area near Shreveport||Caddo||Louisiana||1903||Poisoning daughter of a planter||:70|
|Fambro, William||African-American||Griffin||Spalding||Georgia||1903||Insulted white home|||
|White, George||Adult||African-American||Wilmington||New Castle||Delaware||1903||Assaulting teenage girl and leaving her to die||Taken from county workhouse and burned alive. No one was prosecuted.|
|Jarvis, Washington||25||White||Madison||Madison||Florida||1903||Accused of murdering his cousin.|||
|Clark, Jumbo||African-American||High Springs||Alachua||Florida||1904||Assault of 14 year old white girl||Taken by mob on way to jail, hanged and shot.|
|African-American||Statesboro||Bulloch||Georgia||1904||Murder of five members of a family||Seized by mob from courthouse after conviction for murder, chained to stump and burned|
|Johnson, Ed||23-24||African-American||Chattanooga||Hamilton||Tennessee||1906||Rape of white woman||Sheriff and two others sentenced to 6 months in jail, three others with 3 months, for abetting the lynching. Only criminal case ever with direct involvement of the U.S. Supreme Court; see United States v. Shipp|
|Richardson, Bunk||African-American||Gadsden||Etowah||Alabama||1906||Sentenced to death without being charged with any crime; Governor commuted it to life imprisonment.||Mob seized him from the jail.|
|Pitts, Slab||African-American||Toyah||Reeves||Texas||1906||Living with a white woman||Dragged to death before being hung.|
|Miller, William||African-American||Brighton||Jefferson||Alabama||1908||Labor activist||Jefferson County had the highest number of lynchings in Alabama (29).|
|Riley, Joseph and Jones, Virgil, Robert and Thomas||African-American||Russellville||Logan County||Kentucky||1908||Rufus Browder, a friend and lodge lodge brother of the group, killed his employer with an axe after being shot in the chest. Browder was arrested and sent to Louisville. The four victims had expressed approval of Browder's action and were jailed for disturbing the peace after holding a meeting.||On August 1, 1908 a mob demanded release of the men, and lynched them from a tree. A note pinned to one of the men read, "Let this be a warning to you niggers to let white people alone or you will go the same way."|
|Patton, Nelse||African-American||Oxford||Lafayette||Mississippi||1908||Killing a white woman||Prominent attorney and former U.S. Senator William V. Sullivan, in his own words, "led the mob...and I'm proud of it".|
|Walker, David, his wife and four children||African-American||Hickman||Fulton||Kentucky||1908||Using inappropriate language with a white woman|||
|Wades, Jake||African-American||Lakeland||Polk||Florida||1909||Accused of rape||Transported from Gainesville to Lakeland to be identified and lynched|
|Miller Jim||47||White||Pontotoc||Pontotoc||Oklahoma||1909||Suspicion of murder of a lawman|||
|Burrell, Berry||38||White||Pontotoc||Pontotoc||Oklahoma||1909||Suspicion of murder of a lawman|||
|Allen, Joseph||43||White||Pontotoc||Pontotoc||Oklahoma||1909||Suspicion of murder of a lawman|||
|West, Jesse||46||White||Pontotoc||Pontotoc||Oklahoma||1909||Suspicion of murder of a lawman|||
|Albano, Angelo and Castenge Ficarotta||Italian||Tampa||Hillsborough County||Florida||1910||Complicity in a shooting|||
|William Bradford||African-American||Chunky||Newton||Mississippi||1911||Accused of attempted murder of two white farmers|||
|Nelson, Laura||African-American||Okemah||Okfuskee||Oklahoma||1911||Killing a Deputy sheriff.||Gang-raped and lynched together with her son, 14, after trying to protect him during a meat-pilfering investigation.|
|Walker, Zachariah||20-24||African-American||Coatesville||Chester||Pennsylvania||1911||Killing of a police officer, possibly in self-defense||Taken from hospital room and burned alive. Fifteen men and teenage boys were indicted, but all were acquitted at trials.|
|Lewis, Sanford||African-American||Fort Smith||Sebastian||Arkansas||1912||Shooting a constable||Five policemen fined $100 each for "nonfeasance of office". Entire police force fired. Mayor voted out. Man charged with lynching acquitted.|
|White, Henry||African-American||Campville||Alachua||Florida||1913||Found under white woman's bed||Hanged, noose broke, shot.|
|Williams, Andrew||35||African-American||Houston||Chickasaw||Mississippi||1913||Murder of John C. Williams, Wife of the Deputy Chancery Clerk||Dragged from jail and hanged at a nearby tree, upon the alleged statement of two African-American women ; the women who made the statement were arrested the next day for making a false statement, according to one source  and/or disappeared. The day after Williams was lynched, a second African-American, named in different reports as 'Divel Rucker', 'Dizell Rucker' and 'Dibrell Tucker; was lynched and burned at the stake on the assumption that he, not Williams, was the actual murdered |
|Rucker, Divel||20||African-American||Houston||Chickasaw||Mississippi||1913||Murder of John C. Williams, Wife of the Deputy Chancery Clerk||The day after Andrew Williams was lynched by hanging for this murder, Rucker was presumed by the mob to be the actual murderer and, allegedly, confessed to the crime. He was tied to an iron stake, covered with tar, and set afire. The family of the victim shot him as he was burning According to the New York Sun report, "The Rucker lynching was the most spectacular in the history of Mississippi and there was no attempt at concealment or evasion."|
|Turner, Allen||47||African-American||Western area of Parish (county)||Union||Louisiana||1914||Accused of Assaulting a white man (J.P. McDougall)||J.P. McDougall was whipping Allen Turner's son. Allen was defending his son. Taken from deputy sheriff and shot to death. It is said that Allen's body was then dragged through the roads of Spearsville.|
|Leo Frank||31||Jewish||Marietta||Cobb||Georgia||1915||Killing a 13-year-old girl||No charges filed; posthumously pardoned.|
|Stevenson, Cordella||African-American||Columbus||Lowndes||Mississippi||1915||Her son was accused of burning a white man's barn, he was unavailable, so they raped and murdered her||Her husband Arch was never seen alive after December 15|
|Dr Benjamin E Ward||37||White||Norman||Cleveland||Oklahoma||1915||Murdering his wife||Mob expected him to be freed on grounds of insanity.|
|Newberry Six lynchings (Baskins, Rev. Josh J.,
McHenry, Andrew, and
|Adults||African-American||Newberry||Alachua||Florida||1916||Helping a man who had shot and killed a constable||James Dennis was shot. The others were hanged. Mary Dennis had two children and was pregnant. Stella Young had four children.|
|Lang, Ed||African-American||Rice||Navarro||Texas||1916||"Attacking a young woman."||Taken from a sheriff's posse and hanged.|
|Anthony Crawford||51||African-American||Abbeville||Abbeville||South Carolina||1916||Offensive language||Coroner's jury: "persons unknown"|
|Jesse Washington||17||African-American||Waco||McLennan||Texas||1916||Murder;||Washington confessed and a jury found him guilty. Dragged behind car, castrated, fingers cut off, ear cut off, burned alive. Professionally photographed; pictures sold as postcards. Lynching of "political value" to Sheriff and to the Judge who presided over his trial. "On the way to the scene of the burning, people on every hand took a hand in showing their feelings in the matter by striking the Negro with anything obtainable, some struck him with shovels, bricks, clubs and others stabbed him and cut him until when he was strung up his body was a solid color of red.":5|
|Herman Arthur and brother Irving||19 and 28-years-old||African-American||Paris, Texas||Lamar County||Texas||1917||Murder||Pulled from jail and burned alive|
|Daley, Starr||26||White||Pinal||Arizona||May 6, 1917||Homicide (Two murders) plus two rapes||Accused admitted guilt in trial; taken from Sherriff en route to jail and Hanged from a telephone pole; last Lynching in Arizona|
|Ell Persons||about 50||African-American||Memphis||Shelby||Tennessee||1917||Raping and killing a white girl||No charges filed.|
|McIlherron, Jim ||African-American||Estill Springs||Franklin||Tennessee||1918||Killing two white people||Tortured, then burned alive. Spectators came from as far as 50 miles away. Postcards sold. "No information sufficient to indict."|
|Clark, Andrew and Major; Alma and Maggie House||16, 20, 16, 20||African-American||Shubuta ("hanging bridge")||Clarke||Mississippi||1918||Alleged murder of dentist||Dentist had affairs with both sisters, who were pregnant, likely with his child; the brothers had romantic interest in the girls. After the lynching the babies were seen squirming in their mothers bellies.|
|Taylor, George||African-American||Rolesville||Wake||North Carolina||1918||Rape of a white woman||No charges were filed. There is a Web site on this lynching.|
|Mary Turner||18||African-American||Bridge joining Brooks County and Lowndes County, Georgia||Georgia||1918||Publicly opposed and threatened legal action against white people who had murdered her husband, unfairly accused (according to her) of killing an abusive landowner.||"Hung her upside down from a tree, doused her in gasoline and motor oil and set her on fire. Turner was still alive when a member of the mob split her abdomen open with a knife and her unborn child fell on the ground. The baby was stomped and crushed as it fell to the ground. Turner's body was riddled with hundreds of bullets."|
|Hayes Turner||25||African-American||Morven||Brooks||Georgia||1918||Accused of helping kill an abusive landowner.||Wife Mary killed next day for defending him.|
|Mosely, Sam||African-American||Florida||Columbia||Florida||1919||Accused of assaulting a white woman.|||
|Everest, Wesley||28||White||Centralia||Lewis||Washington||1919||Homicide||Hanged from a bridge during the Centralia Massacre labor conflict|
|Little, Wilbur||African-American||Blakely||Early||Georgia||1919||Wearing uniform of his WWI military service to the United States|
|Brown, Will||41||African-American||Omaha||Douglas||Nebraska||1919||Rape||Part of the Omaha race riot of 1919|
|Williams, Eugene||African-American||Chicago||Cook||Illinois||1919||Racial unrest||A white officer refused to arrest the murderer, and instead arrested a black man who complained about it.|
|Robinson, Robert||African-American||Chicago||Cook||Illinois||1919||He was black, and they wanted to kill a black||Robinson was an Army Reserve veteran.|
|Ashley, Bob||African-American||Dublin||Laurens||Georgia||1919||Hoped to shoot someone else||A group of men thought another man might be inside Ashley's house, so they shot into the house, mortally wounding Ashley.|
|Hamilton, Eugene||African-American||Jasper||Georgia||1919||Convicted by all-white jury of attempting to shoot a white farmer; case before Georgia Court of Appeals.||Mob of 60 stopped car of sheriff who was driving him for protection to nearest large city, Macon. Driven to a bridge in Jasper County and shot to death. Governor was "livid".:233–234|
|Cox, Obe||African-American||Oglethorpe County||Georgia||1919||Accused of murdering a white farmer's wife||Taken to the scene of the crime, his body riddled with bullets and burned at the stake. Several thousand persons witnessed the scene. Controversial as the local Black communisty "thanked" the mob for just killing Cox and not attacking their community.|
|Jones, Paul||African-American||Macon (near)||Bibb||Georgia||1919||Attacking a white woman.||Mob of 400 found him, refused to turn him over to sheriff's deputies. Soaked in gasoline, set on fire; shot while he burned.:241|
|Jameson, Jordan||African-American||Magnolia||Columbia||Arkansas||1919||Killing a sheriff.||Burned to death in the public square.:241|
|Walters, Lemuel||African-American||Longview||Gregg||Texas||1919||Making "indecent advances" to a white woman.|
|Holden, George||African-American||Monroe (near)||Ouachita||Louisiana||1919||Writing a suggestive note to a white woman||Mob stopped a train, dragged him off, and shot him.:18|
|Wilkins, Willie||African-American||Jenkins||Georgia||1919||Friend of man believed to have killed lawman.||:8|
|Ruffin, John||African-American||Jenkins||Georgia||1919||Son of man believed to have killed lawman.||:7–8|
|Ruffin, Henry||African-American||Jenkins||Georgia||1919||Son of man believed to have killed lawman.||:7–8|
|Walters, Lemuel||African-American||Longview||Gregg||Texas||1919||Consensual sex with white woman||The report of the affair and the subsequent coverup led to the Longview riots.|
|Richards, Benny||African-American||Warrenton||Warren||Georgia||1919||Accused of murdering his ex-wife and shooting 5 others||300 men lynched Richards, a farmer.|
|Clay, Lloyd||African-American||Vicksburg||Warren||Mississippi||1919||False rape accusation||1000 men broke through three steel doors to abduct Clay from jail before hanging, shooting, and burning him.|
|Waters, Jim||African-American||Johnson||Georgia||1919||Rape accusation||Investigation closed in one hour with no witnesses interviewed.|
|Livingston, Frank||25||African-American||El Dorado||Union||Arkansas||1919||False murder accusation||One of many returning WWI veterans lynched in 1919.|
|Washington, Berry||72||African-American||Milan||Dodge and Telfair||Georgia||1919||Defended black girls from white home invaders.||Many black homes burned to discourage citizens from coming forward|
|Chilton Jennings||28||African-American||Gilmer||Upshur County||Texas||1919||Assaulted a white women, Mrs. Virgie Haggard||He was arrested and a mob of about 1,000 white people stormed the jail and broke down the door with sledgehammers. A noose was placed around his neck and he was dragged by horse to the town square where he was hanged. Four people were later arrested for the lynching, murder indictments were served for Willie Howell, Charlie Lansdale, Fritz Boyd, and Francis Flanagan.|
|Phifer, Miles (or Relius)||African-American||Montgomery||Montgomery||Alabama||1919||Assault of a white woman||Was wearing military uniform|
|Temple, Will||African-American||Montgomery||Montgomery||Alabama||1919||Killing a police officer|||
|Miles Phifer, Robert Crosky and John Temple||African-American||Montgomery||Montgomery||Alabama||1919||Assault of a white woman|||
|Hartfield, John||African-American||Ellisville||Jones||Mississippi||1919||Assaulting a young white woman||"The biggest newspaper in the state, Jackson Daily News, carried headlines announcing the exact time and place of the coming orgy. Ten thousand people answered the paper's invitation and they were addressed by the District Attorney, T. W. Wilson, while the lynching was going on.":9|
|Thomas, Wade||African-American||Jonesboro||Craighead||Arkansas||1920||Killing a policeman||Taken from jail by a mob, hung, then riddled with bullets.|
|Scott, Henry||African American||Bartow||Polk||Florida||1920||He asked a white woman to wait until he had prepared another woman's train berth||Shot|
|Daniels, Lige||16-18||African-American||Center||Shelby||Texas||1920||Accused of murdering a white woman.||Taken from jail by a mob of approx 1000 to the town square and hanged|
|Clayton, Elias, Elmer Jackson, and Isaac McGhie||20-23||African-American||Duluth||St. Louis||Minnesota||1920||Rape of a teenage girl||Taken from jail by mob, given mock trials, beaten and hanged from light-post. No one was prosecuted.|
|Belton Roy||18||White||Tulsa||Tulsa||Oklahoma||1920||Suspicion of murder of cab driver|||
|July Perry||52||African-American||Ocoee||Orange||Florida||1920||Sign on body: "This is what we do to niggers that vote."||Prosperous black farmer. See Ocoee massacre.|
|Lowry, Henry ("a negro sharecropper")||African-American||Nodena||Mississippi||Arkansas||1921||Asked for his wages||Burned to death; crowd of 500:3|
|African-American||Perry||Taylor||Florida||1922||Murder of white teacher||Wright was taken from sheriff by a large mob, tortured into confession, and burned at the stake. Arthur Young was later taken from the jail and he and another man were shot and hanged. Several African American community buildings and homes were burned in the Perry race riot.|
|Young, Albert (or Arthur)||21||African-American||Perry||Taylor||Florida||1922||Murder of a white schoolteacher||Tortured, then burned alive|
|Scott, James T. (Janitor at University of Missouri)||35-56||African-American||Columbia||Boone||Missouri||1923||Raping the white daughter of a professor.||Before he could stand trial, a mob broke him out of jail and hanged him. The daughter would later identify a different man as her rapist. Jury found perpetrator innocent in 11 minutes. Memorial plaque erected 2016.|
|Wilson, Abraham||African-American||Newberry||Alachua||Florida||1923||Cattle stealing||Serving 6-month sentence when taken from jail and hanged.|
|Carter, Sam||45||African-American||Rosewood||Levy||Florida||1923||Assault, rape, and robbery of a white woman||Tortured. Shot before being hanged. See Rosewood massacre.|
|Smith, Samuel||15||African-American||Nolensville||Williamson||Tennessee||1924||Stealing spark plugs in a garage.||Taken out of his hospital room in Nashville and lynched by a mob of masked men where he was first caught.|
|Jordan, James||Adult||African-American||Waverly||Sussex||Virginia||1925||Married woman "attacked" in her home.||The case and two others helped lead to the Virginia Anti-Lynching Law of 1928, the first state law against lynching.|
|Marshall, Robert||African-American||Price||Carbon||Utah||1925||Accused of killing a white guard||The allegation was based on the testimony of two young boys who said they saw a black man running from the scene of the crime. Marshall was lynched in front of a crowd of 1,000. When the sheriff arrived, he cut Marshall down and was putting him in the car when Marshall made noise indicating he was alive. The mob shouted to lynch him again. Afterward, Marshall's body was put on display in the funeral parlor and photos of the lynching were sold door-to-door for 25 cents. In 1998 the community provided a headstone for him.|
|Clark, James||African-American||Eau Gallie||Brevard||Florida||1926||Rape of a white girl||No attempt to verify crime nor identify murderers: last known lynching in Brevard County|
|Buddington, George||55||African-American||Waldo||Alachua||Florida||1926||Attempted to collect debt from a white woman at gunpoint||Mob broke lock on jail, took Buddington out of town and shot him to death.|
|Carter, John||38||African-American||Little Rock||Pulaski||Arkansas||1927||Attacking a white woman and her mother||No charges filed; "mob" responsible.|
|Unknown male||African-American||Marion||Crittenden||Arkansas||1930s||Teaching the black children of Marked Tree, Arkansas to read||Burned, sign posted "run niggers run!".|
|Grant, George||African-American||Darien||McIntosh||Georgia||1930||Killing a police officer, and wounding three other people||Sheriff: "I don't know who killed the nigger and I don't give a damn.":10|
|Shipp, Thomas||18||African-American||Marion||Grant||Indiana||1930||Accessory to homicide during holdup of white man; rumors of rape||No charges filed.|
|Abram Smith||19||African-American||Marion||Grant||Indiana||1930||Accessory to homicide during holdup of white man; rumors of rape||No charges filed.|
|Hughes, George||African-American||Sherman||Grayson||Texas||1930||Pled guilty to criminal assault.||Courthouse stormed (during trial), burned down with Hughes locked in vault, fire hoses cut. Body then dragged behind car and hung, and fire lit under it. Followed by riot and destruction of black businesses. Two persons received two-year sentences for violence.|
|Charles Wright[verification needed]||21||African-American||Rosewood||Levy||Florida||1930||Homicide during holdup of white man; rumors of rape||No charges filed.|
|Parker, John||African-American||Conway||Faulkner||Arkansas||1931||Stealing some peaches|| < <:4|
|Gunn, Raymond||African-American||Maryville||Nodaway||Missouri||1931||Murdering a white woman||Burned to death. National Guard stood by and watched.:10|
|Wise, Mrs.||African-American||Frankfort (Frankford?)||Virginia (West Virginia?)||1931||Objected to her daughter being taken out for "rides" with white Klansmen.||:8|
|Williams, Matthew||23||African-American||Salisbury||Wicomico||Maryland||1931||Killing his employer||Taken forcibly from hospital. No indictment despite numerous witnesses.:9–10|
|Tillis, Dave||African-American||Crockett||Houston||Texas||1932||"Demanded an accounting from his landlord. Charged with 'entering the bedroom of a white woman'".||:4–5|
|Thompson, Shedrick (also spelled "Shamrock")||39||African-American||rural||Fauquier||Virginia||1932||Assault and rape.|
|Armwood, George||23||African-American||Princess Anne||Somerset||Maryland||1933||Attempted assault and rape||Grand jury declined to indict any of the lynchers identified by State Police. Last lynching in Maryland.|
|Holmes, John, and Thomas Thurmond||29
|White||San Jose||Santa Clara||California||1933||Kidnapping and murder of department store heir Brooke Hart||An estimated 10,000 people witnessed the lynching. California Governor James Rolph called the act "a fine lesson for the whole nation."|
|Claude Neal||23||African-American||Greenwood||Jackson||Florida||1934||Rape and murder of 19 year old white female||Lynchers said he "didn't deserve a trial". Castrated, forced to consume his genitals, stabbed, burned with hot irons, toes and fingers removed, hanged, body tied behind automobile. Followed by Marianna riots. Important case in helping to bring lynching to an end.|
|Higginbotham, Elwood||28||African-American||Oxford||Lafayette||Mississippi||1935||Killed in self-defense a white man that attacked him after he complained about the white man's cattle running over his field.||Killed when jury did not bring back guilty verdict promptly. Widow and extended family immediately left Mississippi.|
|Reuben Stacey (also found as Rubin Stacy)||37||African-American||Fort Lauderdale||Broward||Florida||1935||Assault with a knife||Law enforcement officer; grand jury refused to indict.|
|Williams, Elbert||African-American||Brownsville||Haywood||Tennessee||1940||Registering to vote and starting an NAACP chapter.||Last reported lynching in Tennessee.|
|Green, Ernest, and Charlie Lang||14, 15||African-American||Shubuta ("hanging bridge")||Clarke||Mississippi||1942||Attempted rape.||:101|
|Wright, Cleo||26||African-American||Sikeston||Scott||Missouri||1942||Home invasion, attempted murder, attempted rape, resisting arrest||Around 100 black people left Sikeston and never returned.|
|Harrison, Cellos||31||African-American||Marianna||Jackson||Florida||1943||Murder of a white man.||Awaiting new trial after conviction overturned on appeal.|
|Willie James Howard||15||African-American||Live Oak||Suwannee||Florida||1944||Sending Christmas card with "a note expressing his affection" to a white girl.||Forced to jump to his death in the Suwanee River. Grand jury refused to indict.|
|Moore's Ford lynchings (George W. and Mae Murray Dorsey; Roger and Dorothy Malcom)||Adults||African-American||Walton||Georgia||1946||Stabbing of a white man (Roger Malcom)||Huge investigation. 2003 and 2016 books on this investigation. No one charged.|
|Willie Earle||24||African-American||Greenville||Greenville||South Carolina||1947||Killing of taxi driver||31 suspects charged; all acquitted.|
|Council, Lynn||about 19||African-American||near Raleigh||Wake||North Carolina||1952||Robbery||He survived. Newspapers treat it as a lynching. Council has received apologies from the law enforcement agencies involved.|
|Banks, Isadore||59||African-American||Marion||Crittenden||Arkansas||1954||Being prosperous|||
|Till, Emmett||14||African-American||Money||LeFlore||Mississippi||1955||Flirting with white woman||Beaten and mutilated before shooting him in the head and sinking his body in the Tallahatchie River. Perpetrators acquitted by all-white jury, then openly admitted they did it. Historical markers shot and defaced 2006–2018.|
|Parker, Mack Charles||22 or 23||African-American||Bridge over Pearl River between Mississippi and Louisiana||Pearl River||Mississippi||1959||Rape and kidnapping of a white woman; charges possibly fabricated.||No one indicted.|
|Chaney, James||21||African-American||Philadelphia||Neshoba||Mississippi||1964||Civil rights worker||A federal jury in 1967 convicted the sheriff and six others of conspiracy to violate civil rights; they received minor punishment. A state jury in 2005 found the Ku Klux Klan organizer, Edgar Ray Killen, guilty of three counts of manslaughter; he died in prison. National outrage contributed to passage of Civil Rights Act of 1964.|
|Morris, Frank||49-50||African-American||Ferriday||Concordia||Louisiana||1964||"Flirting" with white females||:152|
|Rembert, Winifred||19||African-American||Cuthbert||Randolph||Georgia||1965||Fighting with deputy while in jail for stealing car to get away from two men shooting at him.||Survived. As of 2019, Rembert is a successful leatherwork artist. He has had at least two documentary films made about his story.|
|Pyszko, Marian||54||Polish Jew||Detroit||Wayne||Michigan||1975||None.||Killed by African American youths during riot.|
|Byrd Jr., James||49||African-American||Jasper||Jasper||Texas||1998||None (white supremacists)||Dragged to death behind a car, until his head hit a culvert. Perpetrators convicted; two executed, one to life imprisonment.|
|Donald, Michael||19||African-American||Mobile||Mobile||Alabama||1981||None (Klan looked to kill a black man because killer of white policeman got mistrial).||Three Klansmen (Henry Hays, James Knowles, and Benjamin Cox) were convicted of Donald's murder. Henry Hays was sentenced to death and executed in the electric chair in 1997. James Knowles and Benjamin Cox were sentenced to life in prison. A civil suit against the United Klans of America caused their bankruptcy.|
|Turks, Willie||34||African-American||New York City||Sheepshead Bay, Brooklyn||New York||1982||drove through a majority-white neighborhood between his subway maintenance shifts|||
|Griffith, Michael||23||Afro-Caribbean||New York City||Howard Beach, Queens||New York||1986||walked through a majority-white neighborhood after his car broke down|
|Hawkins, Yusef||16||African-American||New York City||Bensonhurst, Brooklyn||New York||1989||either mistaken as or randomly targeted in place of another black teenager who was dating a local girl||Hawkins' murder became a major political issue during the 1989 New York City mayoral election season and, alongside the lynchings of Willie Turks and Michael Griffith, played a role in the unseating of incumbent mayor Ed Koch.|
|Name||Age||Ethnicity||City||County or Parish||State||Year||Accusation||Comment|
|Ahmaud Arbery||25||African-American||Satilla Shores||Glynn County||Georgia||2020||Burglary||Chased down and shot|
- Lists of killings by law enforcement officers in the United States
- Red Summer
- The National Memorial for Peace and Justice
- "Lynchings: By State and Race, 1882–1968". University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Law. Archived from the original on June 29, 2010. Retrieved July 26, 2010.
Statistics provided by the Archives at Tuskegee Institute.
- "Lynching, Whites and Negroes, 1882 – 1968" (PDF). Tuskegee University. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 13, 2016.
- Wells, Ida B. (2014). Southern Horrors (1892) in On Lynching. Dover Books. ISBN 978-0486779997.
- Gunnar Myrdal, An American Dilemma (New York, 1944), page 561.
- Gonzales-Day, Ken (2006). Lynching in the West, 1850–1935. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. ISBN 978-0-8223-3781-2.
- Lovrien, Jimmy (September 17, 2018). "Finnish immigrant was 'victim of warmongers' 100 years ago in..." www.duluthnewstribune.com. Retrieved January 13, 2019.
- "100 Years Ago this Week, During WW 1, a German-American Was Lynched - History News Network". historynewsnetwork.org. Retrieved January 13, 2019.
- Delucia, Christine (2003). "Getting the Story Straight: Press Coverage of Italian-American Lynchings from 1856-1910". Italian Americana. 21 (2): 212–221. JSTOR 29776894.
- Blakemore, Erin. "The Grisly Story of America's Largest Lynching". HISTORY. Retrieved January 13, 2019.
- Tebbe, Jen (November 7, 2017). "Elijah Lovejoy: An American Martyr". Missouri Historical Society.
- Allman, T. D. (2013). Finding Florida. The True History of the Sunshine State. Atlantic Monthly Press. ISBN 9780802120762.
- McCaslin, Richard B. (June 15, 2010). "Great Hamging at Gainesville". Handbook of Texas Online, Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved May 30, 2014.
- Smallwood, James (December 1976). "Disaffection in Confederate Texas: The Great Hanging at Gainesville". Civil War History. 22 (4). pp. 349–360.
- "Blue Earth County Minnesota Genealogy and History". genealogytrails.com.
- "Map of White Supremacy mob violence". Retrieved January 7, 2019.
- "This Day in History". Mankato Magazine. April 25, 2012. Retrieved January 7, 2019.
- Judy Putnam (April 27, 2018). "Putnam: Delhi Township rethinks park called Deadman's Hill, named after 1866 lynching". Lansing State Journal. Retrieved January 7, 2019.
- Gaddis, Elijah; Kotch, Seth. "A Red Record. Revealing lynching sites in North Carolina and South Carolina". University of North Carolina.
- "A Night of Excitement. David Jones, the Murderer of Murray, Taken from the Jail by a Mob. Murderer Offers Resistance, and is Shot Twice. Afterwards Taken to the Public Square and Hanged in Front of the Station House. The Hanging Witnesses by Immense Crowd of Excited Citizens. Efforts of the Mayor to Restore Quiet. Gov. Brown Makes an Appeal in Behalf of Law and Order". Nashville Union and American. March 26, 2018. p. 4. Retrieved May 3, 2018 – via Newspapers.com.
- "The Nashville Lynching Case". The Chicago Tribune. March 28, 1872. p. 3. Retrieved May 3, 2018 – via Newspapers.com.
- "A Fearful Outrage. A Negro Murderer Lynched by a Few Citizens in Nashville--A Mob Looking On and Endorsing the Deed. The State Disgraced by a Supine Set of Officers--An Unmitigated Outrage Against Law and Decency. A Crime for Which the Perpetrators Out to be Made to Pay with Their Lives--The Whole State Demands It". Memphis Daily Appeal. May 3, 1875. p. 1. Retrieved June 5, 2018 – via Newspapers.com.
- "The Criminal Calendar". The Saturday Evening Press (Menasha, Wisconsin). May 1, 1879.
- "Assassination in Starkville". Clarion-Ledger. March 26, 1879. Retrieved February 14, 2019.
- "Starkville". Carolina Watchman. May 8, 1879. Retrieved December 19, 2018.
- "Two Taught Ropes" (PDF). Memphis Daily Appeal. May 6, 1879. Retrieved December 19, 2018.
- "Kansas City to Dedicate Historical Marker for Lynching". Missouri Catholic Conference. November 30, 2018.
- Max, Elyse (November 13, 2018). "Support Truth and Reconciliation: Marker Dedication Ceremony for Kansas City Lynching Victim Levi Harrington". Missourians for alternatives to the death penalty. Archived from the original on December 4, 2018. Retrieved December 4, 2018.
- "Community leaders gather to remember local lynching victim". Missouri Times. April 2, 2018.
- Johnson, Michelle Tyrene (November 30, 2018). "Kansas City Erects First Memorial To Remember A Victim Of Lynching". KCUR.
- "The Lynching in Washington Parish". Times-Picayune. February 27, 1884. p. 7.
- "Southern Gleanings". Magnolia Gazette. July 17, 1885. Retrieved November 20, 2018.
- "George Kearney". New York Herald. July 19, 1998.
- Spahr, Rob (September 24, 2012). "Lynching of former slave memorialized as 'low point' in Eatontown history". Retrieved December 24, 2017.
- "Ida B. Wells and the Lynching of Black Women". The New York Times. April 28, 2018. Retrieved January 22, 2019.
- Berger, Paul (December 20, 2014). "Midnight in Tennessee - The Untold Story of the First Jewish Lynching in America". Haaretz. Retrieved May 15, 2018.
In 1888, Amos Miller, a black man accused of raping a white woman, was dragged from court in Franklin and hung from the courthouse railings.
- "Shameful Past: Lynchings on Delmarva- Magruder Fletcher Lynched in Accomac in 1889". www.wboc.com.
- Thomas-Lester, Avis (July 7, 2005). "From the archives: State Lives With a Legacy of Terror as Nation Pays Tribute to Victims' Descendants". Washington Post. Retrieved April 20, 2018.
- "First Of Three Young, Black Lynching Victims In Loudoun County To Be Memorialized".
- Liz Shepard (April 30, 2018). "Port Huron's past included on lynching memorial". The Times Herald. Retrieved January 7, 2019.
- "Judge Lynch Presided. Would-Be Murderer Strung Up at Franklin. His Most Atrocious Assault on an Officer Avenged. The Body Dangling by the Roadside on the Outskirts. He Also Shot a Circus Man, Who Was Brought to Nashville for Treatment--A Deserved Fate". The Daily American. Nashville, Tennessee. April 30, 1891. Retrieved May 14, 2018 – via Newspapers.com.
- Dan, Nicole (September 27, 2017). "At Least 21 Lynched In Alachua County, Historical Commission Confirms". WUFT News. Retrieved January 9, 2019.
- Ball, Nathaniel C. (September 30, 2015). "Memphis and the Lynching at the Curve". The Benjamin L. Hooks Institute for Social Change, University of Memphis. Retrieved May 15, 2018.
- "Finally Successful. An Attempt to Lynch Negroes At Nashville, Tenn., Successfully Resisted. The Government Takes Charge of the Jail Forces--One of the Lynchers Killed. Another Attempt Proves Successful, and the Negro Is Hanged. Crimes". The Courier. Waterloo, Iowa. May 2, 1892. p. 2. Retrieved April 27, 2018 – via Newspapers.com.
- Last, Anne M. (September 19, 2015). "Strange Fruit and Spanish Moss: January 12, 1894: Charles Willis".
- "Lynching of a Negro Murderer". Harrisburg Daily Independent. March 15, 1894. Retrieved January 7, 2019.
- "NEGRO LYNCHED / Murder of a White Woman in Missouri Swung from a Bridge". Evening Argus (Owosso, Michigan). August 16, 1895. p. 4.
- "Three Ialians lynched in Louisiana". The Journal and Tribune. August 10, 1896. p. 1. Retrieved March 6, 2020.
- "Lynched a Suspected Negro". New York Times. July 5, 1896. p. 24.
- "Act of Unusual Atrocity". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. August 9, 1899. p. 2.
Italian authorities regard lynchings as very serious
- "Lynchings". Grenada Sentinel. January 5, 1901. Retrieved January 11, 2019.
- "Negro Lynched in Kentucky". Lewiston Daily Sun. November 1, 1901.
- "Los Angeles Herald 12 February 1901 — California Digital Newspaper Collection". cdnc.ucr.edu.
- Editorial Board (March 5, 2014). "Confronting Virginia's Racial History". News & Advance.
- Pfeifer, Michael James (2004). Rough Justice: Lynching and American Society, 1874-1947. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 9780252029172.
- "Lynchings" (PDF). St. Tammany Farmer (Covington, Louisiana). February 13, 1904. p. 6. Retrieved January 13, 2019.
- "White Man Lynched". The Tennessean. Newspapers.com. May 20, 1903. Retrieved July 2, 2020.
- "Cowboys Lynch Negro in Toyah, Texas for living with a white woman". Reading Times. Reading, Pennsylvania. October 27, 1906. Retrieved March 6, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
- Equal Justice Initiative (2015). "Lynching In America / The Lynching of William Miller". Historical Marker Database. Retrieved May 2, 2018.
- "Photographic postcard of four African-American men hanging from their necks by ropes in a cedar tree". oshkosh.pastperfectonline.com. Oskosh Public Museum. June 15, 2006. Retrieved July 14, 2020.
- "Leader of Mob an Ex-U.S. Senator". Fredericksburg Daily Star. September 11, 1908.
- "Ex-Senator Sullivan Will Stand Consequences for Directing Shooting". New York Times. September 10, 1908. Retrieved May 7, 2018.
- Sassoubre, Ticien Marie (2008). "Avoiding Adjudication in William Faulkner's Go Down, Moses and Intruder in the Dust". Criticism. 49 (2): 183–214. doi:10.1353/crt.0.0016.
- "New Lynching Memorial Evokes Terror of Victims". Associated Press. April 23, 2018.
- "State and domestic". The Rice belt journal. February 2, 1909. Retrieved February 10, 2020.
- "Four Men Pay Price of Bobbitt's Death/ Miller, Allen, West and Burrell are Lynched by Mob at Ada this Morning". The Daily Ardmoreite. oklahomahistory.net. April 19, 1909. Retrieved July 1, 2020.
- "'Quiet Again Resigns; Protest of Italians Brings Investigation" (PDF). Tampa Morning Tribune. September 22, 1910.
- "Mississippi Negro Hanged". The Tennessean. June 18, 1911. Retrieved October 3, 2019.
- "Lynching memorial shows women were victims, too". The Conversation. April 27, 2018. Retrieved January 22, 2019.
- Eric S. Smith, "Zachariah Walker's lynching haunts the city", Daily Local News (Chester County), August 13, 2011, accessed January 5, 2016.
- Boulden, Ben. "The Lynching of Sanford Lewis". Fort Smith Historical Society. Retrieved April 28, 2018.
- Associated Press, see Nashville Banner Feb. 7, 1913 pg. 1
- Lincoln, NE, Star February 9, 1913 p. 1
- e.g. San Francisco Call, February 9, 1913 p. 26
- New York Sun, February 9, 1913 p. 1, Oakland CA Tribute February 9, pg. 43
- "Burn Negro At Stake: Second Lynching for Murder of Mrs. Williams". Chattanooga, Tennessee: Chattanooga Times. February 9, 1913. p. 1. Retrieved March 6, 2020.
- e.g. Lincoln Star February 9, 1913 p. 1
- New York Sun, February 9, 1913 p. 1
- "Negro Who Assaults White Man in Union Parish Put to Death". The Shreveport Times. April 1, 1914. Retrieved March 15, 2020.
- "RAPE, LYNCH NEGRO MOTHER". Chicago Defender. December 18, 1915.
- Burke, J. J. (May 13, 1915). "The Norman Transcript (Norman, Okla.), Vol. 26, No. 36, Ed. 1 Thursday, May 13, 1915". The Gateway to Oklahoma History.
- People, National Association for the Advancement of Colored (1919). Thirty Years of Lynching in the United States, 1889-1918. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. p. 24.
- "Negro Lynched near Rice". Tampa Tribune. August 20, 1916. p. 2.
- "Anthony Crawford, a Negro of Wealth, Lynched Saturday". Abbeville Press and Banner. Abbeville, South Carolina. October 25, 1917. p. 1. Retrieved December 21, 2015.
- "The Waco Horror (supplement to The Crisis)". The Crisis. July 1916. Retrieved March 8, 2018.
- White, Walter F. (May 1918). "The Burning of James McIlherron. An N.A.A.C.P. Investigation" (PDF). The Crisis. pp. 16–20. Retrieved March 2, 2018.
- Mitchell, Jerry (May 1, 2016). ""Hanging Bridge" signing May 2 at Lemuria". Clarion Ledger. Retrieved December 26, 2017.
- Hui, T. Keung (October 29, 2018). "A black man was lynched near Rolesville in 1918. Now Wake students are honoring him".
- Wake County Drum Majors for Social Justice. "The 1918 Lynching of George Taylor".
- NAACP. "History of Lynchings". Retrieved March 2, 2018.
- McWhirter, Cameron (2011). Red Summer The Summer of 1919 and the Awakening of Black America. Henry Holt and Company. p. 245. ISBN 9780805089066.
- McWhirter, Cameron (2011). Red Summer The Summer of 1919 and the Awakening of Black America. Henry Holt and Company. p. 129. ISBN 9780805089066.
- McWhirter, Cameron (2011). Red Summer The Summer of 1919 and the Awakening of Black America. Henry Holt and Company. p. 125. ISBN 9780805089066.
- McWhirter, Cameron (2011). Red Summer The Summer of 1919 and the Awakening of Black America. Henry Holt and Company. pp. 94–95. ISBN 9780805089066.
- McWhirter, Cameron (2011). Red Summer. The Summer of 1919 and the Awakening of Black America. Henry Holt. ISBN 9780805089066.
- Brundage, William Fitzhugh (1993). Lynching in the New South: Georgia and Virginia, 1880-1930. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 9780252063459.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link) - Total pages: 375
- "Clio - Welcome". Clio.
- McWhirter, Cameron (2011). Red Summer The Summer of 1919 and the Awakening of Black America. Henry Holt and Company. pp. 81–95. ISBN 9780805089066.
- "Negro Kills One; Shoots Up Five, Fighting Posse". Atlanta Constitution. May 2, 1919.
- McWhirter, Cameron (2011). Red Summer The Summer of 1919 and the Awakening of Black America. Henry Holt and Company. p. 51. ISBN 9780805089066.
- "Mob uses Rope, to Lynch Negro". Atlanta Constitution. May 15, 1919.
- McWhirter, Cameron (2011). Red Summer The Summer of 1919 and the Awakening of Black America. Henry Holt and Company. p. 52. ISBN 9780805089066.
- "Frank Livingston (Lynching of)". Retrieved November 11, 2018.
- Voogd, Jan (2008). Race Riots and Resistance: the Red Summer of 1919. Peter Lang Publishing Group. ISBN 9781433100673.
- Herald Democrat 1919, p. 1.
- Richmond Times-Dispatch 1919, p. 1.
- Lyman, Brian (April 20, 2018). "'There will be lynchings': How the Advertiser failed victims of racial terror". Montgomery Advertiser.
- "3,000 Will Burn Negro — John Hartfield Will Be Lynched by Ellisville Mob at 5 o'clock This Afternoon — Negro Jerky and Sullen as Burning Hour Nears". New Orleans States (reprinted from Jackspn Daily News). June 26, 1919.
- Haywood, Harry; Howard, Milton (1932). Lynching (PDF). Retrieved April 20, 2018.
- "Negro Is Lynched by Arkansas Mob". Ellensburg Daily Record. December 27, 1920.
- "Woman's Impatience Revealed as Cause of Porter's Death". New York Negro World. May 29, 1920.
The woman sent a telegram to the next station stating that Scott had insulted her. When the train stopped, Scott was removed by a deputy sheriff. From there the story followed the usual lynching pattern. A mob "over-powered" the sheriff and killed the Negro. The coroner’s jury returned the usual verdict, "Death at the hands of parties unknown."
- "America's Black Holocaust Museum | Lige Daniels". abhmuseum.org.
- "A pair of lynchings year before massacre shook Tulsa". Tulsa World. May 31, 2020. Retrieved July 2, 2020.
- Federal Writers' Project of the Work Projects Administration for the State of Florida. "The Ocoee Riot". Retrieved February 22, 2018.
- Ginzburg, Ralph (1988). 100 Years of Lynchings. Black Classic Press. p. 166. ISBN 9780933121188.
- Marion, Ann (September 30, 2016). "New plaque memorializes 1923 lynching victim James T. Scott". Columbia Missourian. Retrieved May 25, 2018.
- Howe, Barton Grover (May 8, 2003). "Legacy of a lynching". Columbia Missourian. Retrieved May 25, 2018.
- The Crisis. The Crisis Publishing Company, Inc. October 1923. p. 260.
- "Mob Lynches Negro Boy Who Shot Grocer. Body of Masked Men Take Him From Hospital. Samuel Smith, 15, Left Hanging Near Home of Ike Eastwood, Whom He Wounded Friday Night". Nashville Tennessean. December 16, 1924. pp. 1, 5. Retrieved May 2, 2018 – via Newspapers.com.
- Green, Frank (March 2, 2014). "Memories of 1925 lynching linger in Waverly". Richmond Times-Dispatch. Retrieved October 15, 2018.
- "Lynching in Waverly, Virginia, Is Revisited". Equal Justice Initiative. March 7, 2014. Retrieved October 15, 2018.
- Brooke, James (April 4, 1998). "Memories of Lynching Divide a Town". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 7, 2020.
- Scruggs, David C (January 15, 1989). "Scales Of Justice Hung From Tree With 1 Strong Limb". Retrieved December 18, 2018.
- "Florida Frontiers "The Lynching of James Clark"". Retrieved December 18, 2018.
- "George.Buddington.1926". The Cincinnati Enquirer. p. 10. Retrieved January 9, 2019.
- Harp, Stephanie. "John Carter: A Scapegoat for Anger". America's Black Holocaust Museum.
- Schwarz, Ted (August 13, 2008). "I'll Get My Rest When the Lord Is Done With Me Here". Retrieved January 10, 2019.
- Leroux, Charles (February 14, 1993). "Lynching Black Man, Now 78, Relates Narrow Escape, Tells How Two Companions Were Lynched In Indiana In 1930". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved January 2, 2018.
- Nolin, Robert (July 17, 2010). "Mob lynched black man in Fort Lauderdale 75 years ago". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved December 29, 2017.
- Brooks, Bryan (July 17, 1988). "The Day They Lynched Reuben Stacey". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved December 29, 2017.
- Thompson, Nolan (2010). "Sherman Riot of 1930". Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved May 28, 2018.
- McPhate, Mike (November 29, 2017). "When a San Jose mob stormed a jail and lynched two men". The California Sun. Retrieved September 25, 2018.
- Gregory, Vanessa (April 25, 2018). "A Lynching's Long Shadow". New York Times Magazine.
- "His Name Was Rubin Stacy". August 1, 2018.
- Bennett, Kathy (2017). "Lynching". Tennessee Encyclopedia. University of Tennessee Press.
- Ward, Jason Morgan (2016). Hanging bridge : racial violence and America's civil rights century. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199376568. OCLC 921864717.
- Teachout, Terry (May 30, 1999). "Close to Home". Nytimes.com. Retrieved December 26, 2017.
- Wethersbee, Tonya J. (August 29, 2015). "Before Emmett Till's Death, Willie James Howard, 15, Was Murdered in Fla". The Root. Retrieved March 8, 2018.
- "Isadore Banks (Murder of)". Retrieved January 10, 2019.
- Haag, Matthew (August 6, 2018). "Emmett Till Sign Is Hit With Bullets Again, 35 Days After Being Replaced". New York Times.
- Newton, M. (2005). The FBI and the KKK: A Critical History. p. 151. ISBN 9781476605104. Retrieved January 6, 2016.
- "Nearly lynched in the 1960s, New Haven man uses art to teach others about the past". FOX 61. March 2, 2017. Retrieved June 29, 2019.
- "The Indelible Images of Winfred Rembert | The Folk Art Society of America". folkart.org. Retrieved June 29, 2019.
- "All Me: The Life and Times of Winfred Rembert". www.allmethemovie.com. Retrieved June 29, 2019.
- "Ashes to Ashes". Mountainfilm. May 7, 2019. Retrieved June 29, 2019.
- "He Survived A Near-Lynching. 50 Years Later, He's Still Healing". National Public Radio. November 15, 2019. Retrieved July 20, 2020.
- "Willie Turks, a black MTA worker, was pulled from a car and killed by a white mob in 1982". www.nydailynews.comm. Retrieved January 20, 2020.
- Herald Democrat (July 25, 1919). "Teas mob hangs Negro". The Herald Democrat. Leadville, Colorado. Retrieved August 3, 2019.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Richmond Times-Dispatch (August 3, 1919). "Four Held In Lynching". Richmond Times-Dispatch. Richmond, Virginia: Times Dispatch Pub. Co. pp. 1–54. ISSN 2333-7761. OCLC 9493729. Retrieved August 3, 2019.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)