List of people excommunicated by the Catholic Church
|Part of a series on the|
|Canon law of the|
This is a list of some of the more notable people excommunicated by the Catholic Church. It includes only excommunications acknowledged or imposed by a decree of the Pope or a bishop in communion with him. Latae sententiae excommunications, those that automatically affect classes of people (members of certain associations or those who perform actions such as directly violating the seal of confession or carrying out an abortion), are not listed unless confirmed by a bishop or ecclesiastical tribunal with respect to certain individuals.
In Roman Catholic canon law, excommunication is a censure and thus a "medicinal penalty" intended to invite the person to change behavior or attitude that incurred the penalty, repent, and return to full communion. Excommunication severs one from communion with the Church; excommunicated Catholics are forbidden from receiving any sacrament and refused a Catholic burial, but are still bound by canonical obligations such as attending Mass or fasting seasonally. Excommunicated Catholics, however, are barred from receiving the Eucharist or from taking an active part in the liturgy (reading, bringing the offerings, etc.). They are still Catholics per se, but are separated from the Church.
- Simon Magus, for whom simony was named
- An unnamed Corinthian who had married a woman who had been his father's wife
- Hymenaeus and Alexander, excommunicated by Saint Paul the Apostle as recounted in 1 Timothy
- Valentinus, proponent of Gnosticism
- Marcion of Sinope, originator of Marcionism, excommunicated by Pope Pius I
- Montanus, originator of Montanism
- Theodotus of Byzantium, proponent of Adoptionism, excommunicated by Pope Victor I
- Sabellius, originator of Sabellianism
- Novatian, an early antipope who taught Novatianism
- Paul of Samosata, excommunicated by a synod at Antioch in 269
- Marcellus of Ancyra
- Arius, founder of Arianism
- Celestius, Early Arian Leader
- Roman Emperor Theodosius I was excommunicated by the bishop of Milan, Saint Ambrose, for the Massacre of Thessaloniki. After repentance, penance and restitution, the Emperor was restored to communion with the Church.
- Nestorius, proponent of Nestorianism
- Eutyches, proponent of Monophysitism
- Dioscorus I of Alexandria, who presided over the robber council of Ephesus
- John of Antioch and his party by the Council of Ephesus
- St Columba was excommunicated in 562 by the synod of Teltown for allegedly praying for the winning side in an Irish War. The excommunication was later held to be an abuse of justice and the bishops in question removed their charge.
- The sons of Conall mac Domnaill by St Columba some time in the late 6th century, due to their persecution of churches 
- Theodore of Mopsuestia by the Second Council of Constantinople
- Pyrrhus of Constantinople was excommunicated 648 by Pope Theodore I and a synod of bishops after he had gone back on his recantation of monothelitism. The Pope and the bishops also declared him deposed from being Patriarch of Constantinople. Theodore reportedly signed the excommunication upon St Peter's tomb using ink that was mingled with drops of the Blessed Sacrament. 
- Paul II of Constantinople was excommunicated and deposed from his see in 649 by Pope Theodore I after the patriarch had professed Monothelitism. 
- Pope Honorius I was posthumously named as excommunicated by the Third Council of Constantinople and by Pope Leo II in a 682 letter to the Byzantine Emperor Constantine IV
- John Philoponus was posthumously named excommunicated by the Third Council of Constantinople. He was condemned by the council as being a 'tritheist' 
- The heretic preachers Adalbert and Clement by a council headed by St Boniface in 745. Adelbert's excommunication was not upheld by Rome, however, although Clement's was.
- The second council of Nicaea excommunicated a number of people by name who had lived in previous times, some of whom had been already condemned previously, including: Arius and all who follow him, Macedonius I of Constantinople, Nestorius and those who followed him, Eutyches, Dioscorus, Severus of Antioch and Peter the Fuller along with those with them, Origen, Didymus the blind, Evagrius Ponticus, as well as Sergius I of Constantinople, Pyrrhus of Constantinople, Pope Honorius I, Cyrus of Alexandria, Macarius I of Antioch along with their followers
- A diaconissa named Epiphania was excommunicated by a synod held in Rome in 721 that dealt with the issue of illicit conjugal relations 
- The fourth Council of Constantinople excommunicated by name and upheld a number of previous excommunications of previous councils of a number of people who had died in previous centuries. Those names in this list were: Arius (all those who followed his teachings were excommunicated with him), Macedonius I of Constantinople, Nestorius, Eutyches, Dioscorus, Severus of Antioch, Peter the Fuller, Zoharas the Syrian, Origen, Theodore of Mopsuestia, Didymus the Blind, Evagrius Ponticus, Theodere of Pharan, Sergius I of Constantinople, Pyrrhus of Constantinople, Peter of Constantinople, Paul II of Constantinople, Pope Honorius I, Cyrus of Alexandria, Macarius I of Antioch and his disciple Stephen, Anastasius of Constantinople, Constantine II of Constantinople, Nicetas I of Constantinople, Theodosius III of Ephesus, Sisinnius Pastilas, Basil Tricacabus, Theodoret, Anthony and John (priests of Constantinople), Theodore Krithinos and Photios I of Constantinople
- In 998, Robert II of France, who had been insisting on his right to appoint bishops, was ultimately forced to back down, and ultimately also to put aside his wife Bertha of Burgundy who had also been excommunicated. The stated reason was the degree of consanguinity between the two. Excommunicated by Pope Gregory V. They had the marriage annulled by Pope Sylvester II in 1000 and were reinstated.
- Michael Cerularius, Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, in 1054. The legal validity of this excommunication has been questioned as it was issued by legates of Pope Leo IX after the Pope's death. It was declared lifted on December 7, 1965.
- Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor was excommunicated 4 times in the 11th century (and would later be excommunicated a fifth time in the 12th century). He was excommunicated by Pope Gregory VII three separate times, and once more by Pope Urban II. The first was on 22 February 1076 over the Investiture Controversy. This excommunication was lifted on 28 January 1077 after Henry's public show of penitence known as the Road to Canossa. His second excommunication by Gregory was on 7 March 1080, and the third was in 1084 or 1085. Urban II excommunicated Henry in 1088.
- Harold II, King of England, for perhaps politically motivated reasons by Pope Alexander II in order to justify the invasion and takeover of the kingdom by William the Conqueror in 1066.
- Bolesław II the Generous, Duke of Poland, was excommunicated in 1080 after murdering the bishop Saint Stanislaus of Kraków.
- Philip I of France, king of France, for repudiating his marriage and remarrying, by Hugh, Archbishop of Lyon and later reaffirmed by Pope Urban II.
- Bishops in France, under orders of Benedict VIII, excommunicated feudal barons who had seized property belonging to the monastery of Cluny in 1016 
- The bishop of Autun excommunicated Cluniac monks in his diocese who took over the monastery of Vezelay without his permission; the excommunication was removed after they left the diocese 
- In 1031 the council of Limoges in France excommunicated feudal barons in the diocese of Limoges who were conducting private warfare between themselves in the midst of widespread famine and pestilence that was killing off a large portion of the peasantry. The famine and pestilence were thought to be punishments from God for grave sins being committed close to the millennium anniversary of Christ's death and resurrection. The members of the council dashed their candles to the ground in unison after calling out 'As these lights are extinguished before your eyes, so let their joy be extinguished before the angels.' 
- Frederick I Barbarossa, Holy Roman Emperor, by Alexander III
- Anselm V (Archbishop of Milan) by Pope Honorius II
- William I of Sicily, by Pope Adrian IV, while the king was waging war against the papal states and raiding pilgrims on their way to the tombs of the apostles.
- Ralph I, Count of Vermandois was said to have been excommunicated in 1142 by Bishop Saint Ivo of Chartres for repudiating his lawful wife and marrying another
- Roger II of Sicily, was excommunicated under the decrees of the Second Lateran Council in 1139
- Anacletus II, antipope
- Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor, excommunicated by Pope Paschal II in 1106 for refusing to abjure his claim to imperial investitures, posthumously lifted in 1111. (Henry IV had already been excommunicated four times in the 11th century.)
- Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor by Jordan, Archbishop of Milan in 1116 and ratified by Pope Paschal II over the Investiture Controversy. Received back into communion in 1122 or thereabouts.
- In 1170 Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Becket excommunicated Roger de Pont L'Évêque, the archbishop of York, along with Gilbert Foliot, the bishop of London, and Josceline de Bohon, the bishop of Salisbury, for crowning the heir-apparent Henry at York, thereby usurping Canterbury's privileges. In response to these excommunications, the heirs father, Henry II of England famously exclaimed words that led to Becket's assassination.
- The Third Lateran Council excommunicated the Cathars and mercenary groups that were plaguing Europe at the time
- King John of England, excommunicated in 1208 by Pope Innocent III after refusing to accept Cardinal Stephen Langdon as the pope's choice for Archbishop of Canterbury. John relented in 1213 and was restored to communion.
- King Afonso II of Portugal, excommunicated in 1212 by Pope Honorius III for weakening the clergy and investing part of the large sums destined to the Catholic Church in the unification of the country. Afonso II promised to reconcile with the Church, however, he died in 1223 without making any serious attempt to do so.
- King Andrew II of Hungary, was excommunicated in 1231 after not following the points of Golden Bull of 1222, a seminal bill of rights, which contained new dispositions related to the tithe and hostile practices against the Jews and Muslims of the realm.
- Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, was excommunicated three times. The first time by Pope Gregory IX in 1227 for delaying his promise to begin the 5th Crusade; the excommunication was lifted in 1229. The same pope excommunicated him again in 1239 for making war against the Papal States, a censure rescinded by the new pope, Celestine IV, who died soon after. Frederick was again excommunicated by Pope Innocent IV at the First Council of Lyons in 1245. Frederick repented just before his death and was absolved of the censure in 1250.
- Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Gloucester was excommunicated in 1264 by Pope Clement IV for rebelling against King Henry III of England during the Second Barons' War. This was lifted in 1268.
- King Ladislaus IV of Hungary in 1279, by the pope's envoy Philip, for acting against the Catholic Church and living in a pagan way with the Cumans.
- James II of Aragon, in 1286 by Pope Boniface VIII for being crowned King of Sicily and thereby usurping a papal fief. His younger brother Frederick III of Sicily was excommunicated for the same reason in 1296.
- Jacopo Colonna and Pietro Colonna, both cardinals, were excommunicated by Pope Boniface VIII in the bull 'excelso throno' (1297) for refusing to surrender their relative Stefano Colonna (who had seized and robbed the pope's nephew) and refusing to give the pope Palestrina along with two fortresses, which threatened the pope. This excommunication was extended in the same year to Jacopo's nephews and their heirs, after the two Colonna cardinals denounced the pope's election as invalid and appealed to a general council.
- Eric VI of Denmark in 1298, by Pope Boniface VIII, for imprisoning Archbishop of Lund, Jens Grand.
- Byzantine Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos of Constantinople, by Pope Martin IV.
- Peter III of Aragon, by Pope Martin IV
- Antipopes at Avignon Clement VII and Benedict XIII and their followers by proxy.
- Barnabò Visconti, tyrant of Milan, by Blessed Urban V in 1363. This was later rescinded after Barnabo restored castles he had seized and peace was concluded between him and the papal states.
- Mercenary bands known as the 'free companies' that had overrun Italy and France were excommunicated by Blessed Urban V in 1366. Included in this excommunication were the German Count of Landau[clarification needed] and the Englishman Sir John Hawkwood.
- Pedro the Cruel of Navarre was excommunicated by Blessed Urban V for his persecutions of clergy and cruelty.
- King Philip the Fair of France in 1303 by Pope Boniface VIII, for failing to respond adequately to a papal letter regarding Philip's effective rejection of the pope's temporal authority.
- Ladislaus Kán, Hungarian noble regent of the region of Transylvania that was excommunicated in 1309 by the pope's envoy Gentile Portino da Montefiore for not handing over the Holy Crown of Hungary, that was being kept illegally by him.
- Matthew III Csák, Hungarian noble that was excommunicated in 1311 by the pope's envoy Gentile, for not accepting the new King Charles I of Hungary.
- Robert the Bruce, King of Scots 1306-1329, was excommunicated following his killing of the Red Comyn before the altar of the Greyfriars Church at Dumfries in 1306.
- William de Lamberton, Bishop of St Andrews.
- David de Moravia, Bishop of Moray.
- Robert Wishart, Bishop of Glasgow.
- Joanna I of Naples in 1378 by Pope Urban VI for her support of Antipope Clement VII, support deemed heretical by Urban.
- All of the cardinals who voted for Antipope Clement VII were excommunicated by Urban VI.
- John Wycliffe was posthumously excommunicated by the Council of Constance.
- Jerome of Prague in 1409 by Zbyněk Zajíc of Hazmburk, Archbishop of Prague, for his role in the Czech Wycliffe campaign.
- Pope Martin V in 1411 by Pope Gregory XII for supporting Pisan Antipope Alexander V and Antipope John XXIII.
- Hussites founder Jan Hus by the Council of Constance in 1415.
- Saint Joan of Arc by Bishop Pierre Cauchon on May 30, 1431 (even though he allowed her Holy Communion before her immolation). She was fully reconciled to the Catholic Church at her Trial of Nullification in 1456.
- Antipope Felix V and his followers by Pope Eugene IV at the Council of Florence on March 23, 1440.
- Bishop Pierre Cauchon in 1457 by Pope Callixtus III for his persecution and condemnation of Joan of Arc.
- Girolamo Savonarola in 1497 by Pope Alexander VI.
- Pietro Colonna in 1501 by Pope Alexander VI
- James IV of Scotland in 1513 for breaking the Treaty of Perpetual Peace with England.
- Martin Luther, the Protestant Reformer, in 1521 by Pope Leo X.
- Henry VIII of England in 1533, officially promulgated on 17 December 1538 by Pope Paul III.
- Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury and first Protestant Archbishop of Canterbury of the Church of England.
- Cardinal Odet de Coligny, on 31 March 1563, for professing the Calvinist faith.
- Elizabeth I of England in 1570 by the papal bull Regnans in Excelsis.
- Thomas Erastus, founder of Erastianism
- Henry IV of France and Navarre, who famously retaliated by "excommunicating" the Pope. He later converted to Catholicism and his excommunication was lifted on 17 September 1595.
- Giovanni Bentivoglio, leader of Bologna, in 1506 by Julius II, while the pope was at war with him and leading an army to take Bologna.
- Alfonso I d'Este, Duke of Ferrara, by Julius II in 1510.
- Discalced Carmelites in Spain who participated in an illicit meeting to elect a provincial without approval, by the Pope's legate in Spain Filippo Sega in 1578 This was ignored by those excommunicated. It was formally revoked in 1579.
- Carmelite nuns of the Monastery of the Encarnacion in Avila who refused to renounce St Teresa's leadership of the convent, by the orders provincial, after the church authorities ordered a replacement in 1577. This excommunication was revoked later that year.
- Mikołaj Sapieha in approximately 1625 by Pope Urban VIII; punishment for stealing a painting. The excommunication was lifted in 1634 to allow Sapieha to publicly oppose the suggested marriage of Władysław IV Vasa and Princess Elizabeth of Bohemia.
- Odoardo Farnese, Duke of Parma in 1641 by Pope Urban VIII during the Wars of Castro.
- Priests Francisco de Jaca and Epiphane de Moirans in 1681 for opposing slavery in Cuba by their local bishop, however in 1686 the Holy Office under Pope Innocent XI formally agreed with a document they co-authored, which decried the slave trade.
- Most important supporters of Jansenism, in the 1718 bull Pastoralis officii
- Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord, Bishop of Autun, by Pope Pius VI. Before his death, Talleyrand was reconciled with the Catholic Church.
- Napoleon was excommunicated June 10, 1809 by Pope Pius VII for ordering the annexation of Rome and a long period of anti-Papal orders. Before Napoleon's death, his excommunication was lifted and he received the last rites.
- Stephen Kaminski, bishop of the Polish National Catholic Church, in 1898
- Francis Hodur, Roman Catholic priest (Scranton, Pennsylvania) and Prime Bishop of the Polish National Catholic Church
- Gregorio Aglipay Cruz y Labayan was a Roman Catholic priest who became the first Filipino Supreme Bishop of the Philippine Independent Church, a new Protestant church. Excommunicated in May 1899 by Archbishop of Manila Bernardino Norzaleda y Villa.
- Saint Mary MacKillop by Bishop Laurence Sheil in 1871. Five months later, from his deathbed, Shiel rescinded the excommunication. An Episcopal Commission[clarification needed] later gave her a complete exoneration and it has since been made clear that the excommunication was never valid under Canon Law.
- Fr. Edward McGlynn was excommunicated in 1887 for opposing the establishment of parochial schools believing that they were unnecessary. The excommunication was lifted in 1892.
- Fr. José María Morelos (excommunication lifted before Morelos' death) and Fr. Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla for "disturbances of the public order, corrupting the public, sacrilege [and] perjury" in 1810.
- King Victor Emmanuel II of Italy was excommunicated by Pope Pius IX when the king successfully waged war against the Papal States, resulting in limiting the pope to Vatican City. Before Victor Emmanuel II's death his excommunication was lifted and he was permitted to take the last rites.
- Charles Loyson (name as a Carmelite: Hyacinthe) was excommunicated in 1869 for leaving his religious order after refusing to retract his protest against the manner of convocation of the First Vatican Council.
- Colombian writer and atheist José María Vargas Vila was excommunicated upon the publication his novel Ibis (1900).
- Scientist Dr. Gregorio Chil y Naranjo was excommunicated in 1878 for his work on evolution in the Canary Islands entitled "Estudios historicos, climatologicos y patológicos de las Islas Canarias." The Bishop of Barcelona, José María de Urquinaona y Vidot, declared the work "false, impious, scandalous, and heretical" and excommunicated the doctor.
- All Catholics who participated in the creation of a Philippine Independent Church in the Philippines, in 1902
- Feliksa Kozłowska, Maria Michał Kowalski and the Mariavite movement in December 1906 by St Pius X
- Alfred Loisy, a French cleric associated with modernism (1908?).
- Father Romolo Murri, a leader of the Italian Catholic Democrats, for giving speeches against Papal policy (1909)
- Marshal Josip Broz Tito (1946) and all Catholics who participated in the trial of Archbishop Aloysius Stepinac of Zagreb and the trial of Archbishop József Mindszenty of Hungary, which included most of the jury members.
- Fr Michel Collin of France was excommunicated in 1951 for various heresies, and later declared himself Pope Clement XV.
- Juan Perón, in 1955, after he signed a decree ordering the expulsion of Argentine bishops Manuel Tato and Ramón Novoa In 1963 Perón was reconciled with the Church and his excommunication lifted.
- Plaquemines Parish President Leander Perez, Jackson G. Ricau (secretary of the Citizens Council of South Louisiana) and Mrs. B.J. Gaillot, Jr., president of Save Our Nation, Inc., on April 16, 1962 by Archbishop Joseph Rummel of the Archdiocese of New Orleans. They were excommunicated for aggressively opposing the racial integration of Catholic schools in the Archdiocese starting in the 1963-64 school year. Perez and Ricau were later reinstated into the Church following public retractions.
- Fidel Castro is reported to have been excommunicated by John XXIII in 1962 for affiliating with the Communist Party of Cuba, preaching communism and supporting a communist government; the basis of the excommunication is supposed to have been the 1949 Decree against Communism of Pope Pius XII. Other sources deny that there was any such personal excommunication of the Cuban leader.
- Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre, Bishops Antonio de Castro Meyer, Bernard Fellay, Bernard Tissier de Mallerais, Richard Williamson and Alfonso de Galarreta for the Ecône Consecrations (Society of St. Pius X) without papal mandate. Formally declared to have incurred latae sententiae excommunication by Cardinal Bernardin Gantin on July 1, 1988. The excommunications of the latter four (the bishops consecrated in that 1988 ceremony) were lifted in 2009; the first two (the consecrator and the co-consecrator) had died in the meantime. Williamson fell under a second excommunication after illicitly ordaining a bishop.
- Members of multiple organizations in the Roman Catholic Diocese of Lincoln, Nebraska were excommunicated by Bishop Fabian Bruskewitz in March 1996 for promoting positions he deemed "totally incompatible with the Catholic faith". The organizations include Call to Action, Catholics for a Free Choice, Planned Parenthood, the Hemlock Society, the Freemasons, and the Society of St. Pius X. The Vatican later confirmed the excommunication of Call to Action members in November 2006, but in 2017, the current bishop of Lincoln met with leadership of the group and proposed a way for individuals to be reconciled to the Church, without having to renounce their membership in the organization, as long as they reaffirmed their commitment to all of Church teaching.
- The Community of the Lady of All Nations for heretical teachings and beliefs after a six-year investigation. The declaration was announced by the Canadian Conference of Catholic Bishops on September 12, 2007.
- Fr. Dale Fushek (also laicized by Pope Benedict XVI 02/2010) and Fr. Mark Dippre. Former Priests were issued a Decree of Excommunication by Bishop Thomas J. Olmsted for operating "an opposing ecclesial community" in direct disobedience to orders to refrain from public ministry.
- Fr. Marek Bozek (since laicized by Pope Benedict XVI), and the lay parish board members of St. Stanislaus Kostka Church in St. Louis, Missouri in December 2005 were declared guilty of the ecclesiastical crime of schism by then-Archbishop Raymond Leo Burke. Their excommunication was ratified by the Vatican in May 2008. Four of the parish board members have since reconciled with the Church.
- Both the doctors and the mother of the nine-year-old victim in the 2009 Brazilian girl abortion case were said by Archbishop José Cardoso Sobrinho of Olinda and Recife to have incurred an automatic excommunication. The victim had an abortion after being raped and impregnated by her stepfather. The National Conference of Bishops of Brazil contradicted Sobrinho's statement: it declared that, in accordance with canon law, the girl's mother was not in fact excommunicated and that there were no grounds for stating that any of the doctors involved were in fact excommunicated. Disagreement with the Archbishop's view of the supposed excommunication was expressed also by other bishops.
- Sr. Margaret McBride, a nun, for allowing an abortion. McBride later reconciled with the Church and is no longer living in a state of excommunication.
- In October 2012, the newspapers El Observador and El País reported that all the Catholics who promoted the abortion law in Uruguay were excommunicated. The newspaper Urgente24, in spite of a headline stating that what it called the "abortionist lawmakers" were excommunicated, explained in the body of the article that automatic excommunication applied only to someone who directly carried out an abortion. The bishops website also explained that excommunication would automatically apply, under Canon Law 1398, only to anyone carrying out an abortion, and not to lawmakers.
- Fr. Roy Bourgeois (also laicized and dismissed from the Maryknoll Fathers) for participating in the attempted ordination of a woman.
- Fr. Robert Marrone, by Bishop Richard Gerard Lennon of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Cleveland in Cleveland, Ohio for violating the terms of his leave of absence. Marrone set up a worshipping community (the Community of St. Peter's) in a vacant warehouse and outside of a Catholic building or church after St. Peter's Parish in Cleveland was closed (it has since been reopened), in defiance of the bishop.
- Fr. Simon Lokodo, The Minister for Ethics and Integrity in Uganda, was excommunicated from the Catholic Church by Pope Benedict XVI when he entered politics in violation of Canon Law 285.3
- Fr. Roberto Francisco Daniel, known by local community as "Father Beto", by Bishop Caetano Ferrari, from Bauru, Brazil. Daniel was excommunicated because he refused a direct order from his bishop to apologize for or retract his statement that love was possible between people of the same sex. The priest also said a married person who chose to have an affair, heterosexual or otherwise, would not be unfaithful as long as that person's spouse allowed it.
- Fr Greg Reynolds of Melbourne, Australia was excommunicated in 2013 for continuing to celebrate Mass when not permitted, advocating the attempted ordination of women, and promoting same-sex marriage.
- Fr. Jose Mercau in 2014 as part of the Catholic Church sexual abuse cases scandal.
- In February 2018 Fr Ezinwane Ibo, a Nigerian priest working on the Sunshine Coast of Queensland, Australia, incurred an automatic excommunication for breaking the seal of the confessional.
- On Christmas Eve, 2019, three hermits named Father Stephen de Kerdrel, Sister Colette Roberts and Brother Damon Kelly living in Scotland were excommunicated after accusing Pope Francis of heresy in an online statement.
- Code of Canon Law, canon 1388
- Code of Canon Law, canon 1398
- "Code of Canon Law, canon 1312". Vatican.va. Retrieved 2012-04-03.
- "Even those who have joined another religion, have become atheists or agnostics, or have been excommunicated remain Catholics. Excommunicates lose rights, such as the right to the sacraments, but they are still bound to the obligations of the law; their rights are restored when they are reconciled through the remission of the penalty." New Commentary on the Code of Canon Law, ed. by John P. Beal, James A. Coriden, Thomas J. Green, Paulist Press, 2000, p. 63 (commentary on canon 11).
- 1 Corinthians 5:1-8
- "1 Corinthians 5 – Devotional & Commentary: Church Discipline". koinoniatexas.org. Archived from the original on 2013-09-27. Retrieved 2013-09-25.
- "oremus Bible Browser : 1 Timothy 1:20-1:20". oremus.org.
- Attwater, Donald and Catherine Rachel John. The Penguin Dictionary of Saints. 3rd edition. New York: Penguin Books, 1993. ISBN 0-14-051312-4.
- "Page Not Found". fordham.edu.
- Adomnan of Iona, Life of St Columba. Ed. by Richard Sharpe. Penguin Books, Toronto, 1995.
- Andrew J. Ekonomou. Byzantine Rome and the Greek Popes, Lexington books. Toronto, 2007. p99
- http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14570a.htm , retrieved June 18th 2018
- Andrew J. Ekonomou. Byzantine Rome and the Greek Popes, Lexington books. Toronto, 2007.
- Andrew J. Ekonomou. Byzantine Rome and the Greek Popes, Lexington books. Toronto, 2007.
- Andrew J. Ekonomou. Byzantine Rome and the Greek Popes. Lexington books, 2007
- Eleanor Shipley Duckett, Death and Life in the Tenth Century, (University of Michigan Press, 1988), 130.
- "Catholic-Orthodox Declaration". Vatican.va. 1965-12-07. Retrieved 2014-06-28.
- Johnny H (2010-09-24). "1066: The Pope in 1066: William or Harold?". Santlache.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2014-06-28.
- Lucy Margaret Smith. The Early History of the Monastery of Cluny. Oxford University Press, 1920.
- catholic encyclopedia. Entry: Honorius II
- catholic encyclopedia, entry Innocent II
- catholic encyclopedia, entry Boniface VIII
- catholic encyclopedia, entry Urban VI
- "Biographies of Great Men & Women of England, Wales and Scotland". britannia.com.
- "Jerome of Prague" biblicaltraining.org retrieved January 31, 2017
- "Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani". Enciclopedia Italiana.
- "Felix V" newadvent.org retrieved January 31, 2017
- The Tablet, Volume 75 (June 28, 1890) p. 1010 via Google Books retrieved December 30, 2016
- "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Girolamo Savonarola". newadvent.org.
- Richard P. Hardy. The Life of St John of the Cross. London, 1982. p79
- Journey to Carith: The Sources and Story of the Discalced Carmelites - Peter-Thomas Rohrbach - Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2014-06-28.
- Richard P. Hardy. The Life of St John of the Cross. London, 1982. p61
- "Outline of the Life of St Teresa of Avila". Ourgardenofcarmel.org. Archived from the original on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2014-06-28.
- "Carmelite ChroniclesTrouble in Avila". Order of Carmelites.
- Richard Gray (1987), "The papacy and the Atlantic slave trade: Lourenco da Silva, the capuchins and the decisions of the Holy Office.", Past & Present (115): 52–68, doi:10.1093/past/115.1.52
- E. Hales, "Napoleon and the Pope", (London:1962) pg 114
- Apostolic Letters, in the form of a Brief, by which Bonaparte, and all the authors, perpetrators, and abettors of the usurpation of the Kingdom of Rome, and of the other dominions belonging to the Holy See, are declared to be excommunicated. PIUS VII. POPE. Ad perpetuam rei Memoriam
- "catholictextbookproject.com". Archived from the original on 2018-05-21. Retrieved 2018-05-21.
- "A BISHOP EXCOMMUNICATED.; Decree Against the Rev. S. Kaminski, Independent Polish Church, Buffalo" (PDF). The New York Times. October 18, 1898.
-  Archived October 26, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
- "Nun becomes first Australian saint". Al Jazeera. 17 October 2010. Retrieved 1 February 2011.
- Press, Margaret M. (1986). From Our Broken Toil — South Australian Catholics 1836 - 1906. The Catholic Archdiocese of Adelaide. pp. 181–193. ISBN 0 949807 35 4.
- [Gustavo Watson Marron, director of the historical archive of the archdiocese, cited in El Universal, 31 August 2009]
- Villari, Luigi (1911). "Victor Emmanuel II". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
- Augé, Claude, ed. (1898). "Loyson, Charles". Nouveau Larousse illustré (in French). 5. Paris: Éditions Larousse. p. 777.
- "De Vargas Vila, ni paz en su tumba". El Colombiano. Retrieved 2014-06-28.
- "A history of the warfare of science with theology in Christendom (2 Volume Set)". Amazon.com.
- POPE ORDERS SHARP ACTION.; Archbishop of Manila Instructed to Excommunicate Philippine National Church Promoters. New York Times. New York, N.Y.: Dec 29, 1902. pg. 7, 1 pgs.
- Peterkiewicz, Jerzy (1975). The third Adam. London: Oxford University Press. p. 37. ISBN 9780192121981.
- Reid, George. "Higher Biblical Criticism," The Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol. 4 (New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1908).
- "PRIEST EXCOMMUNICATED.; Father Murri, Leader of Italian Catholic Democrats, Cut Off by Church". The New York Times. March 23, 1909. Retrieved May 8, 2010.
- Mitja Velikonja. Religious Separation and Political Intolerance in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Texas A&M University Press, 2003. (p. 198)
- "Self-styled 'Pope' dies in France". Chicago Tribune. Chicago, IL. Reuters. 24 June 1974. Retrieved 13 April 2017 – via Newspapers.com.
- Juan Peron - MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on 2009-10-29.
- Juan Domingo Perón – Encyclopedia.com
- "The Role of Archbishop Joseph F". Loyno.edu. Retrieved 2014-06-28.
- "La excomunión de Fidel Castro cumple cincuenta años". ABC.es. 2 April 2012. Retrieved 5 April 2014.
- Andrea Tornielli, "The mystery of Fidel Castro's excommunication" in Vatican Insider, 2 March 2012 Archived 1 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine
- "01/03/1962: Pope John XXIII excommunicated Fidel Castro". the-american-catholic.com.
- "Office of Congregation for Bishops - Excommunication". ewtn.com.
- "Apostolic Letter "Ecclesia Dei"". Vatican.va. Retrieved 2014-06-28.
- "Vatican confirms excommunication for US dissident group" Catholic World News (07 December 2006)
- Roewe, Brian (Jan 17, 2018). "Lincoln bishop offers way to lift excommunication of Call to Action members". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
- "Army of Mary excommunicated by the Vatican". Catholic News Agency.
- "The Roman Catholic Diocese of Phoenix". diocesephoenix.org. Archived from the original on 2008-12-19. Retrieved 2008-12-16.
- "Archdiocese of St. Louis - Marek Bozek Dismissed from the Clerical State". Retrieved 2009-03-14.
- Duffy, Gary (March 5, 2009). "Rape row sparks excommunications". BBC News.
- "Vatican backs abortion row bishop". BBC News. March 7, 2009. Retrieved May 8, 2010.
- Nunes Leal, Luciana (13 March 2009). "CNBB desautoriza iniciativa de bispo". O Estadão de S.Paulo. Archived from the original on 23 February 2014.
- L'Osservatore Romano: "Dalla parte della bambina brasiliana"
- "Mgr di FALCO, évêque de Gap, sur l'excommunication au Brésil". ZENIT - Le monde vu de Rome. Archived from the original on 2012-03-16.
- Clancy, Michael (May 19, 2010). "Nun at St. Joseph's Hospital rebuked over abortion to save woman". Arizona Republic.
- "Iglesia dice que legisladores que votaron despenalización quedan excomulgados". El Observador. 2012-10-18. Archived from the original on 2012-10-21. Retrieved 2012-10-19.
- "Iglesia Católica excomulgó a quienes incentivaron la despenalización del aborto". El País. 2012-10-18.
- "1er medida de la Iglesia tras la despenalización del aborto" (in Spanish). Urgente24. 2012-10-18.
- "Uruguay bishops clarify statement on excommunication of lawmakers favoring abortion :: Catholic News Agency (CNA)". Catholic News Agency. 2012-10-24. Retrieved 2014-06-28.
- Goodstein, Laurie (20 November 2012). "Religion: Priest Excommunicated for Ordaining a Woman". The New York Times.
- "Bishop Richard Lennon excommunicates the Rev. Robert Marrone". cleveland.com.
- "Clerical Whispers: Pope fires Fr. Lokodo from priesthood". Clericalwhispers.blogspot.se. 2011-08-31. Retrieved 2014-06-28.
- Canon 285.3
- "Catholic Church leadership on trial". Independent.co.ug. 2013-03-28. Retrieved 2014-06-28.
- "Padre que defende homossexuais diz estar "honrado" após excomunhão". uol.com.br.
- "English translation of the reference named "Folha"". uol.com.br.
- Fidelidade, Bissexualidade e a Igreja. YouTube. 17 January 2013.
- "Pope Francis excommunicates pro-gay marriage priest. He's not the liberal the media wants". News - Telegraph Blogs.
- Calatrava, Almudena (2014-11-09). "Pope Francis excommunicates pedophile Argentine priest". The Huffington Post. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 2014-11-09.
- "Pope defrocks Argentine priest on sexual abuse charges". cruxnow.com.
- admin. "Pope excommunicates Father Ezinwanne Igbo for breaching confession secrecy". Chronicle.ng. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
- "Orkney hermits excommunicated for calling Pope a 'heretic'". BBC. 2020-01-08. Retrieved 2020-06-05.
- Media related to People excommunicated by the Roman Catholic Church at Wikimedia Commons