List of place names of Native American origin in the United States

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Many places throughout the United States of America take their names from the languages of the indigenous Native American/American Indian tribes. The following list includes settlements, geographic features, and political subdivisions whose names are derived from these ous languages.

State names[edit]

Alabama[edit]

Alaska[edit]

Arizona[edit]

Arkansas[edit]

California[edit]

Colorado[edit]

Connecticut[edit]

Delaware[edit]

District of Columbia[edit]

Florida[edit]

Georgia[edit]

Idaho[edit]

Illinois[edit]

Indiana[edit]

Iowa[edit]

Kansas[edit]

  • Topeka – from Kansa dóppikʔe, "a good place to dig wild potatoes".
  • WichitaWichita (/ˈwɪɪtɔː/ WICH-i-taw) disputed; from Choctaw, "Big Arbor".Osage, "Scattered Lodges". Kiowa, "Tattooed Faces". Creek, "Barking Water".
  • Osawatomie- Osawatomie's name is a compound of two primary Native American Indian tribes from the area, the Osage and Pottawatomie.
  • Ottowa- Ottawa Tribe of is one of four federally recognized Native American tribes of Odawa people in the United States.
  • Tonganoxie- derives its name from a member of the Delaware tribe that once occupied land in what is now Leavenworth County and western Wyandotte County.
  • Shawnee- The Shawnee Tribe is a federally recognized Native American tribe.
  • Osage City- The Osage Nation (English pronunciation: /ˈoʊseɪdʒ/ OH-sayj) (Ni-u-kon-ska, “People of the Middle Waters”) is a Midwestern Native American tribe

Kentucky[edit]

Louisiana[edit]

Maine[edit]

Maryland[edit]

Massachusetts[edit]

  • Housatonic River From the Mohican phrase "usi-a-di-en-uk", translated as "beyond the mountain place"

Michigan[edit]

From the Ottawa word mishigani meaning Large Water or Large Lake

Minnesota[edit]

Political units[edit]

The following are state, county, townships, cities, towns, villages and major city neighborhoods of Minnesota with placenames of indigenous origin in the Americas.

Water bodies[edit]

Landforms[edit]

Mississippi[edit]

Missouri[edit]

Montana[edit]

Nebraska[edit]

Nevada[edit]

New Jersey[edit]

New Hampshire[edit]

New Mexico[edit]

New York[edit]

North Carolina[edit]

North Dakota[edit]

Ohio[edit]

  • Ashtabula—from Lenape ashtepihəle, 'always enough (fish) to go around, to be given away';[74] contraction from apchi 'always'[75] + tepi 'enough' + həle (verb of motion).[76]
  • Chillicothe—from Shawnee Chala·ka·tha, referring to members of one of the five divisions of the Shawnee people: Chalaka (name of the Shawnee group, of unknown meaning) + -tha 'person';[77] the present Chillicothe is the most recent of seven places in Ohio that have held that name, because it was applied to the main town wherever the Chalakatha settled as they moved to different places.
  • Conneaut—probably derived from Seneca ga-nen-yot, 'standing stone'. See the article conneaut. Compare Juniata, originating from the name Onayutta or Onojutta in another Iroquoian language (probably Susquehannock), and the Oneida nation, whose name Onę˙yóteˀ also means 'standing stone'.
  • Coshocton—derived from Unami Lenape Koshaxkink 'where there is a river crossing', probably adapted as Koshaxktun 'ferry' ('river-crossing device').[78]
  • Cuyahoga—originally Mohawk Cayagaga 'crooked river', possibly related to kayuha 'creek' or kahyonhowanen 'river'. The Mohawk form of the name "Cayagaga" means 'crooked river', though it became assimilated to the Seneca name "Cuyohaga," meaning 'place of the jawbone' in Seneca.[79] The river is in an area mainly settled by the Seneca people in the 18th century, and the Seneca name stuck.
  • GeaugaOnondaga jyo’ä·gak,[80] Seneca jo’ä·ka’, 'raccoon'[81] (originally the name of the Grand River).[82]
  • Mingo and Mingo Junction—named after the Mingo people, Iroquoians who moved west to Ohio in the 18th century, largely of the Seneca nation; alternate form Minqua, both derived from Lenape Menkwe,[83] referring to all Iroquoian peoples in general, possibly from Onondaga yenkwe, 'men'.[84]
  • MuskingumShawnee Mshkikwam 'swampy ground' (mshkikwi- 'swamp' + -am 'earth');[85] taken to mean 'elk's eye' in Lenape by folk etymology, as if < mus 'elk'[86] + wəshkinkw 'its eye'.[87]
  • Ohio River—from Seneca Ohiyo 'the best river' or 'the big river'.[88] Ohiyo (pronounced "oh-ˈhee-yoh") is the Iroquois translation of the Algonquian name Allegheny, which also means 'the best river'. The Indians considered the Allegheny and Ohio to be all one river.[89]
  • Olentangy—an Algonquian name, probably from Lenape ulam tanchi or Shawnee holom tenshi, both meaning 'red face paint from there'. The Vermilion River likewise was named with a translation of the original Ottawa name Ulam Thipi, 'red face paint river'.[90]
  • Piqua—Shawnee Pekowi, name of one of the five divisions of the Shawnee.
  • Sandusky—from Wyandot saandusti meaning 'water (within water-pools)'[91] or from andusti 'cold water'.[92]
  • Scioto—derived from Wyandot skɛnǫ·tǫ’, 'deer'[92][93] (compare Shenandoah, also derived from the word for deer in a related Iroquoian language).
  • Tuscarawas—after the Iroquoian Tuscarora people, who at one time had a settlement along the river of that name.[94]
  • Wapakoneta—from Shawnee Wa·po’kanite 'Place of White Bones' (wa·pa 'white'+(h)o’kani 'bone'+-ite locative suffix).[95][96][97]

Oklahoma[edit]

Oregon[edit]

Pennsylvania[edit]

  • Lackawanna—Lenape laxaohane 'fork of a river'[115][116]
  • Loyalhanna—after the name of a Lenape town, Layalhanning, meaning 'at the middle of the river': layel or lawel 'middle' + hane 'river' + -ink locative suffix.[117]
  • Loyalsock—Lenape, 'middle creek.' (It is located halfway between lycoming and muncy creeks.)[105]
  • Lycoming—from Lenape lekawink 'place of sand' or lekawi hane 'sandy stream', from lekaw 'sand'.[118]
  • Manayunk—Lenape məneyunk 'place of drinking': məne 'drink' + yu 'here' + -nk locative suffix.[119]
  • Mauch Chunk—Lenape maxkw-chunk 'bear mountain'.[120]
  • Mehoopany—Lenape, 'where there are wild potatoes."[105]
  • Meshoppen Lenape, 'corals,' or 'beads.'[105]
  • Monongahela—Lenape Mənaonkihəla 'the high riverbanks are washed down; the banks cave in or erode',[121] inanimate plural of mənaonkihəle 'the dirt caves off (such as the bank of a river or creek; or in a landslide)'[122] < mənaonke 'it has a loose bank (where one might fall in)'[123] + -həle (verb of motion).
  • Muckinipattis—Lenape for 'deep running water', from mexitkwek 'a deep place full of water'[124] or mexakwixen 'high water, freshet'.[125]
  • Muncy–after the Munsee people < Munsee language mənsiw, 'person from Minisink' (minisink meaning 'at the island': mənəs 'island' + -ink locative suffix) + -iw attributive suffix.[126]
  • Nanticoke—From the Nanticoke language, 'Tide water people.' (In reference to themselves)[105]
  • Nemacolin—after the 18th-century Lenape chief Nemacolin.
  • NescopeckShawnee, 'deep and still water.' [105]
  • Nittany—'single mountain', from Lenape nekwti 'single'[127] + ahtəne 'mountain'.[128]
  • Ohiopyle—from the Lenape phrase ahi opihəle, 'it turns very white',[129][130] referring to the frothy waterfalls.[131]
  • Passyunk—from Lenape pahsayunk 'in the valley',[132] from pahsaek 'valley' (also the name of Passaic, New Jersey).
  • Pennypack–Lenape pənəpekw 'where the water flows downward'.[133]
  • Perkiomen—Lenape, 'where there are cranberries.'[105]
  • Poconos—Lenape pokawaxne 'a creek between two hills'.[134]
  • Punxsutawney—Lenape Punkwsutenay 'town of sandflies or mosquitoes': punkwəs 'sandfly' (<punkw 'dust' + -əs diminutive suffix) + utenay 'town'.[135]
  • Pymatuning—Lenape Pimhatunink 'where there are facilities for sweating'[74] < pim- 'to sweat in a sweat lodge'[136] + hatu 'it is placed'[137] + -n(e) inanimate object marker + -ink locative suffix.
  • Queonemysing—Lenape kwənamesink 'place of long fish': kwəni 'long' + names 'fish' + -ink locative suffix.[138]
  • Quittapahilla Creek—Lenape kuwe ktəpehəle 'it flows out through the pines':[139] kuwe 'pine tree'[140] + ktəpehəle 'it flows out'.[141]
  • Shackamaxon—Lenape sakimaksink 'place of the chiefs':[142] sakima 'chief'[143] + -k plural suffix + -s- (for euphony) -ink locative suffix
  • Shamokin—Lenape Shahəmokink[144] 'place of eels', from shoxamekw 'eel'[145] + -ink locative suffix.
  • Shickshinny—Lenape, 'a fine stream.' [105]
  • Sinnemahoning—Lenape ahsəni mahonink 'stony lick', from ahsən 'stone'[146] and mahonink 'at the salt lick'.[147]
  • Susquehanna—Lenape siskuwihane 'muddy river': sisku 'mud' + -wi- (for euphony) + hane 'swift river from the mountains'.[148]
  • Tamaqua—Lenape, 'little beaver;' named for a Delware chief, "King Beaver."[105]
  • TiadaghtonSeneca, 'pine creek.'[105]
  • Tinicum—Lenape mahtanikunk 'Where they catch up with each other'.[149]
  • Tulpehocken—Lenape tulpehakink 'in the land of turtles': tulpe 'turtle' + haki 'land' + -nk locative suffix.[150]
  • TiogaOnondaga, 'At the forks.'[105]
  • Tionesta—Munsee, 'There it has fine banks.'[105]
  • Towamensing—Lenape, 'pasture land,' (literally 'the place of feeding cattle.') [105]
  • Towanda—Nanticoke, 'where we bury the dead.'[105]
View on the Wissahickon by James Peale (1830)
  • Tunkhannock—Lenape tank hane 'narrow stream',[151] from tank 'small' + hane 'stream'.
  • Venango—From Lenape 'Onange,' meaning 'a mink.'[105]
  • Wapwallopen—Lenape, 'where the white hemp grows.'[105]
  • Wiconisco—Lenape wikin niskew 'A muddy place to live',[152] from wikin 'to live in a place'[153] + niskew 'to be dirty, muddy'.[154]
  • Wissahickon—contraction of Lenape wisamekwhikan 'catfish creek': wisamekw 'catfish'[155] (literally 'fat fish':[156] <wisam 'fat' + -èkw, bound form of namès 'fish'[157] ) + hikan 'ebb tide, mouth of a creek'.[158][159]
  • Wyalusing—Lenape, 'the place where the aged man dwells,' a reference to the Moravian missionaries who set up a village in the area.[105]
  • Wyoming Valley—Munsee, xwēwamənk 'at the big river flat': xw- 'big' + ēwam 'river flat' + ənk locative suffix.[160]
  • Wysox—Lenape, 'the place of grapes.'[105]
  • Youghiogheny—Lenape yuxwiakhane 'stream running a contrary or crooked course', according to John Heckewelder.[161]

Rhode Island[edit]

South Carolina[edit]

South Dakota[edit]

Counties[edit]

Settlements[edit]

  • Canistota – from the New York Native American word canistoe, meaning "board on the water".[163]
  • Capa – from the Sioux for "beaver".
  • Kadoka – Lakota for "hole in the wall".
  • Kampeska – Sioux for "bright and shining", "like a shell or glass".[163]
  • Oacoma
  • Oglala – Lakota for "to scatter one's own".[162]
  • Ottumwa – Algonquian word possibly meaning "rippling waters", "place of perserverance or self-will", or "town".
  • Owanka – Lakota for "good camping ground". It was originally named Wicota, a Lakota word meaning "a crowd".[163]
  • Pukwana – the name given to the smoke emitted from a Native American peace pipe.
  • Ree Heights – named after the Arikara people, sometimes known as the Ree. Arikara may have been a neighboring tribe's word for "horns" or "male deer".[163]
  • Seneca – from Algonquian sinnekaas, which referred to the Seneca people.[163]
  • Teton – from Dakota tinton or tinta, meaning "prairie".[163]
  • Wanblee – from Lakota Waŋblí Hoȟpi, meaning "golden eagle nest".
  • Wasta – from Dakota wastah, meaning "good".[163]
  • Wakonda – from Sioux wakor or waukon, meaning "wonder, marvel, mystery, sacred".[163]
  • Wakpala
  • Wecota – from Lakota wicota, meaning "a crowd".[163]
  • Wetonka from Dakota wi-tȟáŋka, meaning "big sun".[164]
  • Yankton – corruption of Sioux Ihanktonwan, meaning "the end village".[163]

Tennessee[edit]

Texas[edit]

Utah[edit]

Vermont[edit]

Virginia[edit]

Washington[edit]

West Virginia[edit]

Wisconsin[edit]

Counties

Sauk County

Cities, Towns and Villages

Bodies of Water, Forests, Parks or Regions

Wyoming[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Alabama: The State Name". Alabama Department of Archives and History. Retrieved 2007-02-24. 
  2. ^ Bright (2004:29)
  3. ^ Ransom, J. Ellis. 1940. Derivation of the Word ‘Alaska’. American Anthropologist n.s., 42: pp. 550–551
  4. ^ a b Bright (2004:47)
  5. ^ a b Rankin, Robert. 2005. "Quapaw". In Native Languages of the Southeastern United States, eds. Heather K. Hardy and Janine Scancarelli. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, pg. 492
  6. ^ "Arkansas". Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2006. Archived from the original on 2009-11-01. Retrieved 2007-02-26. 
  7. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Connecticut". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 2006-11-28. 
  8. ^ a b c Campbell (1997:11)
  9. ^ Afable, Patricia O. and Madison S. Beeler (1996). "Place Names", in "Languages", ed. Ives Goddard. Vol. 17 of Handbook of North American Indians, ed. William C. Sturtevant. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, pg. 193
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  11. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. Retrieved 2012-08-15. 
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  32. ^ "Tennessee". Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2006. Archived from the original on 2009-11-01. Retrieved 2007-02-25. 
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  85. ^ Mahr, August C. (1957). "Indian River and Place Names in Ohio". Ohio History. Ohio Historical Society. 66 (2): 137–158. Retrieved 2012-05-22.  "The Muskingum River was the channel by which eastern Ohio was penetrated, mainly by the Delawares during the first half of the eighteenth century, and to a much lesser extent by bands of Shawnees preceding the Delawares by a few decades. In its present form Muskingum, this river name has been in use among both Indians and whites for more than two centuries as another one of those terms of Indian-white travel-and-trade lingo, such as Ohio, Scioto, and others. Whatever its aboriginal form may have been, Muskingum as a river name was fragmentary, requiring in any Indian language the addition of a term signifying 'river.' Zeisberger and other Moravian missioners spelled it Muskingum, as we do today, as well as Mushkingum (transliterated from German-based Muschkingum). Most likely, both of these spellings represented two different pronunciations current among the Delawares. Zeisberger's definition of the name, based on a combination of moos, 'an elk,' and wuschking, 'eye' (in his own spelling), meaning 'elk's eye,' looks like a folk etymology resting on the similarity in sound between Muschkingum and wuschgingunk (Zeisberger's spelling), defined as 'on or in the eye.' John Johnston states that 'Muskingum is a Delaware word, and means a town on the river side.' This is partly correct and partly wrong. Muskingum (or Mushkingum, for that matter) indeed is a Delaware word, but by no stretch of the imagination does it mean 'a town on the river side.' It is certain though that it named a town on the river side. Possibly this town was an old Shawnee settlement whose name the nearby Delawares adapted to their own tongue in the form of *M'shkiink'm (Mushkinkum), and by force of folk etymology understood it to mean 'elk's eye.' It appears quite probable that the original Shawnee place name as assimilated by the Delawares, may have been *m'shkeenkw/aam(-), a Shawnee term combining *m'shkeenkw-, 'swampy,' with -aam, a stem approximately denoting '(land, soil, etc.) being as indicated,' and invariably followed by -'chki or some other adverbial determinant, with the composite meaning, 'where the land is swampy, soggy.' Where this place was located, it is impossible to ascertain. Evidently, in their assimilation of this Shawnee place name, the Delawares, disregarding as unessential the final locative affix, were solely concerned with *M'shkeenkwaam, from which it was but a small step, over intermediary *M'shkeenk'm, to folk-etymologically conditioned *Muushkiink'm ( Mushkinkum; Muskingum).
  86. ^ "mus". Lenape Talking Dictionary. Retrieved 2012-05-22. 
  87. ^ "wëshkinkw". Lenape Talking Dictionary. Retrieved 2012-05-22. 
  88. ^ Mahr, August C. (1957). "Indian River and Place Names in Ohio". Ohio History. Ohio Historical Society. 66 (2): 138. Retrieved 2012-05-03. 
  89. ^ Trumbull, J. Hammond (1870). The Composition of Indian Geographical Names. Hartford, Conn. pp. 13–14. Retrieved 2013-01-21.  Alleghany, or as some prefer to write it, Allegheny,—the Algonkin name of the Ohio River, but now restricted to one of its branches,—is probably (Delaware) welhik-hanné or [oo]lik-hanné, 'the best (or, the fairest) river.' Welhik (as Zeisberger wrote it) is the inanimate form of the adjectival, meaning 'best,' 'most beautiful.' In his Vocabulary, Zeisberger gave this synthesis, with slight change of orthography, as "Wulach'neü" [or [oo]lakhanne[oo], as Eliot would have written it,] with the free translation, "a fine River, without Falls." The name was indeed more likely to belong to rivers 'without falls' or other obstruction to the passage of canoes, but its literal meaning is, as its composition shows, "best rapid-stream," or "finest rapid-stream;" "La Belle Riviere" of the French, and the Oue-yo´ or O hee´ yo Gä-hun´-dä, "good river" or "the beautiful river," of the Senecas. For this translation of the name we have very respectable authority,—that of Christian Frederick Post, a Moravian of Pennsylvania, who lived seventeen years with the Muhhekan Indians and was twice married among them, and whose knowledge of the Indian languages enabled him to render important services to the colony, as a negotiator with the Delawares and Shawanese of the Ohio, in the French war. In his "Journal from Philadelphia to the Ohio" in 1758, after mention of the 'Alleghenny' river, he says: "The Ohio, as it is called by the Sennecas. Alleghenny is the name of the same river in the Delaware language. Both words signify the fine or fair river." La Metairie, the notary of La Salle's expedition, "calls the Ohio, the Olighinsipou, or Aleghin; evidently an Algonkin name,"—as Dr. Shea remarks. Heckewelder says that the Delawares "still call the Allegany (Ohio) river, Alligéwi Sipu.
  90. ^ Mahr, August C. (1957). "Indian River and Place Names in Ohio". Ohio History. Ohio Historical Society. 66 (2): 141–143. Retrieved 2012-05-03. 
  91. ^ Johnston, John (1858). Vocabularies of the Shawanoese and Wyandott Languages, etc. 
  92. ^ a b "Wyandot Dictionary" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-05-22. 
  93. ^ Hanna, Charles A. (1911). The Wilderness Trail. New York: Knickerbocker Press. p. 118. Retrieved 2012-06-01. 
  94. ^ Mahr, August C. (1957). "Indian River and Place Names in Ohio". Ohio History. Ohio Historical Society. 66 (2): 137–158. Retrieved 2012-05-22. "Until after 1800 the name Muskingum also applied to its north branch, today officially called Tuscarawas. The latter name commemorates the Iroquoian Tuscarora Indians, who once had a settlement, Tuscarawi, or Tuscarawas, at its upper course, near present Bolivar, on the line of Stark and Tuscarawas counties."
  95. ^ Mahr, August C. (1957). "Indian River and Place Names in Ohio". Ohio History. Ohio Historical Society. 66 (2): 137–158. Retrieved 2012-01-07. 
  96. ^ Schutz, Noel. "Colors". Shawnee Traditions. Retrieved 2012-06-01. 
  97. ^ "bone: hoʔkani" Wick R. Miller, "An Outline of Shawnee Historical Phonology" International Journal of American Linguist Vol. 25, No. 1 (Jan., 1959), pp. 16-21 https://www.jstor.org/stable/1263919
  98. ^ "welhik". Lenape Talking Dictionary. Retrieved 2011-12-14. 
  99. ^ "Heckewelder here does not give the strict meaning of hanne. The word in common use among Algonkin [i.e., Algonquian] tribes for river is sipu, and this includes the idea of 'a stream of flowing water'. But in the mountainous parts of Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia sipu did not sufficiently convey the idea of a rapid stream, roaring down mountain gorges, and hanne takes its place to designate not a mere sipu, or flowing river, but a rapid mountain stream." Russell, Erret (1885). "Indian Geographical Names". The Magazine of Western History. 2 (1): 53–59. Retrieved 2011-12-14. 
  100. ^ Alleghany, or as some prefer to write it, Allegheny,—the Algonkin name of the Ohio River, but now restricted to one of its branches,—is probably (Delaware) welhik-hanné or [oo]lik-hanné, 'the best (or, the fairest) river.' Welhik (as Zeisberger wrote it) is the inanimate form of the adjectival, meaning 'best,' 'most beautiful.' In his Vocabulary, Zeisberger gave this synthesis, with slight change of orthography, as "Wulach'neü" [or [oo]lakhanne[oo], as Eliot would have written it,] with the free translation, "a fine River, without Falls." The name was indeed more likely to belong to rivers 'without falls' or other obstruction to the passage of canoes, but its literal meaning is, as its composition shows, "best rapid-stream," or "finest rapid-stream;" "La Belle Riviere" of the French, and the Oue-yo´ or O hee´ yo Gä-hun´-dä, "good river" or "the beautiful river," of the Senecas. For this translation of the name we have very respectable authority,—that of Christian Frederick Post, a Moravian of Pennsylvania, who lived seventeen years with the Muhhekan Indians and was twice married among them, and whose knowledge of the Indian languages enabled him to render important services to the colony, as a negotiator with the Delawares and Shawanese of the Ohio, in the French war. In his "Journal from Philadelphia to the Ohio" in 1758, after mention of the 'Alleghenny' river, he says: "The Ohio, as it is called by the Sennecas. Alleghenny is the name of the same river in the Delaware language. Both words signify the fine or fair river." La Metairie, the notary of La Salle's expedition, "calls the Ohio, the Olighinsipou, or Aleghin; evidently an Algonkin name,"—as Dr. Shea remarks. Heckewelder says that the Delawares "still call the Allegany (Ohio) river, Alligéwi Sipu,"—"the river of the Alligewi" as he chooses to translate it. In one form, we have wulik-hannésipu, 'best rapid-stream long-river;' in the other, wuliké-sipu, 'best long-river.' Heckewelder's derivation of the name, on the authority of a Delaware legend, from the mythic 'Alligewi' or 'Talligewi,'—"a race of Indians said to have once inhabited that country," who, after great battles fought in pre-historic times, were driven from it by the all-conquering Delawares,—is of no value, unless supported by other testimony. Trumbull, J. Hammond (1870). The Composition of Indian Geographical Names. Hartford, Conn. pp. 13–14. Retrieved 2011-12-14. 
  101. ^ "All this land and region, stretching as far as the creeks and waters that flow into the Alleghene the Delawares called Alligewinenk, which means 'a land into which they came from distant parts'. The river itself, however, is called Alligewi Sipo. The whites have made Alleghene out of this, the Six Nations calling the river the Ohio."Zeisberger, David (1999). David Zeisberger's History of the Northern American Indians in 18th Century Ohio, New York and Pennsylvania. Wennawoods Publishing. p. 33. ISBN 1-889037-17-6. 
  102. ^ "alukwèpi". Lenape Talking Dictionary. Retrieved 2011-03-02. 
  103. ^ Edgar Um Bucholtz (2009-07-23). "Life in Aliquippa (1993)". Telecorps All-Inclusive. Retrieved 2011-03-02. 
  104. ^ O'Hara, Mike. "Origins of Town Names in Northeast PA". NEPA Newsletter. Retrieved 5 February 2017. 
  105. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Runkle, Stephen (September 2003). "NATIVE AMERICAN WATERBODY AND PLACE NAMES WITHIN THE SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN AND SURROUNDING SUBBASINS" (PDF). srbc.net. Susquehanna River Basin Commission. 
  106. ^ Storey, Henry Wilson (1907). History of Cambria County, Pennsylvania. 1. New York: Lewis. p. 63. Retrieved 2012-05-20. 
  107. ^ "kwënëmuxkw". Lenape Talking Dictionary. Retrieved 2012-05-22. 
  108. ^ "kanshihakink". Lenape Talking Dictionary. Retrieved 2011-03-02. 
  109. ^ "Kanshihakink". Lenape Talking Dictionary. Retrieved 2011-03-02. 
  110. ^ "kishku". Lenape Talking Dictionary. Retrieved 2012-05-26. 
  111. ^ "manitu". Lenape Talking Dictionary. 2012-05-26. 
  112. ^ Donehoo, George Patterson (1998). A History of the Indian Villages and Place Names in Pennsylvania. Harrisburg: Telegraph Press. p. 82. 
  113. ^ "kithanink". Lenape Talking Dictionary. Retrieved 2011-03-02. 
  114. ^ Smith, Robert Walker (1883). History of Armstrong County, Pennsylvania. Chicago: Waterman, Watkins, & Co. 
  115. ^ Hodge, Frederick Webb (1911). Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. 1. Washington: Government Printing Office. p. 751. Retrieved 2012-05-22. 
  116. ^ "làxaohane". Lenape Talking Dictionary. Retrieved 2012-05-22. 
  117. ^ Sipe, Chester Hale (1971). The Indian Wars of Pennsylvania. Amos Press. p. 750. 
  118. ^ "lèkaw". Lenape Talking Dictionary. Retrieved 2012-10-21. 
  119. ^ "mëne". Lenape Talking Dictionary. Retrieved 2011-03-02. 
  120. ^ "màxkwchunk". Lenape Talking Dictionary. Retrieved 2012-05-25. 
  121. ^ "Mënaonkihëla". Lenape Talking Dictionary. Retrieved 2011-03-02. 
  122. ^ "mënaonkihële". Lenape Talking Dictionary. Retrieved 2011-03-02. 
  123. ^ "mënaonke". Lenape Talking Dictionary. Retrieved 2011-03-02. 
  124. ^ "mèxitkwèk". Lenape Talking Dictionary. Retrieved 2012-10-22. 
  125. ^ Brinton & Anthony, ed. (1889). A Lenâpé-English Dictionary. Philadelphia: Historical Society of Pennsylvania. p. 77. Retrieved 2012-10-22. 
  126. ^ Goddard, Ives (1978). "Delaware". In Trigger, Bruce. Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 15. Northeast. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution. pp. 236–237. ISBN 0-16-004575-4. 
  127. ^ "nèkwti". Lenape Talking Dictionary. Retrieved 2012-06-30. 
  128. ^ "kitahtëne". Lenape Talking Dictionary. Retrieved 2012-06-30. 
  129. ^ "ahi". Lenape Talking Dictionary. Retrieved 2011-10-22. 
  130. ^ "òpihële". Lenape Talking Dictionary. Retrieved 2011-10-22. 
  131. ^ Russell, Erret (1885). "Indian Geographical Names". The Magazine of Western History. 2 (1): 53–59. Retrieved 2011-10-22. 
  132. ^ "pahsayunk". Lenape Talking Dictionary. Retrieved 2012-10-22. 
  133. ^ "pënëpèkw". Lenape Talking Dictionary. Retrieved 2015-05-25. 
  134. ^ Brinton; Anthony, eds. (1888). A Lenâpé-English Dictionary. Philadelphia: Historical Society of Pennsylvania. p. 118. 
  135. ^ "Punkwsutènay". Lenape Talking Dictionary. Retrieved 2011-03-02. 
  136. ^ "pimëwe". Lenape Talking Dictionary. Retrieved 2012-06-04. 
  137. ^ "hatu". Lenape Talking Dictionary. Retrieved 2012-06-04. 
  138. ^ "Kwënamèsink". Lenape Talking Dictionary. Retrieved 2011-03-02. 
  139. ^ "Quittapahilla Creek". Quittapahilla Watershed Association. Retrieved 2011-03-02. 
  140. ^ "kuwe". Lenape Talking Dictionary. Retrieved 2011-03-02. 
  141. ^ "ktëpehële". Lenape Talking Dictionary. Retrieved 2011-03-02. 
  142. ^ Du Ponceau, Peter S.; Fisher, J. Francis (1836). "A Memoir of the History of the Celebrated Treaty Made by William Penn with the Indians under the Elm Tree at Shackamaxon, in the Year 1682". Memoirs of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, vol. III, part III. Philadelphia. pp. 183–184. Retrieved 2011-03-02. 
  143. ^ "sakima". Lenape Talking Dictionary. Retrieved 2011-03-02. 
  144. ^ "Shahëmokink". Lenape Talking Dictionary. Retrieved 2012-06-30. 
  145. ^ "shoxamèke". Lenape Talking Dictionary. Retrieved 2012-06-30. 
  146. ^ "ahsën". Lenape Talking Dictionary. Retrieved 2011-03-03. 
  147. ^ Brinton, Daniel G.; Anthony, Albert Seqaqkind, eds. (1889). A Lenâpé-English Dictionary. Philadelphia: Historical Society of Pennsylvania. p. 71. Retrieved 2012-06-30. 
  148. ^ "siskuwihane". Lenape Talking Dictionary. Retrieved 2011-03-02. 
  149. ^ "mahtanikunk". Lenape Talking Dictionary. Retrieved 2011-03-02. 
  150. ^ "tulpehakink". Lenape Talking Dictionary. Retrieved 2011-03-02. 
  151. ^ "tànkhane". Lenape Talking Dictionary. Retrieved 2012-10-22. 
  152. ^ "Wiconisco Township". Retrieved 2012-06-30. 
  153. ^ "wikin". Lenape Talking Dictionary. Retrieved 2012-06-30. 
  154. ^ "niske". Lenape Talking Dictionary. Retrieved 2012-06-30. 
  155. ^ "wisamèkw". Lenape Talking Dictionary. Retrieved 2012-05-23. 
  156. ^ Brinton, Daniel G.; Anthony, Albert Seqaqkind, eds. (1888). A Lenâpé-English Dictionary. Philadelphia: Historical Society of Pennsylvania. p. 162. Retrieved 2012-05-23. 
  157. ^ "alëmèkw". Lenape Talking Dictionary. Retrieved 2012-05-23. 
  158. ^ Del Collo, Deborah (2011). Roxborough. Charleston: Arcadia. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-7385-7555-1. Retrieved 2012-05-23. 
  159. ^ Brinton; Anthony, eds. (1888). A Lenâpé-English Dictionary. Philadelphia: Historical Society of Pennsylvania. p. 48. Retrieved 2012-05-23. 
  160. ^ "Wyoming: Word Origin & History". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 2011-03-02. 
  161. ^ Errett, Russell (1885). "Indian Geographical Names II". Magazine of Western History. 2 (1): 238–246. Retrieved 2011-03-02. 
  162. ^ a b Pritzker, Barry M. (2000). A Native American Encyclopedia: History, Culture, and Peoples. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-513877-1. 
  163. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Chicago and North Western Railway Company (1908). A History of the Origin of the Place Names Connected with the Chicago & North Western and Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha Railways (eBook) (2 ed.). Retrieved 15 July 2017. 
  164. ^ Bright, William (2004). Native American Placenames of the United States. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 9780806135984. 
  165. ^ Bright (2004:538)
  166. ^ Utah Place Names by John W. Van Cott, The New Utah’s Heritage by S. George Ellsworth, and A Teacher's Guide for the Maps and Chart Series Conquest for Indian America by Doloris Riley and Will Numkena
  167. ^ Bright (2004:427)
  168. ^ Bright (2004:454)
  169. ^ Bright (2004:459)
  170. ^ Menominee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin History Chief Oshkosh Archived 2007-10-07 at the Wayback Machine.
  171. ^ "Ojibwe Dictionary". Freelang. Retrieved 2007-03-28. 
  172. ^ Bright (2004:95)

Bibliography[edit]

  • Bright, William (2004). Native American Placenames of the United States. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 080613576X.
  • Campbell, Lyle (1997). American Indian Languages: The Historical Linguistics of Native America. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195094271
  • O'Brien, Frank Waabu (2010). "Understanding Indian Place Names in Southern New England". Colorado: Bauu Press.