List of political parties in Germany

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This is a list of political parties in Germany.

The Federal Republic of Germany has a plural multi-party system. The largest by members and parliament seats are the Christian Democratic Union (CDU), with its sister party, the Christian Social Union (CSU) and Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD).

Germany also has a number of other parties, in recent history most importantly the Free Democratic Party (FDP), Alliance 90/The Greens, The Left, and more recently the Alternative for Germany (AfD), founded in 2013. The federal government of Germany often consisted of a coalition of a major and a minor party, specifically CDU/CSU and FDP or SPD and FDP, and from 1998 to 2005 SPD and Greens. From 1966 to 1969, from 2005 to 2009 and again since 2013, the federal government consisted of a coalition of the two major parties, called Grand Coalition.[1] Coalitions in the Bundestag and state legislators are often described by party colors. Party colors are red for the Social Democratic Party, green for Alliance 90/The Greens, yellow for the Free Democratic Party, purple (officially red, which is customarily used for the SPD) for the Left, light blue for the AfD, and black and blue for the CDU and CSU respectively.[2][3]

The parties[edit]

Parties represented in the Bundestag and/or the European Parliament[edit]

Logo Name Abbr. Leader Ideology MdBs MEPs Political position EP-group Notes
Cdu-logo.svg Christian Democratic Union of Germany
Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands
CDU Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer Christian democracy,[4]
Liberal conservatism[4]
200 23 Centre-right EPP [A]
Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, Logo um 2000.svg Social Democratic Party of Germany
Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands
SPD Norbert Walter-Borjans and Saskia Esken Social democracy[4] 152 16 Centre-left S&D
Alternative-fuer-Deutschland-Logo-2013.svg Alternative for Germany
Alternative für Deutschland
AfD Jörg Meuthen and Tino Chrupalla German nationalism,[5][6]
National conservatism,[8]
Right-wing populism[9]
92 11 Right-wing[10] to far-right ID
Logo der Freien Demokraten.svg Free Democratic Party
Freie Demokratische Partei
FDP Christian Lindner Liberalism,[4]
Classical liberalism[11][12]
80 5 Centre to centre-right RE
Die Linke logo.svg The Left
Die Linke
LINKE Katja Kipping and Bernd Riexinger Democratic socialism,[4]
Left-wing populism
69 7 Left-wing GUE/NGL
Bündnis 90 - Die Grünen Logo.svg Alliance 90/The Greens
Bündnis 90/Die Grünen
GRÜNE Annalena Baerbock and Robert Habeck Green politics[4] 67 21 Centre-left Greens/EFA
CSU Logo since 2016.svg Christian Social Union in Bavaria
Christlich-Soziale Union in Bayern
CSU Markus Söder Christian democracy,[4] Conservatism,[4] Regionalism[4] 46 6 Centre-right[13][14][15] EPP [A]
Free Voters
Freie Wähler
FREIE WÄHLER Hubert Aiwanger Direct democracy 0 2 Centre-right RE
Die PARTEI Logo.svg Die PARTEI
Partei für Arbeit, Rechtsstaat, Tierschutz, Elitenförderung und basisdemokratische Initiative
Die PARTEI Martin Sonneborn Satire 0 2 Apolitical None and Greens/EFA
ÖDP-Logo.svg Ecological Democratic Party
Ökologisch-Demokratische Partei
ÖDP Christoph Raabs Green conservatism[7] 0 1 Centre-right Greens/EFA
Piratenpartei deutschland logo.svg Pirate Party Germany
Piratenpartei Deutschland
PIRATEN Carsten Sawosch Pirate politics,
Social liberalism[8]
0 1 Syncretic Greens/EFA
Logo Volt Europa.svg Volt Germany
Volt Deutschland
Volt Damian Boeselager European federalism 0 1 Syncretic Greens/EFA
Tierschutzpartei-Logo.svg Human Environment Animal Protection
Partei Mensch Umwelt Tierschutz
Tierschutzpartei Matthias Ebner
Sandra Lück
Horst Wester
Animal rights
0 1 Syncretic GUE/NGL
FamilienPartei Logo2007.svg Family Party of Germany
Familien-Partei Deutschlands
Familie Maria Hartmann Conservatism
Social conservatism
Christian democracy
0 1 Centre-right to right-wing ECR
A The CDU and CSU form the CDU/CSU group in the Bundestag; CSU runs only in Bavaria, CDU elsewhere.

One German MEP is independent, member of the GUE-NGL-group in the European Parliament and was elected as a candidate of the Human Environment Animal Protection-party (better known as Tierschutzpartei).

Parties represented in state parliaments[edit]

Logo Name Abbr. Leader Ideology Elected in state (Seats) Position Notes
Südschleswigscher Wählerverband, Logo.svg South Schleswig Voters' Association
Südschleswigscher Wählerverband
SSW Flemming Meyer Regionalism,
Ethnic minority politics,
Social liberalism[16]
Schleswig-Holstein (3) Centre [A]
BIW-Logo.jpg Citizens in Rage
Bürger in Wut
BIW Jan Timke Right-wing populism Bremen (1) Right-wing
Logo-BVB-FREIE-WAEHLER.svg Brandenburg United Civic Movements/Free Voters
Brandenburger Vereinigte Bürgerbewegungen / Freie Wähler
BVB / FW Péter Vida Localism, Direct democracy Brandenburg (3) Centre-left
A Represents the Danish and Frisian minorities. Not subject to the general requirement of passing a 5% vote threshold.

Minor parties[edit]

Logo Name Abbr. Leader Ideology Political position EP-group
Action party for animal welfare - the original
Aktion Partei für Tierschutz – das Original
Tierschutz hier!
Alliance C – Christians for Germany
Bündnis C – Christen für Deutschland
Bündnis C Karin Heepen & Ole Steffes Conservatism,
Christian fundamentalism
Right-wing ECPM
Alliance for Human Rights, Animal and Nature Conservation
Allianz für Menschenrechte, Tier- und Naturschutz
Tierschutzallianz Josef Fassl
Alliance of German Democrats
Allianz Deutscher Demokraten
AD-Demokraten Ramazan Akbaş
APPD-Logo.svg Anarchist Pogo Party of Germany
Anarchistische Pogo-Partei Deutschlands
APPD Peter Vehreschild Satire Apoliticism none
ARMINIUS - Association of the German people[17]
ARMINIUS – Bund des deutschen Volkes
ARMINIUS – Bund Far-right[17]
BGE Logo neu.png Basic Income Alliance
Bündnis Grundeinkommen
BGE Alina Komar Unconditional basic income Single-issue none
Bayernpartei Logo.svg Bavaria Party
BP Florian Weber Autonomism,
Bavarian nationalism,
Centre-right EFA
Cropped-logo-seite.png Bergpartei, die "ÜberPartei"
Bergpartei, die Überpartei
B* Rico Tscharntke Post-left anarchy,
Far-left none
Civil Rights Movement Solidarity
Bürgerrechtsbewegung Solidarität
BüSo Helga Zepp-LaRouche LaRouche movement,
Syncretic none
Deutsche Zentrumspartei logo.svg German Centre Party
Deutsche Zentrumspartei
ZENTRUM Gerhard Woitzik Political Catholicism,
Christian democracy,
Social conservatism
Centrism none
Kpd-flagge-icon.png Communist Party of Germany
Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands
KPD Torsten Schöwitz Communism,
Far-left none
DiB Logo.jpg Democracy in Motion
Demokratie in Bewegung
DiB Julia Beerhold, Alexander Plitsch Left-wing none
Feminist Party of Germany
Feministische Partei Die Frauen
DIE FRAUEN Renate Schmidtsdorff-Aicher Feminism none
From now on... democracy through a referendum
Ab jetzt … Demokratie durch Volksabstimmung
Volksabstimmung Helmut Fleck Direct Democracy,

National conservatism,


Deutsche Kommunistische Partei Logo.svg German Communist Party
Deutsche Kommunistische Partei
DKP Patrik Köbele Communism,
Far-left none
Logo Deutsche Soziale Union.png German Social Union
Deutsche Soziale Union
DSU Roberto Rink National conservatism,
Social conservatism
Right-wing none
MLPD Logo 2011 (2).svg Marxist–Leninist Party of Germany
Marxistisch-Leninistische Partei Deutschlands
MLPD Gabi Fechtner Marxism–Leninism,
Far-left none
Mindful Democrats
Achtsame Demokraten
Die Achtsamen
Mut logo.jpg mut
mut Claudia Stamm Social liberalism Centre-left none
Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands (NPD), logo 2013.svg National Democratic Party of Germany
Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands
NPD Frank Franz Neo-Nazism,
Far-right[7] APF
Neue Liberale.svg New Liberals
Neue Liberale – Die Sozialliberalen
Liberale Christian Bethke Social liberalism Centre to
Party for Franconia
Partei für Franken
DIE FRANKEN Robert Gattenlöhner Social democracy none
PdHLogo 2019.svg Party of Humanists
Partei der Humanisten
Die Humanisten Robin Thiedmann Humanism,
Civil libertarianism,
Social liberalism
Party of Reason
Partei der Vernunft
PDV Friedrich Dominicus Libertarianism EPIL
PSG Logo.svg Socialist Equality Party
Sozialistische Gleichheitspartei
SGP Ulrich Rippert Trotskyism Far-left none
Social Liberal Democratic Party[17]
Sozialliberale Demokratische Partei
SLDP Bérangère Bultheel Social liberalism, Anti fascism, Secularism, Social Democracy, European Federalism
LDF2010.png The Frisians
Die Friesen
FRIESEN Ralf Bieneck Ethnic minority interests EFA
An oak wreath on logo of the German party "The Third Path" - Parteilogo "Der III. Weg.jpg The III. Path
Der III. Weg
Klaus Armstroff Neo-Nazism,
German nationalism,
Ethnic nationalism,
Hard Euroscepticism
Far-right none
Die Republikaner Logo.png The Republicans
Die Republikaner
REP Kevin Krieger German nationalism,
National conservatism,
Social conservatism
Right-wing none
The Right
Die Rechte
Christian Worch Neo-Nazism,
Far-right none
The Urbans. A HipHop Party
Die Urbane. Eine HipHop Partei
du Niki Drakos, Raphael Hillebrand none
The Violets
Die Violetten
Die Violetten Irene Garcia Garcia Social liberalism,
Schriftzug-v-partei.png V-Partei³ – Party for Change, Vegetarians and Vegans
V-Partei³ – Partei für Veränderung, Vegetarier und Veganer
Roland Wegner Animal rights,

Historical parties[edit]

Parties existing up to World War I[edit]

Logo Name Abbr. Ideology
Bavarian Peasants' League BB Agrarianism
Centre Party Zentrum Christian democracy
Christian Social Party CSP Traditionalist conservatism
Christian democracy
Democratic Union DV Liberalism
Free Conservative Party FKP National conservatism
Free-minded People's Party FVP Liberalism
Free-minded Union FV National liberalism
General German Workers' Association ADAV Social democracy
Democratic socialism
German Conservative Party DKP Conservatism
Economic liberalism
German Fatherland Party DVLP German nationalism
German-Hanoverian Party DHP Conservatism
German People's Party DtVP Social liberalism
German Progress Party DFP Liberalism
German Free-minded Party DFP Liberalism
Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany USPD Democratic socialism
Centrist Marxism
Liberal Union LV Liberalism
Classical liberalism
Economic liberalism
Conservative liberalism
National Liberal Party NLP National liberalism
National-Social Association NSV Christian socialism
Social liberalism
Progressive People's Party FVP Social liberalism
Social Democratic Party of Germany SPD Social democracy
Social Democratic Workers' Party of Germany SDAP Social democracy
Marxist socialism

Parties in Weimar Republic[edit]

Defunct parties in (former) West Germany[edit]

Parties banned by the Constitutional Court[edit]

Parties in (former) East Germany[edit]

Bloc parties in the socialist state (1949–1989)[edit]

During transition (1989–90)[edit]

Parties founded from 1989[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-11-08. Retrieved 2009-10-10.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  2. ^ "Political parties form colorful spectrum in Germany". Deutsche Welle. 2009-08-18. Retrieved 2009-09-12.
  3. ^ The Green party: Getting used to opposition, Deutsche Welle, 2009-08-24, retrieved 2009-10-12, This made a so-called Jamaica coalition with the Christian Democratic Union and the Free Democratic Party impossible.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i Parties and Elections in Europe: The database about parliamentary elections and political parties in Europe, by Wolfram Nordsieck
  5. ^ "After migrants, German nationalist party takes aim at Islam". Yahoo News. 23 May 2016.
  6. ^ "Germany's Nationalist Party Set for Gains as Three States Vote". Voice of America. 11 March 2016.
  7. ^ a b c William T Daniel (2015). Career Behaviour and the European Parliament: All Roads Lead Through Brussels?. Oxford University Press. p. 135. ISBN 978-0-19-871640-2.
  8. ^ a b Simon Franzmann (2015). "The Failed Struggle for Office Instead of Votes". In Gabriele D'Ottavio; Thomas Saalfeld (eds.). Germany After the 2013 Elections: Breaking the Mould of Post-Unification Politics?. Ashgate. pp. 166–167. ISBN 978-1-4724-4439-4.
  9. ^ Frank Decker (2015). "Follow-up to the Grand Coalition: The Germany Party System before and after the 2013 Federal Election". In Eric Langenbacher (ed.). The Merkel Republic: An Appraisal. Berghahn Books. pp. 34–39. ISBN 978-1-78238-896-8.
  10. ^ "Right-wing Alternative for Germany Party scores shock results in three German regions".
  11. ^ George C. Lodge; Ezra F. Vogel (1987). Ideology and National Competitiveness: An Analysis of Nine Countries. Harvard Business Press. p. 85. ISBN 978-0-87584-147-2.
  12. ^ Russell A. Berman (2010). Freedom Or Terror: Europe Faces Jihad. Hoover Press. p. 110. ISBN 978-0-8179-1114-0.
  13. ^ Christina Boswell; Dan Hough (2009). Politicizing migration: Opportunity or liability for the centre-right in Germany. Immigration and Integration Policy in Europe: Why Politics – and the Centre-Right – matter. Routledge. pp. 18, 21.
  14. ^ Klaus Detterbeck (2012). Multi-Level Party Politics in Western Europe. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 105.
  15. ^ Margret Hornsteiner; Thomas Saalfeld (2014). Parties and the Party System. Developments in German Politics. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 80.
  16. ^ José Magone (2011). Contemporary European Politics: A Comparative Introduction. Routledge. p. 392.
  17. ^ a b c Wagschal, Prof Dr Uwe. "ARMINIUS - Bund des deutschen Volkes (ARMINIUS - Bund) | bpb". (in German). Retrieved 2020-06-14.

External links[edit]