List of political parties in Indonesia

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Since 1999, Indonesia has had a multi-party system. In the four legislative elections since the fall of the New Order regime, no political party has won an overall majority of seats, resulting in coalition governments.

All political parties must have Pancasila as one of their ideologies[1], a remnant of its sacred status as single ideology, especially during the New Order.[citation needed]

Overview[edit]

Indonesian political party system is regulated by Law No.2/2008 on political parties.[2] The law defines political party as "a national organisation founded by like-minded Indonesian citizens with common goals to fulfil common interest and to defend the unity of the nation based on Pancasila and the national constitution, UUD 1945".

Political parties must register themselves to the Ministry of Law and Human Rights to be recognised by the authority. The law dictates political parties' registration criteria shall include a notarial act recognise the party establishment and party constitution; a document describing party symbols; address of party headquarters and prove of distribution of party local offices in provinces, and cities and regencies; and a prove of party bank account.[2][3] The law also dictates minimum membership of new political parties on 50 persons, with the percentage of woman members and allocation of woman members to party offices are set on a minimum of 30%.

The party must undergo another registration process in order to participate in national elections; the registration shall be submitted to the General Elections Commission.[4] Political parties whose had their registration declined by the electoral commission due to failure to satisfy administrative criteria or other reasons, are able to appeal their rejection to the Election Oversight Committee (Indonesian: Badan Pengawas Pemilihan Umum).[5]

Party principles[edit]

Indonesian political party should recognise the superiority of Pancasila, the national philosophy

Indonesian political party should recognise the superiority of Pancasila and the national constitution, yet the law tolerates political parties to set other ideology as long as it does not violate the Pancasila and the constitution. The law explicitly prohibits establishment of a communist party, and political parties are banned from adopting communism as the party ideology.[2]

In essence, Indonesian political parties differs little on party policy and ideology. The only major distinction among Indonesian parties is on their position whether to allow Islam plays more role in public affairs or not.[6]This tendency resulting in several Indonesian political parties to brand itself as the part of nationalist-religious broad coalition in order to attract potential voters from both Muslim and the secular nationalist groups.

The language of left-right political spectrum is seldom used in Indonesia - in distinct from other countries of the world. This tendency is the result of the New Order regime under Suharto that anathematised left-wing politics after the Indonesian mass killings of 1965-66 against members and supporters of the Communist Party of Indonesia.[6] The New Order regime further stigmatised left-wing ideals as those espoused only by the communists, discouraging Indonesian political parties to identify itself as a left-wing movement lest they losing potential voters and be accused as communist. This tendency survives even beyond the 1998 Reform, partly due to the new regime persistence to maintain anti-communist law in force.

Parties represented in legislatures[edit]

Parties represented in national and regional legislatures[edit]

Name Leader Year Status in the DPR Provincial
DPRD
seats
City/
Regency
DPRD
seats
Founded First election Seats Status
Democratic Party
Partai Demokrat
Demokrat Agus Harimurti Yudhoyono 2001 2004 61 Opposition 247 1785
Party of the Functional Groups
Partai Golongan Karya
Golkar Airlangga Hartarto 1964 1971 85 Government 354 2534
Great Indonesia Movement Party
Partai Gerakan Indonesia Raya
Gerindra Prabowo Subianto 2008 2009 78 Government 230 1809
National Democratic Party
Partai Nasional Demokrat
Nasdem Surya Paloh 2011 2014 59 Government 123 1202
National Mandate Party
Partai Amanat Nasional
PAN Zulkifli Hasan 1998 1999 44 Opposition 160 1416
Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle
Partai Demokrasi Indonesia Perjuangan
PDI-P Megawati Sukarnoputri 1999 1999 128 Government 356 2540
National Awakening Party
Partai Kebangkitan Bangsa
PKB Muhaimin Iskandar 1998 1999 58 Government 131 1270
Prosperous Justice Party
Partai Keadilan Sejahtera
PKS Ahmad Syaikhu 1999
As Partai Keadilan
1999 50 Opposition 155 1032
United Development Party
Partai Persatuan Pembangunan
PPP Suharso Monoarfa 1973 1971
As alliance of Islamic parties
19 Government 138 1060

Parties represented only in regional legislatures[edit]

These parties participates on national elections - the last was in 2019 - yet failed to attain a single seat in the DPR due to failing to pass 4% parliamentary threshold.[7] Notable failure was of Hanura, that was failed to return to DPR despite winning seats in 2014 election. Despite electoral failure in the DPR, these parties successfully gain seat in regional parliaments (DPRD).

Aceh special autonomy statutes allowed formation of local political parties to compete only in Aceh local parliament. Although the party number is serialised from the national list, Aceh local parties only appeared in ballot paper circulating in Aceh province.[8]

Name Leader Year Provincial
DPRD
seats
Founded First election
Berkarya Party
Partai Berkarya
Berkarya Muchdi Purwopranjono 2016 2019 10
Crescent Star Party
Partai Bulan Bintang
PBB Yusril Ihza Mahendra 1998 1999 12
Garuda Party
Partai Gerakan Perubahan Indonesia
Garuda Ahmad Ridha Sabana 2015 2019 2
People's Conscience Party
Partai Hati Nurani Rakyat
Hanura Oesman Sapta Odang 2006 2009 61
Indonesian Justice and Unity Party
Partai Keadilan dan Persatuan Indonesia
PKPI Diaz Hendropriyono 1999 1999 4
Indonesian Solidarity Party
Partai Solidaritas Indonesia
PSI Grace Natalie 2014 2019 13
Perindo Party
Partai Persatuan Indonesia
Perindo Hary Tanoesoedibjo 2015 2019 29
Parties represented only in Aceh DPRD
Aceh Party
Partai Aceh
PA Muzakir Manaf 2007 2009 18
Aceh Regional Party
Partai Daerah Aceh
PDA Jamaluddin 2011 2014 3
Independent Voice of the Acehnese Party
Partai Suara Independen Rakyat Aceh
SIRA M. Taufiq Abda 2007 2009 1
Nanggroe Aceh Party
Partai Nanggroe Aceh
PNA Irwandi Yusuf 2011 2014 6

Extra-parliamentary parties[edit]

These political parties have no representation in either national or regional parliaments.

The term "partai gurem" (minor party) is commonly used by Indonesian media to refer to these political parties. The term is initially referred to political parties that won a very small number of parliamentary seat and after the 2004 election, to political parties that have no chance to surpass parliamentary threshold to gain representation on the People's Representative Council.[9] These political parties are often perceived to be lacking in organisational structure and their founder is only interested in attracting media attention.[9]

These parties often had their registration to participate in elections declined by the General Elections Commission (KPU) due to party failure to satisfy registration criteria set by the commission, which includes completeness of party document, location of party permanent offices, minimum membership and minimum percentage of woman members.[10][11] Parties that had their registration rejected often resorted to appealing their rejection to the Electoral Oversight Committee (Indonesian: Badan Pengawas Pemilihan Umum), with varied success.[12]

Name[13] Leader Established Contested elections
1999 2004 2009 2014 2019
Indonesian People's Wave Party
Partai Gelombang Rakyat Indonesia
Gelora Anis Matta 2019 Not yet established
Indonesian Bhinneka Party
Partai Bhinneka Indonesia
PBI Nurdin Purnomo 1998
As "Indonesian Bhinneka Tunggal Ika Party"[14]
Symbol confirmed.svg X mark.svg X mark.svg X mark.svg X mark.svg
Indonesian Green Party
Partai Hijau Indonesia
PHI 2012 Not yet established X mark.svg X mark.svg
Indonesian National Party Marhaenism
Partai Nasional Indonesia Marhaenisme
PNI Marhaen Sukmawati Soekarnoputri 2002 Symbol confirmed.svg X mark.svg X mark.svg X mark.svg X mark.svg
Indonesian People's Voice Party
Partai Swara Rakyat Indonesia
Parsindo M. Jusuf Rizal 2016 Not yet established X mark.svg
National Unity Party
Partai Pemersatu Bangsa
PPB Eggi Sudjana 2001[15] Not yet established X mark.svg X mark.svg X mark.svg X mark.svg
New Indonesia National Sovereignty Party
Partai Kedaulatan Bangsa Indonesia Baru
PKBIB Yenny Wahid 2002
As "New Indonesian Alliance Party"
X mark.svg Symbol confirmed.svg Symbol confirmed.svg X mark.svg X mark.svg
Indonesian Workers and Employers Party
Partai Pengusaha dan Pekerja Indonesia
PPPI Daniel Hutapea 2002 X mark.svg X mark.svg Symbol confirmed.svg X mark.svg X mark.svg
People's Party
Partai Rakyat
Rakyat I Ketut Tenang 2014 Not yet established X mark.svg
Reform Party
Partai Reformasi
Reformasi Syamsahril Kamal 2000 X mark.svg X mark.svg X mark.svg X mark.svg X mark.svg
People's Democratic Party
Partai Rakyat Demokratik
PRD Agus Jabo Priyono 1996[16] Symbol confirmed.svg X mark.svg X mark.svg X mark.svg X mark.svg
Republican Party
Partai Republik
Republik Suharno Prawiro 1998[17] Symbol confirmed.svg In dormancy X mark.svg
Working Indonesia Party
Partai Indonesia Kerja
PIKA Hartoko Adi Oetomo 2016 Not yet established X mark.svg

Historical political parties[edit]

Political parties participating in 1955 and 1971 elections[edit]

Logo Name[18][19] Established Dissolved Contested elections
1955 1971
Indonesian Islamic Union Party
Partai Serikat Islam Indonesia
PSII 1923
1947
1973 Symbol confirmed.svg Symbol confirmed.svg
Flag of Nahdlatul Ulama.jpg Nahdlatul Ulama NU 1952[20] 1973
Still active as
religious organisation
Symbol confirmed.svg Symbol confirmed.svg
Indonesian National Party logo.gif Indonesian National Party
Partai Nasional Indonesia
PNI 1927[21] 1973 Symbol confirmed.svg Symbol confirmed.svg
Logo of the Communist Party of Indonesia.svg Communist Party of Indonesia
Partai Komunis Indonesia
PKI 1929[22] 1966[23]
Banned
Symbol confirmed.svg X mark.svg
Partai Islam Perti.jpg Islamic Education Movement
Pergerakan Tarbijah Islamijah
Perti 1930[24] 1973 Symbol confirmed.svg Symbol confirmed.svg
Logo of the Masyumi Party.svg Masyumi Party
Majelis Syuro Muslimin Indonesia
Masyumi 1943[25] 1960
Self dissolvement [26]

Revived in 2020[27]

Symbol confirmed.svg X mark.svg
Logo of Indonesian Christian Party.svg Indonesian Christian Party
Partai Kristen Indonesia
Parkindo 1945[28] 1973 Symbol confirmed.svg Symbol confirmed.svg
Logo of Catholic Party.svg Catholic Party
Partai Katolik
1945 1973 Symbol confirmed.svg Symbol confirmed.svg
Logo of the Socialist Party of Indonesia.svg Socialist Party of Indonesia
Partai Sosialis Indonesia
PSI 1945[28] 1960
Banned
Symbol confirmed.svg X mark.svg
Indonesian Marhaen People's Union
Persatuan Rakyat Marhaen Indonesia
Permai 1945[28] Symbol confirmed.svg X mark.svg
Logo of the Murba Party.svg Popular Consultative Party
Partai Musyawarah Rakyat Banyak
Murba 1948 1973
Revived in 1998[29]
Symbol confirmed.svg Symbol confirmed.svg
Partai buruh - election symbol on 1955 ballot paper.png Labour Party
Partai Buruh
1949 Symbol confirmed.svg X mark.svg
Partai Rakyat Nasional.jpg National People's Party
Partai Rakyat Nasional
PRN 1950 Symbol confirmed.svg X mark.svg
Indonesian People's Party
Partai Rakyat Indonesia
PRI 1950[30] Symbol confirmed.svg X mark.svg
League of Supporters of Indonesian Independence
Ikatan Pendukung Kemerdekaan Indonesia
IPKI 1954[31] 1973
Revived in 1998[32]
Symbol confirmed.svg Symbol confirmed.svg
Pancasila Defender Movement
Gerakan Pembela Pantja Sila
GPPS 1955 Symbol confirmed.svg X mark.svg
Police Employee Association of the Republic of Indonesia
Persatuan Pegawai Polisi Republik Indonesia
1955 Symbol confirmed.svg X mark.svg
Logo Baperki.svg Indonesian Citizenship Consultative Assembly
Badan Permusjawaratan Kewarganegaraan Indonesia
Baperki 1954 Symbol confirmed.svg X mark.svg
Great Indonesia Unity Party
Partai Indonesia Raya - Wongsonegoro
PIR Symbol confirmed.svg X mark.svg
Indonesian Movement
Gerakan Indonesia
GI 1955 Symbol confirmed.svg X mark.svg
Persatuan dayak.svg Dayak Unity Party
Partai Persatuan Dayak
PPD 1946 1959
Banned
Symbol confirmed.svg X mark.svg
Great Indonesia Party "Hazairin"
Partai Indonesia Raya
PIR - Hazairin Symbol confirmed.svg X mark.svg
Partai Persatuan Tharikat Islam.jpg Islamic Tharikah Unity Party
Partai Persatuan Tharikah Islam
PPTI Symbol confirmed.svg X mark.svg
Logo AKUI.jpg Islamic Victory Force
Angkatan Kemenangan Umat Islam
AKUI Symbol confirmed.svg X mark.svg
Village People's Union
Persatuan Rakjat Desa
PRD Symbol confirmed.svg X mark.svg
Party of the People of Free Indonesia
Partai Rakjat Indonesia Merdeka
PRIM Symbol confirmed.svg X mark.svg
Logo of the Acoma Party.svg Young Communist Force
Angkatan Communis Muda
Acoma 1952 1965
Banned
Symbol confirmed.svg X mark.svg
Parmusi Pemilu 1971.jpg Muslim Party of Indonesia
Partai Muslimin Indonesia
Parmusi 1967[33] 1973 X mark.svg Symbol confirmed.svg

Political parties of the New Order[edit]

After his rise into power, President Soeharto showed his discontent to multiple political parties, arguing that the failure of Konstituante in 1955-1959 was caused by political party deadlock, and it should not be repeated in his regime.[34] He further proposed existing political parties to unite based on their ideological essence – either spiritual (religious party) or materialist (nationalist party). Political parties reaction to calls of Suharto was generally positive, with Islamic parties claimed that party fusion was in line with their last National Islamic Congress resolution agreed in 1969, and a party alliance of "Democratic Development Group" was formed by PNI, IPKI, Parkindo, Murba Party, dan Catholic Party to compete in 1971 election.[35]

After 1971 election, New Order regime reiterates its call for political parties to fuse, and a MPR ordinance regulating political parties grouping issued in 1973 further pressured political parties to merge.[36]

All Islamic political parties merged to form United Development Party (PPP) on 5 January 1973, and the remaining nationalist and non-Islamic political parties united to form Indonesian Democratic Party (PDI) on 10 January 1973.[36] Golkar, officially a "federation of public organisations" instead of a proper political party, immune to the fusion and remain dominant for the entire period of the New Order.

The parties for the last time participated in 1997 election, and the three-party system survived until the collapse of the New Order in 1998 Reformasi. Ensuing political liberalisation allowed establishment of multitudes of new political parties, with the number of political parties participating in 1999 election significantly jumped to 48 parties.

After the Reform, PPP survived and continue to participate in all following elections after 1999, as well as Golkar that reformed itself as a political party. The PDI failed to imitate the Golkar and PPP success after government intervention to unseat Chairman Megawati Soekarnoputri from her seat in 1996 causing PDI support to collapse in 1997 election. PDI votes further eroded as support instead went to its breakaway Indonesian Democratic Party - Struggle (PDI-P) led by Megawati in 1999 election, resulting on the party to won only two seats compared to 153 seats of PDI-P. After poor electoral performance and failure to register for 2004 election, PDI reformed itself as Indonesian Democratic Vanguard Party (PPDI) in 2003.[37]

Logo Name Established Dissolved
Joint Committee of Functional Groups
Sekretariat Bersama Golongan Karya
Golkar 1964 Continued as Golkar Party
Indonesian Democratic Party
Partai Demokrasi Indonesia
PDI 1973[38] 2003
Continued as PPDI[37]
Logo PPP (1973-1982).svg
PPP 1982-98.png
United Development Party
Partai Persatuan Pembangunan
PPP 1973[39] Continued as PPP

Political parties in post-Reform[edit]

Name[40][41][42][43] Established Dissolved Contested elections
2004 2009
Archipelago Republic Party
Partai Republika Nusantara
RepublikaN 2001 2013
Merged into Hanura[44]
Symbol confirmed.svg Symbol confirmed.svg
Concern for the Nation Functional Party
Partai Karya Peduli Bangsa
PKPB 2002 Symbol confirmed.svg Symbol confirmed.svg
Democratic Nationhood Party
Partai Demokrasi Kebangsaan
PDK 2002 2011
Merged to form National Unity Party[45]
Symbol confirmed.svg Symbol confirmed.svg
Democratic Renewal Party
Partai Demokrasi Pembaruan
PDP 2005 2011
Merged to form National Unity Party[45]
X mark.svg Symbol confirmed.svg
Freedom Party
Partai Merdeka
PM 2002 2011
Merged to form National Unity Party[45]
Symbol confirmed.svg Symbol confirmed.svg
Functional Party of Struggle
Partai Karya Perjuangan
Pakar Pangan 2007 2012
Merged into Democratic Party[46]
X mark.svg Symbol confirmed.svg
Indonesian Democratic Party of Devotion
Partai Kasih Demokrasi Indonesia
PKDI 1998 2011
Merged to form National Unity Party[45]
Symbol confirmed.svg Symbol confirmed.svg
Indonesian Democratic Vanguard Party
Partai Penegak Demokrasi Indonesia
PPDI 2003 2011
Merged to form National Unity Party[45]
Symbol confirmed.svg Symbol confirmed.svg
Sovereignty Party
Partai Kedaulatan
PK 2006 2013
Merged into Hanura[44]
X mark.svg Symbol confirmed.svg
Indonesian Nahdlatul Community Party
Partai Persatuan Nahdlatul Ummah Indonesia
PPNUI 2003 Symbol confirmed.svg Symbol confirmed.svg
Indonesian Unity Party
Partai Sarikat Indonesia
PSI 2002 2005
Merged into PAN[47]
Symbol confirmed.svg Symbol confirmed.svg
Indonesian Youth Party
Partai Pemuda Indonesia
PPI 2007 2011
Merged to form National Unity Party[45]
X mark.svg Symbol confirmed.svg
National Front Party
Partai Barisan Nasional
PBN 2007 X mark.svg Symbol confirmed.svg
Labour Party
Partai Buruh
PB 1998
As "National Labour Party"[48]
Symbol confirmed.svg Symbol confirmed.svg
National People's Concern Party
Partai Rakyat Peduli Nasional
PRPN 2006 2013
Merged into Hanura[44]
X mark.svg Symbol confirmed.svg
National Sun Party
Partai Matahari Bangsa
PMB 2006 2014[49] X mark.svg Symbol confirmed.svg
Regional Unity Party
Partai Persatuan Daerah
PPD 2002 2011
Merged to form National Unity Party[45]
Symbol confirmed.svg Symbol confirmed.svg
Patriot Party
Partai Patriot
1998 2011
Merged to form National Unity Party[45]
Symbol confirmed.svg Symbol confirmed.svg
Peace and Safe Islamic Party
Partai Islam Damai Aman
Idaman 2015 2018
Merged into PAN[50]
Not yet established
Pioneers' Party
Partai Pelopor
PP 2002 2011
Merged to form National Unity Party[45]
Symbol confirmed.svg Symbol confirmed.svg
Prosperous Indonesia Party
Partai Indonesia Sejahtera
PIS - 2011
Merged to form National Unity Party[45]
X mark.svg Symbol confirmed.svg
Prosperous Peace Party
Partai Damai Sejahtera
PDS 2001 2013
Merged into Hanura[44]
Symbol confirmed.svg Symbol confirmed.svg
Reform Star Party
Partai Bintang Reformasi
PBR 2002 2011
Merged into Gerindra[51]
Symbol confirmed.svg Symbol confirmed.svg
Ulema National Awakening Party
Partai Kebangkitan Nasional Ulama
PKNU 2000s 2013
In coalition agreement with PPP[52]
X mark.svg Symbol confirmed.svg

Parties participating only in 1999 elections[edit]

Following political liberalisation after the collapse of the New Order regime in 1998 Reformasi, registration for new political parties jumped significantly. As the result, the following 1999 election had 48 political parties competing for DPR seats, compared to the previous 1997 election that saw only 2 political parties plus Golkar.

Several parties claimed inheritance from former political parties existed prior to the New Order era, resulting in parties sharing similar political party name, with faction names as the only characteristics that made those parties distinct from each other. Example on this case was on claimants of former Indonesian National Party (PNI) and Masyumi Party. [53]

Most of the parties failed to gain even a single seat due to lack of votes. After the new electoral law authorise the use of parliamentary threshold to determine division of DPR seats, those parties were forced to reorganise itself in order to be able to register for the next 2004 election.[54]

This is the list of political parties participating only in 1999 election and failed to participate in the next 2004 election.

Name Established
Aceh Orphans' Foundation Party
Partai Abul Yatama
PAY 1999[55]
All-Indonesia Workers' Solidarity Party
Partai Solidaritas Pekerja Seluruh Indonesia
PSPSI 1998[56]
Democratic Catholic Party
Partai Katolik Demokrat
PKD 1998[57]
Democratic Islamic Party
Partai Islam Demokrat
PID 1998[58]
Democratic National Party
Partai Nasional Demokrat
PND 1998[59]
Familial Consultative Party of Mutual Assistance
Partai Musyawarah Kekeluargaan Gotong Royong
MKGR 1998[60]
Indonesian Democratic Alliance Party
Partai Aliansi Demokrat Indonesia
PADI 1998[61]
Indonesian Democratic Union Party
Partai Uni Demokrasi Indonesia
PUDI 1996[62]
Indonesian Islamic Political Party "Masyumi"
Partai Politik Islam Indonesia "Masyumi"
1998
Claimed inheritance from
the original Masyumi
[53]
Indonesian Islamic Ummah Party
Partai Umat Muslimin Indonesia
PUMI 1998[63]
Indonesian Islamic Union Party
Partai Syarikat Islam Indonesia
PSII 1998
Claimed inheritance from
the original PSII[64]
Indonesian Islamic Union Party - 1905
Partai Syarikat Islam Indonesia - 1905'
PSII 1905 1998[65]
Indonesian Muslim Awakening Party
Partai Kebangkitan Muslim Indonesia
KAMI 1998[66]
Indonesian National Christian Party
Partai Kristen Nasional Indonesia
Krisna 1998[67]
Indonesian National Party – Marhaenist Front
Partai Nasional Indonesia – Front Marhaenis
PNI–Front Marhaenis 1999
Claimed inheritance from
the original PNI
[68]
Indonesian National Party – Marhaen Masses
Partai Nasional Indonesia – Massa Marhaen
PNI-Massa Marhaen 1998
Claimed inheritance from
the original PNI
[69]
Indonesian National Party - Supeni
Partai Nasional Indonesia - Supeni
PNI-Supeni 1995
Claimed inheritance from
the original PNI
[70]
Indonesian National Union Solidarity Party
Partai Solidaritas Uni Nasional Indonesia
SUNI 1998[71]
Indonesian People's Party
Partai Rakyat Indonesia
Pari 1998[72]
Indonesian Workers' Party
Partai Pekerja Indonesia
PPI 1998[73]
Islamic Ummah Party
Partai Ummat Islam
PUI 1998[74]
Love and Peace Party
Partai Cinta Damai
PCD 1998[75]
National Freedom Party
Partai Kebangsaan Merdeka
PKM 1998[76]
National Love Democratic Party
Partai Demokrasi Kasih Bangsa
PDKB 1998[77]
National Party of the Indonesian Nation
Partai Nasional Bangsa Indonesia
PNBI 1998[78]
New Indonesia Party
Partai Indonesia Baru
PIB 1999[79]
New Masyumi Party
Partai Masyumi Baru
1995[80]
People's Choice Party
Partai Pilihan Rakyat
Pilar 1998[81]
People's Sovereignty Party
Partai Daulat Rakyat
PDR 1999[82]
Justice Party
Partai Keadilan
PK 1998
United Party
Partai Persatuan
PP 1999[83]
Ummah Awakening Party
Partai Kebangkitan Umat
PKU 1998[84]
Workers' Solidarity Party
Partai Solidaritas Pekerja
PSP 1999[85]

Pre-independence organisations[edit]

Name Established Dissolved Notes
Budi Utomo
Prime Philosophy
1908 1935 First native political movement on the Dutch East Indies; its founding initiated the Indonesian National Awakening.
Chung Hwa Hui
Chinese Association
CHH 1928 1942 Advocated Chinese rights in the Dutch East Indies.
Partai Indonesia Raya
Great Indonesian Party
Parindra 1935 1939
Indies Social Democratic Association
Indische Sociaal-Democratische Vereeniging
ISDV 1914 1924 Forerunner of the Communist Party of Indonesia.
Indische Partij
Indies Party
IP 1912 1913
Indo Europeesch Verbond
Indo-European Alliance
IEV 1919 1962 Advocated Indo people rights in the Dutch East Indies and after the independence of Indonesia.
Partai Nasional Indonesia
Indonesian National Party
PNI 1927 1931 Advocated Indonesian independence.
Insulinde 1907 1919
Partai Tionghoa Indonesia
Indonesian Chinese Party
PTI 1932 1942 Advocated closer ties between Chinese and native Indonesians.
Partai Indonesia
Indonesian Party
Partindo 1931 1936 Advocated Indonesian independence.
Persatuan Arab Indonesia
Arab-Indonesian Union
PAI 1934 Advocated Indonesian allegiance to Arab-Indonesians[86].
Sarekat Islam
Islamic Union
SI 1905 Active as religious organisation Founded as a trade union, reformed as a political movement after the Indonesian National Awakening.

Others[edit]

Name Established Dissolved Notes
Partai Kemerdekaan Indonesia Irian
Indonesian Irian Independence Party
PKII 1946 1962 Founded in Netherlands New Guinea, advocated integration of Western New Guinea into Indonesia.

References[edit]

  • Feith, Herbert (2007) The Decline of Constitutional Democracy in Indonesia Equinox Publishing (Asia) Pte Ltd, ISBN 979-3780-45-2
  • Ricklefs, M.C. (1991). A history of modern Indonesia since c.1200. Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-4480-5
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See also[edit]