The same year, he was defeated in a 7-point match by Hans Berliner's computer program BKG 9.8, becoming the first world champion in any board game to be defeated by a software program. Although Villa's play in the match was stronger, the computer received more favorable dice rolls, winning the match 7–1. The match was played for US$5,000, and drew an audience of 200 people.
- Allen, Henry. "Gammonoid the Conqueror," The Washington Post. 17 July 1979, p. B1
- Bray, Chris. "Man vs. Machine", The Independent (London). 11 December 2004, p. 75.
- Berliner, Hans, et al. "Backgammon program beats world champ", ACM SIGART Bulletin, Issue 69. January 1980. pp. 6–9.
- Interactive replay of Villa's final against Philip Vischjager
- Bray, Chris. "Monte Carlo 2006", The Independent (London). 29 July 2006, p. 61
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