M. C. Ricklefs

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Merle Calvin Ricklefs AM FAHA (17 July 1943 – 29 December 2019) was an American-born Australian scholar of the history and current affairs of Indonesia.[1]

Ricklefs was born in Fort Dodge, Iowa, on 17 July 1943[2] and died on 29 December 2019, aged 76.[3]

Ricklefs received his PhD from Cornell University under the supervision of O. W. Wolters. He held positions at the School of Oriental and African Studies, All Souls College, Monash University, the Australian National University and the University of Melbourne. He retired from the professorship of Southeast Asian history at the National University of Singapore.[4] He was emeritus professor of history at both the Australian National University and Monash University.

Academic career[edit]

Ricklef's publications focused on the history of Mataram, Kartasura, Yogyakarta, Surakarta (locations in Central Java). He also regularly updated his history of Indonesia, A History of Modern Indonesia, ca. 1300 to the present. He dedicated most of his academic career to understanding how Indonesian society reacted to both the European presence (in his earlier works) and the spread of Islam (in his later works), with an emphasis on cultural as well as political history. Few living English-speaking writers can claim the scope of his knowledge of the history of Java from the 17th to the 21st century.[citation needed]

In 2010 he edited and co-authored New History of Southeast Asia, which continued the work of his friend and mentor D. G. E. Hall, who first published his own History of South East Asia in 1955.

From 2004 to 2015, Ricklefs was sectional editor for Southeast Asia for the new third edition of Encyclopaedia of Islam (16 vols., now appearing in fascicules). He was a member of the editorial boards of History Today, Studia Islamika, Journal of Indonesian Islam and Journal of Southeast Asian Studies. He co-edited the monograph series Handbook of Oriental Studies/Handbuch der Orientalistik and Brill’s Southeast Asia Library (SEAL). He was a member of the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade Editorial Advisory Board for the publication series, Documents on Australian Foreign Policy. Ricklefs was a former member of the Australian National Commission for UNESCO. He was a founding member of the Australian Foreign Affairs Council and also a member of the International Council of the Asia Society (New York).

Observations on warfare[edit]

In his book War, Culture and Economy, he observed a general pattern regarding foreign military interventions. Ricklefs noted that there is a “significant link between the transfer of military technology and questions of cultural identity” but said that he was not proposing a sort of “Ricklefs’ Rule". He observed that in wars of intervention or invasion, where social and economic circumstances on both the local side and an intervening side with superior military (especially infantry) technology were such as to facilitate the transfer of technology, then the intervention was likely to produce a strengthening of cultural and political identities and lead to successful resistance to the foreign force. Thus, the wars of 17th and 18th century Java, with both sides pre-industrial, were unlike the colonial wars of the 19th and early 20th centuries in Asia, Africa and parts of the Americas, where the industrialized military technology of colonial invaders (machine guns, high explosives, barbed wire, etc.) often led to collapses of morale and an end to resistance on the local, pre-industrialized, side. Those earlier wars were more like post-World War II wars where the foreign invaders’ superior infantry technology has been readily transferred to Vietnamese, Indonesian, Afghan, Iraqi and other local peoples, leading to prolonged and successful resistance.

Honours and awards[edit]

In 1989 Ricklefs was elected a fellow of the Australian Academy of the Humanities.[5]

The Government of Australia awarded him in 2001 the Centenary Medal for "service to Australian society and the humanities in the study of Indonesia".[6]

In 2010 he was elected as an erelid (honorary member) of the Netherlands Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde, one of only eight people currently recognised in this way.

He was awarded the 2015 George McT. Kahin Prize of the Association for Asian Studies, "given biennially to an outstanding scholar of Southeast Asian studies from any discipline or country specialization to recognize distinguished scholarly work on Southeast Asia beyond the author's first book" for his work Islamisation and its opponents in Java: A political, social, cultural and religious history, c. 1930 to the present (2012).

In 2016 the Indonesian Ministry of Education and Culture presented Ricklefs with its cultural award (Penghargaan Kebudayaan).

In June 2017, Ricklefs was made a member of the Order of Australia.[7]

Civil and human rights activity[edit]

In the early 1980s Ricklefs became deeply involved in education for indigenous Australians, acting as the driving force behind and co-founding the Monash Orientation Scheme for Aborigines, the first bridging program for Aboriginal people in an Australian university. This aimed to prepare Aboriginal students, who suffered from great educational disadvantage, for university study. The scheme was a runaway success and by the time Ricklefs left Monash in 1993 it had been responsible for roughly doubling the number of Aboriginal university graduates.[8]

Ricklefs was also involved in the 1980s ‘immigration debate’ in Australia, which was sparked when his counterpart at the University of Melbourne, Geoffrey Blainey, argued that Australia should limit Asian immigration. This came only a little over a decade after Australia had ended its controversial White Australia immigration policy. Ricklefs published, with Andrew Markus, a critique of Blainey's views entitled Surrender Australia? Essays in the Study and Uses of History (Allen and Unwin, Sydney, 1984).

Publications[edit]

Major Publications
Sole-authored books
  • Jogjakarta under Sultan Mangkubumi, 1749–1792: A history of the division of Java. [9]
    • Yogyakarta di bawah Sultan Mangkubumi, 1749-1792: Sejarah pembagian Jawa. Transl. Hartono Hadikusumo & E. Setiyawati Alkhatab. Ed. Revianto Budi Santosa. [10] (Revised Indonesian edition of Jogjakarta under Sultan Mangkubumi.)
  • Modern Javanese historical tradition: A study of an original Kartasura chronicle and related materials. London: School of Oriental and African Studies [11]
  • A history of modern Indonesia, ca. 1300 to the present. [12]
    • Sejarah Indonesia modern. Transl. Dharmono Hardjowidjono. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press, 1991. xiv + 501pp. (Revised Indonesian edition of A History of modern Indonesia.)
    • A history of modern Indonesia since c.1300. 2nd ed. Basingstoke & London: Macmillan; Stanford: Stanford University Press. [13]
    • Sejarah Indonesia modern 1200-2004. Transl. Satrio Wahono et al. Ed. Husni Syawie and M.C. Ricklefs. Jakarta: Serambi, 2005. 783 pp. (Revised Indonesian edition of the 3rd English edition of A History of modern Indonesia.)
  • A history of modern Indonesia since c. 1200. 4th ed. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan; Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2008. xviii + 492 pp.
  • Sejarah Indonesia modern 1200-2008. Ed. Moh. Sidik Nugraha and M. C. Ricklefs. Jakarta: Serambi, 2008. xx + 865 pp. (Revised Indonesian edition of the 4th English edition of A History of modern Indonesia.)
  • War, culture and economy in Java, 1677–1726: Asian and European imperialism in the early Kartasura period. [14]
  • The seen and unseen worlds in Java, 1726–49: History, literature and Islam in the court of Pakubuwana II. [15]
  • Mystic synthesis in Java: A history of Islamisation from the fourteenth to the early nineteenth centuries. White Plains, NY: Eastbridge, 2006. xv + 263 pp.
  • Polarising Javanese society: Islamic and other visions c.1830-1930. Singapore: Singapore University Press; Leiden: KITLV Press; Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2007. xvii + 297 pp.
  • A history of modern Indonesia since c. 1200. 4th ed. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan; Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2008. xviii + 492 pp.
  • Sejarah Indonesia modern 1200-2008. Ed. Moh. Sidik Nugraha and M. C. Ricklefs. Jakarta: Serambi, 2008. xx + 865 pp. (Revised Indonesian edition of the 4th English edition of A History of modern Indonesia.)
  • Islamisation and its opponents in Java: A political, social, cultural and religious history, c. 1930 to the present. Singapore: National University of Singapore Press; Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2012. xxi + 576 pp.
  • Mengislamkan Jawa: Sejarah Islamisasi di Jawa dan penentangnya dari 1930 sampai sekarang. Transl. FX Dono Sunardi and Satrio Wahono. Ed. M. C. Ricklefs. Jakarta: Serambi, 2013. 887 pp. (Revised Indonesian edition of Islamisation and its opponents)
  • Soul Catcher: Java’s Fiery Prince Mangkunagara I, 1726–1795. Singapore: National University of Singapore Press; Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press 2018
Co-authored book
  • Indonesian manuscripts in Great Britain: A catalogue of manuscripts in Indonesian languages in British public collections by M. C. Ricklefs and P. Voorhoeve. London Oriental Bibliographies, vol. 5. [16]
  • Indonesian manuscripts in Great Britain: A catalogue of manuscripts in Indonesian languages in British public collections; New edition with addenda et corrigenda by M.C. Ricklefs, P. Voorhoeve† and Annabel Teh Gallop. Jakarta:[17]
Co-authored and edited books
  • A New history of Southeast Asia by M. C. Ricklefs, Bruce Lockhart, Albert Lau, Portia Reyes and Maitrii Aung-Thwin. Ed. M. C. Ricklefs. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010. xxxi + 536 pp.

(Selected as a Choice Outstanding Academic Title, 2011)

  • Sejarah Asia Tenggara: Dari masa prasejarah sampai kontemporer by M.C. Ricklefs, Bruce Lockhart, Albert Lau, Portia Reyes and Maitrii Aung-Thwin. Jakarta: Komunitas Bambu, 2013. xlviii + 826 pp. (Indonesian edition of A New history of Southeast Asia)
  • Asal usul nama Yogyakarta & Malioboro by Peter Carey, Jacobus (Koos) Noorduyn† and M. C. Ricklefs. Ed. Peter Carey. Jakarta: Komunitas Bambu, 2015. [x] + 110 pp.
Edited and translated book
  • Pantheism and monism in Javanese suluk literature: Islamic and Indian mysticism in an Indonesian setting [18]
Edited volumes
  • Chinese Muslims in Java in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries: Malay Annals of Sĕmarang and Cĕrbon by H.J. de Graaf and Th. G. Th. Pigeaud. Clayton: Monash Papers on Southeast Asia no. 12, 1984. xiii + 221 pp.
  • (co-editor with Andrew Markus). Surrender Australia? Essays in the study and uses of history: Geoffrey Blainey and Asian immigration. Sydney, etc.: George Allen & Unwin, 1985. viii + 149 pp.
  • (co-editor with David P. Chandler). Nineteenth and twentieth century Indonesia: Essays in honour of Professor J.D. Legge. Clayton: Monash Papers on Southeast Asia no. 14, 1986. vii + 281 pp.
  • Islam in the Indonesian social context. Annual Indonesian lecture series no. 15. Clayton: Centre of Southeast Asian Studies, Monash University, 1991. iii + 82 pp.
  • Cina Muslim di Jawa abad XV dan XVI antara historisitas dan mitos. H. J. de Graaf dkk. Pengantar M. C. Ricklefs. Yogya: PT Tiara Wacana, 1998. xxxiii+ 217pp. (Indonesian translation of Chinese Muslims in Java)
Web publication
  • (co-editor with Nindya Noegraha). Bramartani 1864-1893. Romanised transcriptions of this Javanese newspaper published in Surakarta, with introduction by Nindya Noegraha and M.C. Ricklefs.<ref>[1][permanent dead link]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-02-27. Retrieved 2007-05-15.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) Southeast Asian Collection held at University of Cambridge Cambridge University Library
  2. ^ "M. C. Ricklefs Date of Birth: Fort Dodge, Iowa, July 17, 1943 - Google Search". Google.com.
  3. ^ 'Vale Emeritus Professor Merle Ricklefs AM', Monash University website, 9 January 2020. Se also "Berpulangnya Utusan VOC ke Mataram Moderen: MC Ricklefs". Republika Online. December 29, 2019.
  4. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-11-17. Retrieved 2015-04-03.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  5. ^ "Merle Ricklefs". Australian Academy of the Humanities. Retrieved 2 March 2018.
  6. ^ "It's An Honour has a new home". Itsanhonour.gov.au. Retrieved December 30, 2019.
  7. ^ "Fellows recognised in Queen's Birthday 2017 Honours List". Humanities.org.au. June 13, 2017. Retrieved December 30, 2019.
  8. ^ Davison, G . & Murphy, K. University Unlimited: The Monash Story (Melbourne 2012) 173-175
  9. ^ Ricklefs, M. C. (Merle Calvin) (1974), Jogjakarta under Sultan Mangkubumi, 1749-1792 : a history of the division of Java, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-713578-5
  10. ^ Ricklefs, M. C. (Merle Calvin) (2002), Yogyakarta di bawah Sultan Mangkubumi, 1749-1792 : sejarah pembagian Jawa, Matabangsa, ISBN 978-979-9471-09-3
  11. ^ Ricklefs, M. C. (Merle Calvin); University of London. School of Oriental and African Studies (1978), Modern Javanese historical tradition : a study of an original Kartasura chronicle and related materials, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, ISBN 978-0-7286-0045-4
  12. ^ Ricklefs, M. C. (Merle Calvin), 1943- (1983), A History of Modern Indonesia: c. 1300 to the Present, Macmillan, London, retrieved 30 December 2019CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  13. ^ Ricklefs, M. C. (Merle Calvin) (1993), A history of modern Indonesia since c. 1300 (2nd ed.), Macmillan, ISBN 978-0-333-57689-2
  14. ^ Ricklefs, M. C. (Merle Calvin); Asian Studies Association of Australia (1993), War, culture, and economy in Java, 1677-1726 : Asian and European imperialism in the early Kartasura period, Asian Studies Association of Australia in association with Allen & Unwin, ISBN 978-1-86373-380-9
  15. ^ Ricklefs, M. C. (Merle Calvin); Asian Studies Association of Australia (1998), The seen and unseen worlds in Java 1726-1749 : history, literature and islam in the Court of Pakubuwana II, Asian Studies Association of Australia in association with Allen & Unwin and University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 978-1-86448-627-8
  16. ^ Ricklefs, M. C. (Merle Calvin); Voorhoeve, Peter (1977), Indonesian manuscripts in Great Britain : a catalogue of manuscripts in Indonesian languages in British public collections, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-713592-1
  17. ^ Ricklefs, M. C. (Merle Calvin); Gallop, Annabel Teh, (author.); Voorhoeve, P. (Petrus), (author.); École française d'Extrême-Orient (publisher.) (2014), Indonesian manuscripts in Great Britain : a catalogue of manuscripts in Indonesian languages in British public collections = Naskah-naskah Indonesia di Inggris : katalogus naskah dalam bahasa Nusantara di perpustakaan umum di Inggris (New edition with addenda et corrigenda ed.), Jakarta Ecole francaise d'Extreme-Orient, ISBN 978-2-85539-189-2CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  18. ^ Zoetmulder, P. J. (Petrus Josephus); Ricklefs, M. C. (Merle Calvin), 1943-; Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde (1995), Pantheism and monism in Javanese suluk literature : Islamic and Indian mysticism in an Indonesian setting, KITLV Press, 1995, c1994, ISBN 978-90-6718-082-5CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)

External links[edit]