MVA85A (modified vaccinia Ankara 85A) is a new-generation vaccine against tuberculosis developed by researchers led by Professor Helen McShane at Oxford University. This vaccine produces higher levels of long-lasting cellular immunity when used together with the older TB vaccine BCG. Phase I clinical trials were completed and then phase II clinical trials took place in South Africa. Efficacy trials ran in parallel from 2009 to 2019.
Results published in 2015 cast doubt on the efficacy of the vaccine.
In 2018, a BMJ investigation raised concerns about the ethics of an efficacy trial in South African infants, particularly because of results from earlier animal trials such as a study with macaques at Porton Down. One response argued that 14 prior human trials showed a safety signal, that regulators were aware of the primate trial and decided to continue, and that three subsequent investigations found no evidence of wrong-doing. Another response by Ian Orme questioned the critique of animal models.
- "Professor Helen McShane FMedSci FRCP". Nuffield Department of Medicine, Medical Sciences Division. Retrieved 2019-07-01.
- McShane H, Pathan AA, Sander CR, et al. (2004). "Recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing antigen 85A boosts BCG primed and naturally acquired anti-microbial immunity in humans". Nat Med. 10 (11): 1240–44. doi:10.1038/nm1128. PMID 15502839.
- Hawkridge T, Scriba TJ, Gelderbloem S, et al. (2008). "Safety and immunogenicity of a new tuberculosis vaccine, MVA85A, in healthy adults in South Africa". J Infect Dis. 198 (4): 544–52. doi:10.1086/590185. PMC 2822902. PMID 18582195.
- Ibanga H, Brookes R, Hill P, Owiafe P, Fletcher H, Lienhardt C, Hill A, Adegbola R, McShane H (2006). "Early clinical trials with a new tuberculosis vaccine, MVA85A, in tuberculosis-endemic countries: issues in study design". Lancet Infect Dis. 6 (8): 522–8. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(06)70552-7. PMID 16870530.
- McShane H (23 September 2010). "Improving BCG with MVA85A: An update on clinical trials" (PDF). The Jenner Institute. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
- Walsh, Fergus (4 February 2013). "Tuberculosis vaccine hopes dashed". BBC News. Retrieved 4 February 2013.
- "Effects of MVA85A vaccine on tuberculosis challenge in animals: systematic review". Ije.oxfordjournals.org. Retrieved 2015-09-09.
- Cohen, Deborah (2018-01-10). "Oxford TB vaccine study calls into question selective use of animal data". BMJ. 360: j5845. doi:10.1136/bmj.j5845. ISSN 0959-8138. PMID 29321165.
- Ginsberg, Ann; Shea, Jacqui; Tameris, Michele; Hatherill, Mark; Hill, Adrian; McShane, Helen (2018-01-26). "Helen McShane and colleagues reply to Deborah Cohen". BMJ (Letters). 360: k236. doi:10.1136/bmj.k236. ISSN 0959-8138. PMID 29374008.
- Orme, Ian M. (2019-07-01). "Re: Helen McShane and colleagues reply to Deborah Cohen". The BMJ (Letters).
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