Makapili

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Makapili
Makabayang Katipunan ng mga Pilipino
Country Second Philippine Republic
FoundationNovember 1944
Dissolved1945
Preceded byGanap Party
MotivesSupport for Japanese occupiers in the Philippines
Size4,000–6,000

The Makabayang Katipunan ng mga Pilipino (Patriotic Association of Filipinos), better known as the Makapili, was a militant group formed in the Philippines in 1944 during World War II to give military aid to the Imperial Japanese Army.[1] The group was meant to be on equal basis with the Japanese Army and its leaders were appointed with ranks that are equal to their Japanese counterparts.[2]

Background[edit]

The Japanese decreed that the group be founded in November 1944 when they brought together many of the supporters of the defunct Ganap Party,[3] which was an offshoot of the Sakdalistas or those who helped the Japanese in the recruitment of manpower as well as in the construction and maintenance of infrastructure.[4] Organized by Benigno Ramos and Artemio Ricarte, it was borne out of José P. Laurel's refusal to conscript Filipinos for Japan.[5] An account cited that Laurel's objection was due to the way Makapili did not owe its allegiance to him or the republic.[6] During its inauguration, Ramos described it as nonpolitical, nonpartisan, and nonsectarian organization that aims to destroy the nation's enemies.[6] Members were given Japanese military training and became soldiers, spies, and saboteurs.[2]

Operations[edit]

Like Ganap, the Makapili's main area of support was Metro Manila, although it established chapters across the islands, attracting some support.[7] In all, it attracted 4,000 to 6,000 members, many of them poor or landless farmers who came to the group due to vague promises of land reform after the war.[8] Makapili was not used to fight the American forces[6] and was merely deployed to counter the recognized guerrilla and the Philippine Commonwealth military activity by anti-Japanese forces in rural areas.[8]

After the war ended in 1945, the group was disbanded and vilified for its involvement in some of the Japanese atrocities in the islands. Individual members faced trials for treason as a result.[9]

A 1951 film of the same name was made starring Justina David.[10]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "G.R. No. L-943". Retrieved 20 March 2015.
  2. ^ a b Edwards, Duval A. (2008). Jungle and Other Tales: True Stories of Historic Counterintelligence Operations. Tuczon, AZ: Wheatmark, Inc. p. 92. ISBN 9781587369452.
  3. ^ William J. Pomeroy, The Philippines: Colonialism, Collaboration, and Resistance, p. 114
  4. ^ Matthiessen, Sven (2015-11-06). Japanese Pan-Asianism and the Philippines from the Late Nineteenth Century to the End of World War II: Going to the Philippines Is Like Coming Home?. Leiden: BRILL. p. 190. ISBN 9789004305533.
  5. ^ Jovito Salonga, 'A tribute to Dr. Jose P. Laurel'
  6. ^ a b c Friend, Theodore (1988). The Blue-Eyed Enemy: Japan against the West in Java and Luzon, 1942-1945. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. p. 174. ISBN 0691055246.
  7. ^ "ASIAN JOURNAL a San Diego original. The 1st Asian Journal in Ca,USA. A Filipino American weekly. Online - Digital - Print Editions". Retrieved 20 March 2015.
  8. ^ a b Stein Ugelvik Larsen, Fascism Outside Europe, Columbia University Press, 2001, p. 785
  9. ^ "G.R. No. L-885". Retrieved 20 March 2015.
  10. ^ "Makapili (1951)". IMDb. 20 March 2015. Retrieved 20 March 2015.