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|95,788 (In the Isle of Man, Canada, the United States, and Australia)|
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The Manx (Manx: ny Manninee) are people originating in the Isle of Man in the Irish Sea in northern Europe. Their native culture is primarily Celtic, though with significant Norse and English influences.
Isle of Man demographics
According to the 2011 interim census, the Isle of Man is home to 84,655 people, of whom 26,218 reside in the island's capital Douglas. The largest proportion of the population was born on the island, but major settlement by English people and others has significantly altered the demographics. According to the 2011 census, 47.6% were born in the Isle of Man, and 37.2% were born in England, with smaller numbers born elsewhere: 3.4% in Scotland, 2.1% in Northern Ireland, 2.1% in the Republic of Ireland, 1.2% in Wales and 0.3% born in the Channel Islands, with 6.1% of the population having been born elsewhere in the world.
Manx people living in the UK were commonly grouped by the 2001 census under "White British". The extremely high ratio of "come-overs" to "natives" has brought with it changes in terms of culture, identity and speech. Manx people have also made a significant contribution elsewhere through migration. The Manx have a long tradition of moving to Liverpool for work, hence a lot of Liverpool people have Manx ancestry, among them Paul McCartney of The Beatles. A lot of Manx people emigrated to the United States, notably to Cuyahoga County and Lake County, Ohio.
Manx people have traditionally had three vernaculars:
- Manx, a Gaelic language.
- English language
The English language is used in Tynwald; the use of Manx there is restricted to a few formulaic phrases. However some Manx is used to a very limited extent in official publications, street signs etc., and education in the Manx language is offered in schools. The Manx language knowledge of most people on the island is limited to a few words.
History and politics
The earliest traces of people in the Isle of Man date to around 8000 BC, during the Mesolithic Period, also known as the Middle Stone Age. Small, nomadic family groups lived in camp sites, hunting wild game, fishing the rivers and coastal waters and gathering plant foods.
The Neolithic period was marked by important economic and social changes. By 4000 BC, people once reliant upon the uncultivated natural resources of the land and sea had adopted cereal growing and stock rearing, using imported species of grain and animals. Large scale clearance of natural woodland provided fields for crops and animal fodder.
During the Iron Age, Celtic influence began to arrive on the island. Based on inscriptions, the inhabitants appear to have used a Brythonic language; however, at some point, possibly c. 700 AD, it is assumed that Irish invasion or immigration formed the basis of a new culture, and the Manx came to speak Gaelic. This language has developed in isolation since, though it remains closely related to Irish, and Scottish Gaelic.
The Norse Kingdom of Mann and the Isles was created by Godred Crovan in 1079. The Norse had a major impact on the island, leaving behind Norse placenames, and influencing its distinctive political system, Tynwald (from Old Norse, Þingvóllr), which is one of the oldest parliamentary democracies in the world.
In 1266, under the Treaty of Perth, Norway's King Magnus VI ceded the isles to Scotland. For more than a century the Isle of Man, during the Anglo-Scottish wars, passed between Scotland and England. During this troubled period the Island was captured by the Scottish army of Robert the Bruce in 1313. Later in the 14th century, when England once more seized the Island, the Lordship – indeed kingship – was given to the Montacute family, Earls of Salisbury.
In 1405, the Lordship was granted to Sir John Stanley, whose descendants (later the Earls of Derby) ruled the Isle of Man for over 300 years. The lordship passed through a female line to the Dukes of Atholl in 1736, and was eventually purchased by the British Crown in 1765.
Since 1866, when the Isle of Man obtained a measure of home rule, the Manx people have developed into a modern nation with an economy based decreasingly on agriculture and fishing and increasingly first on tourism and then on financial and other services.
The 20th century saw a revival of interest in Manx music and dance, and in the Manx language, though the last native (first language) speaker of Manx died in the 1970s. In the middle of the 20th century, the Taoiseach Éamon de Valera visited, and was so distressed at the lack of support for Manx that he immediately had two recording vans sent over to record the language before it disappeared completely.
As the century progressed, the Manx tourist economy declined, first because of the effects of the two world wars and later as tourists began to take advantage of cheaper air travel to take European package holidays. The Manx government responded in the 1960s by promoting the island as an offshore financial centre. While this has had beneficial effects on the Manx economy, it has had its detractors, who have pointed to negative aspects such as the effects on local house prices, and perhaps also money laundering. The economic changes gave a short-lived impetus to Manx nationalism in the 1970s and 1980s, spawning Mec Vannin, a nationalist group, as well as the now-defunct Manx National Party and Fo Halloo ("Underground"), which mounted a direct-action campaign of spray-painting and house-burning. Nationalist politics has since declined and a number of its former proponents are now in mainstream politics.
The 1990s and early 21st century have seen a greater recognition of indigenous Manx culture, such as the first Manx-medium primary school, though Manx culture still remains on the margins of popular culture for the majority of Manx residents.
Manx political parties
Most Manx politicians are independents rather than party members. Political parties such as Liberal Vannin (currently the only party with MHKs) and the Manx Labour Party (which had several MHKs in the mid 20th century) have been active in recent years.
Work permits and immigration
Manx people, as British citizens, may travel and work freely in the United Kingdom. Passports issued on the Island are marked 'British Islands – Isle of Man', instead of 'United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland', and these passports are issued to all British citizens resident on the island.
Manx people without a family link or past residency in the UK are restricted from exercising the right to live and work in other EU countries.
The Isle of Man is part of the Common Travel Area, which means there are no immigration controls on travel to and from the UK and Republic of Ireland; however a work permit is generally required in order to work on the island.
- List of Manx people
- List of residents of the Isle of Man
- Manx surnames, surnames originating on the Isle of Man
- Manx Australian
- Statistics Canada. "2011 National Household Survey: Data tables". Retrieved 11 October 2014.
- "Table 1. First, Second, and Total Responses to the Ancestry Question by Detailed Ancestry Code: 2000". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2013-05-05.
- Summary results of the Isle of Man Census 2011
- Manx Beatle
- Ohio Manx
- "Hunter Gatherers – Isle of Man Government Manx National Heritage:". Gov.im. Archived from the original on 16 March 2012. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
- "First Farmers – Isle of Man Government Manx National Heritage:". Gov.im. Archived from the original on 8 November 2012. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
- "Celtic Farmers – Isle of Man Government Manx National Heritage:". Gov.im. Archived from the original on 16 March 2012. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
- "The Vikings – Isle of Man Government Manx National Heritage:". Gov.im. Archived from the original on 12 November 2012. Retrieved 17 August 2012.