List of tallest buildings in Vancouver

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Vancouver skyline, 2015

Vancouver, British Columbia, in Canada has more high-rise buildings per capita than most North American metropolitan centres with populations exceeding 1,000,000.[citation needed] Vancouver's population density is the 4th-highest in North America and the city has more residential high-rises per capita than any other city on the continent.[dead link][1]

There are roughly 650 high-rise buildings that equal or exceed 35 m (115 ft),[2] and roughly 50 buildings that equal or exceed 100 metres (328 ft). Vancouver has 27 protected view corridors which limit the construction of tall buildings which interfere with the line of sight to the North Shore Mountains, the downtown skyline, and the waters of English Bay and the Strait of Georgia.[3] Almost all of Vancouver's buildings that exceed 100 metres in height are located within Downtown Vancouver.[4]

The tallest building in Vancouver is the 62-storey, 201 m (659 ft) Living Shangri-La[5] and represents the city's efforts to add visual interest into Vancouver's skyline.[6] The Private Residences at Hotel Georgia completed in 2012 at 157 m (515 ft) and 48 stories is currently the third-tallest in the city.[7] One Wall Centre, at 150 m (492 ft) tall, with 48 storeys, is currently the city's fourth tallest building.[8] One Wall Centre has the distinction of being the first building in the world to use a tuned liquid column damper to control wind vibrations.[8] The recently completed Trump Vancouver at 188 metres is now the city's 2nd tallest building.[9]

Vancouver's history of skyscrapers began with the Dominion Building (1909), the Sun Tower (1911) (originally named the World Tower, then the News-Advertiser Tower, after the newspaper it was home to in each case), the Vancouver Block (1912), the second Hotel Vancouver (1916) and the Marine Building (1929). The third Hotel Vancouver was completed in 1939 at 111 m (364 ft) tall, and was the first building to have stood taller than 100 m (328 ft) in the city.[10]

Building construction remained slow in the city until the late 1960s, other than the completion of the new BC Electric headquarters (soon renamed BC Hydro headquarters, and today the Electra condominiums). From 1968 to 1981, Vancouver witnessed a major expansion of skyscraper and high-rise construction. Many of the city's office towers were completed during this period, such as the Harbour Centre, Bentall Centre, Royal Centre, Granville Square and Pacific Centre office tower/mall complexes.[11][12] A ten-year lull in building construction came after the expansion, though Vancouver experienced a larger second building expansion beginning in 1991 and continuing into the present.[1]

In the last two decades Vancouver's pioneering urbanism, with its density and innovative developments, has been emulated by major cities throughout the world.[citation needed] As part of the city's push for liveable high-density areas (called Vancouverism by planning theorists),[dead link][13] many mixed-use and residential buildings were built, such as Concord Pacific Place[clarification needed], the largest master-planned residential complex in North America.[14] One Wall Centre and Living Shangri-La were the city's first buildings to break the 150 m (492 ft) and 200 m (656 ft) marks, respectively.[5][8]

Tallest buildings[edit]

This list ranks buildings in Vancouver that stand at least 100 m (328 ft) tall, based on CTBUH height measurement standards. This includes spires and architectural details but does not include antenna masts. An equal sign (=) following a rank indicates the same height between two or more buildings.

Rank Name Image Height Floors Year Notes Ref
1 Living Shangri-La Living Shangri-La from One Wall Centre.jpg 200.9 m (659 ft) 62 2009 This is the 33rd tallest building in Canada. It is also the tallest building in the city of Vancouver and in British Columbia. [15]
2 Trump International Hotel and Tower Trump Tower Vancouver, August 2016.jpg 187.8 m (616 ft) 63 2016 Tied with Altus in Burnaby for the second tallest building in British Columbia. [16]
3 The Private Residences at Hotel Georgia Private Residences at Hotel Georgia 2015.jpg 158.5 m (520 ft) 48 2012 [17]
4 Vancouver House The Tower Rises, Vancouver House, Vancouver.jpg 150.3 m (493 ft) 49 2019 Topped out. Features a top-heavy design that is unique in Vancouver. [18]
5 One Wall Centre One Wall Centre.jpg 149.8 m (491 ft) 48 2001 This building is also known as the Sheraton Wall Centre. [19]
6 Shaw Tower Shaw Tower 2015.jpg 149.0 m (488.8 ft) 41 2004 [20][21]
7 Harbour Centre Harbour Centre 2015.jpg 147.0 m (482.3 ft) 42 1977 This is the tallest office building in the city. [11][22]
8 MNP Tower MNP Tower 2015.jpg 143.1 m (469 ft)9 36 2015 Seeking Platinum LEED certification, will be Gold LEED at least. [23]
9 The Melville Melville residential tower.jpg 141.4 m (464 ft) 43 2007 This building is the tallest all-residential tower in Vancouver. The building also has the tallest rooftop pool in the city. [24][25]
10 Royal Centre Royal Centre Vancouver.jpg 141.0 m (462.6 ft) 37 1973 This building is also known as the RBC Tower or Royal Bank Tower. [12][26]
11 Bentall 5 Bentall5.jpg 140.1 m (460 ft) 34 2007 [27][28]
12 Park Place Park Place Vancouver 2015 Sunny.jpg 140.0 m (459.3 ft) 35 1984 This building is the largest office building in British Columbia with a floor area of 64,856 square metres (698,104 sq ft). [29]
13 Fairmont Pacific Rim Fairmont Pacific Rim 2015.jpg 139.6 m (458 ft) 44 2010 [30][31]
14 Granville Square Granville Square in 2015.jpg 138.4 m (454 ft) 30 1973 Also known as 200 Granville Square. The roof of the building features Vancouver Harbour Control Tower, the highest air traffic control tower in the world. [32][33]
15= Four Bentall Centre Bentall 4 office tower.jpg 138.0 m (452.8 ft) 35 1981 [34][35]
15= Scotia Tower Scotia Tower Vancouver 2015.jpg 138.0 m (452.8 ft) 34 1977 [36][37]
17 Telus Garden Telus Garden 201807.jpg 135.6 m (445 ft) 54 2014 LEED Platinum for Office Building and LEED Gold certification for Residential Tower as part of the new downtown Telus headquarters project. [38]
18 Patina Patina.jpg 127.4 m (418 ft) 42 2011 [39][40]
19 TD Tower TD Tower Vancouver.jpg 127.1 m (417 ft) 30 1972 This building is also known as the Toronto Dominion Tower. [41][42]
20 Capitol Residences Capitol Residences tower.jpg 126.2 m (414 ft) 43 2011 [43]
21 The Charleson 125.0 m (410.1 ft) 42 2018 [44]
22 The Mark The Mark from Granville Bridge.jpg 123.4 m (405 ft) 41 2013 [45]
23 Woodward's 43 Woodwards W-43.jpg 122.3 m (401 ft) 41 2010 This building is also known as W43 or the W Building. [46]
24= 1300 Richards Street 121.9 m (400 ft) 43 2017 [47]
24= Three Bentall Centre Bentall 3.jpg 121.9 m (400 ft) 32 1974 This building is also known as the Bank of Montreal Tower. [48][49]
26 Jameson House Jameson House.jpg 118.6 m (389 ft) 38 2011 [50][51]
27 The Ritz Ritz residential tower.jpg 118.3 m (388 ft) 37 2008 [52][53]
28 West One West One tower.jpg 117.0 m (383.9 ft) 38 2002 This building is also known as Beach Crescent - West One. [54]
29 Cathedral Place Cathedral Place in 2015.jpg 116.4 m (382 ft) 23 1991 [55]
30= Marriott Pinnacle Hotel Marriott Vancouver 2015.jpg 114.3 m (375 ft) 35 2000 [56]
30= The Exchange 114.3 m (375 ft) 31 2017 [57]
32 West Pender Place 1 West Pender Place.jpg 112.8 m (370 ft) 36 2011 [58]
33 Sheraton Wall Centre Hotel - West Tower Sheraton Wall Centre Hotel.jpg 110.9 m (364 ft) 35 1994 [59]
34 Hotel Vancouver Hotel vanc 2007.jpg 110.6 m (363 ft) 17 1939 [60]
35 Venus Venus in Vancouver.jpg 109.4 m (359 ft) 34 2000 [61]
36 Hyatt Regency Vancouver Hyatt Regency Vancouver 2015.jpg 108.8 m (357 ft) 35 1973 This building is also known as the Hyatt Regency Hotel. [62]
37 Residences on Georgia (West) Residences on Georgia West Tower.jpg 108 m (354 ft) 36 1998 [63]
38 Marine Gateway North Marine Gateway stores.jpg 107 m (351 ft) 30 2015 The only Vancouver skyscraper exceeding 100 metres in height that is located outside of Downtown Vancouver. [64]
39= The Pinnacle The Pinnacle Vancouver.jpg 106.1 m (348 ft) 36 1996 [65][66]
39= Callisto Callisto residential tower.jpg 106.1 m (348 ft) 35 2004 [67]
39= Dolce Vita residential tower.jpg 106.1 m (348 ft) 31 2010 [68]
42= Landmark 33 Landmark 33.jpg 106 m (348 ft) 35 1998 This building is also known as Marina Pointe - Landmark 33. [69]
42= Residences on Georgia (East) Residences on Georgia.jpg 106 m (348 ft) 36 1998 [70]
44 Two Harbour Green Two Harbour Green.jpg 105.1 m (345 ft) 31 2008 [71]
45= 1177 West Hastings 1177 West Hastings.jpg 104.2 m (342 ft) 27 1968 [72]
45= Oceanic Plaza Oceanic Plaza Tower.jpg 104.2 m (342 ft) 26 1977 [73]
47 1075 West Georgia 1075 West Georgia.jpg 103.6 m (340 ft) 27 1968 Originally known as the MacMillan Bloedel Building. [74]
48 Quay West Tower I Quay West I.jpg 103 m (338 ft) 35 2002 This building is also known as Marina Crescent - Quay West I. [75][76]
49 Elan Elan Residential Tower 2015.jpg 102.7 m (337 ft) 34 2008 [77]
50 FortisBC Centre Fortis Tower.jpg 101.2 m (332 ft) 24 1992 Located at 1111 West Georgia Street, it was formerly known as the Terasen Centre and was previously the site of the Rayonier Building (originally known as the Alaska White Pine Building), ca. 1954 to 1990. [78]
51= Paris Place Paris Place.jpg 100.5 m (330 ft) 33 1995 [79]
51= HSBC Building HSBC Building Vancouver 2015.jpg 100.5 m (330 ft) 23 1987 [80]
53 Canaccord Tower Canaccord Tower.jpg 100.3 m (329 ft) 24 1981 This building is also known as Canaccord Place. [81]
54 Coast Plaza Hotel & Suites Coast Plaza Hotel.jpg 100.2 m (329 ft) 32 1969 [82]
55= Carmana Plaza Carmana Plaza.jpg 100 m (330 ft) 34 1999 [83]
55= Guinness Tower Guinness Tower Vancouver.jpg 100 m (330 ft) 25 1969 [84]

* Indicates buildings that are still under construction but have been topped out.
= Indicates buildings that have the same rank because they have the same height.

High-resolution panorama of a large, brightly lit skyline at night. A mountain range lies in the background, and a bridge is visible on the left-hand side of the panorama.
A high resolution panorama of Vancouver with the mountains behind, looking roughly north from the vicinity of Broadway and Oak Street. The bridge on the left of the image is the Granville Street Bridge.

Tallest proposed and under construction[edit]

Under construction[edit]

This table lists skyscrapers that are under construction in Vancouver that will rise over 100 m (328 ft) tall.

Name Height Floors Year Notes Ref
The Butterfly 178.6 m (586 ft) 57 2023 Upon completion it will be the third tallest building in Vancouver. [85]
One Burrard Place 168 m (551 ft) 53 2020 This tower will be the tallest in the new Burrard Place complex and upon completion it will be the third tallest building in Vancouver. [86][87]
The Stack 162.3 m (532 ft) 38 2022 [88]
Vancouver Centre II 122.8 m (403 ft) 33 2021 [89]
Tate on Howe 115.2 m (378 ft) 39 2021 [90]

Proposed[edit]

This table lists proposed skyscrapers in Vancouver that are planned to rise over 100 m (328 ft) tall.

Name Height Floors Year proposed Status Notes Ref
1075 Nelson street 178 m (584 ft) 60 To be determined Proposed
601 Beach Crescent 171 m (561 ft) 55 To be determined Proposed [91]
1445 West Georgia 156.7 m (514 ft) 38 To be determined Approved [92]
1500 West Georgia 152 m (499 ft) 51 To be determined Proposed [93]
1550 Alberni Street 135 m (443 ft) 40 To be determined Proposed [94]

Tallest demolished[edit]

This table lists buildings in Vancouver that were demolished or destroyed and at one time stood at least 100 metres (328 ft) in height.

Name Image Height
m (ft)
Floors Completed
in
Demolished
in
Notes Ref
Empire Landmark Hotel Empire Hotel Landmark.jpg 120.1 m (394 ft) 42 1973 2018-2019 This building was the tallest free standing hotel in the city. This building was often referred to by its original name, the Sheraton Landmark. The hotel and its restaurant closed on September 30, 2017 and the building was demolished, floor by floor between March 2018 and May 2019. [95][96]

Timeline of tallest buildings[edit]

This is a list of buildings that in the past held the title of tallest building in Vancouver.

Name Image Street address Years as tallest Height
m (ft)
Floors Ref
Dominion Building Vancouver Dominion Building.jpg 207 W. Hastings St. 1910–1912 53.3 m (175 ft) 14 [97]
Sun Tower Vancouver Sun Tower.jpg 100 W. Pender St. 1912–1914 84.1 m (276 ft) 17 [98]
Marine Building Marinebuildingvancouver.jpg 355 Burrard St. 1930–1939 97.8 m (321 ft) 21 [99]
Hotel Vancouver Hotel vanc 2007.jpg 900 W. Georgia St. 1939–1972 111.0 m (364.2 ft) 17 [100]
TD Tower TD Tower Vancouver.jpg 700 W. Georgia St. 1972–1973 127.1 m (417 ft) 30 [42]
Royal Centre Royal Centre Vancouver.jpg 1055 W. Georgia St. 1973–1977 141.4 m (464 ft) 37 [26]
Harbour Centre Harbour Centre 2015.jpg 555 W. Hastings St. 1977–2001 146.6 m (481 ft) 28 [22]
One Wall Centre One Wall Centre.jpg 1000 Burrard St. 2001–2008 149.7 m (491 ft) 48 [19]
Living Shangri-La Living Shangri-La from One Wall Centre.jpg 1120 W. Georgia St. 2008–present 200.9 m (659 ft) 62 [15]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

General
  • "SkyscraperCenter Vancouver". CTBUH. Retrieved 2016-02-03.
  • "High-rise Buildings of Vancouver". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2009-10-25.
  • "Vancouver". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2008-07-25.
Specific
  1. ^ a b "About Vancouver". Emporis.com. Archived from the original on 2008-03-17. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  2. ^ "Tall Buildings of Vancouver". Emporis.com. Archived from the original on 2008-02-25. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  3. ^ City of Vancouver (February 2011). View Protection Guidelines (PDF) (Report). City of Vancouver Planning Department. Retrieved August 18, 2013.
  4. ^ "Vancouver - The Skyscraper Center". www.skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 2019-09-29.
  5. ^ a b "Living Shangri-La". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2008-06-30.
  6. ^ "Downtown Vancouver Skyline Study" (PDF). Special Council Meeting Minutes. City of Vancouver. 7 and 23 April 1997. Retrieved 2008-12-13. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  7. ^ "The Private Residences". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  8. ^ a b c "One Wall Centre". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2008-06-30.
  9. ^ "Trump International Hotel & Tower Vancouver - The Skyscraper Center". www.skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 2019-09-29.
  10. ^ "The Fairmont Hotel Vancouver". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  11. ^ a b "Harbour Centre". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  12. ^ a b "Royal Centre". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  13. ^ Vancouverism: Definitions "Vancouverism" Check |url= value (help). Canadian Architect. Retrieved 2008-12-20.
  14. ^ "Concord Pacific Place, Vancouver". Emporis.com. Archived from the original on 2007-05-06. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  15. ^ a b "Living Shangri-La". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  16. ^ "Trump International Hotel & Tower Vancouver, Vancouver - SkyscraperPage.com". skyscraperpage.com. Retrieved 2019-08-29.
  17. ^ "Hotel Georgia - The Skyscraper Center". www.skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 2019-08-29.
  18. ^ "Vancouver House - The Skyscraper Center". www.skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 2019-09-21.
  19. ^ a b "One Wall Centre". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  20. ^ "Shaw Tower". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  21. ^ "Shaw Tower". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2008-12-18.
  22. ^ a b "Harbour Centre". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  23. ^ "1021 West Hastings". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2011-01-10.
  24. ^ "The Melville". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  25. ^ "The Melville". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2008-12-18.
  26. ^ a b "Royal Centre". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  27. ^ "Bentall 5". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  28. ^ "5 Bentall Centre". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2008-12-18.
  29. ^ "Park Place". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2008-12-18.
  30. ^ "Fairmont Pacific Rim Vancouver". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  31. ^ "Fairmont Pacific Rim Vancouver". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2008-12-18.
  32. ^ "Granville Square". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  33. ^ "200 Granville Square". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2008-12-18.
  34. ^ "Four Bentall Centre". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  35. ^ "Four Bentall Centre". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2008-12-18.
  36. ^ "The Scotia Tower". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  37. ^ "Scotia Tower". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2008-12-18.
  38. ^ "Telus's Vancouver condos fly off the market". The Globe and Mail. 2012-04-01. Retrieved 2016-09-23.
  39. ^ "Patina". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  40. ^ "Patina". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2011-04-21.
  41. ^ "Toronto Dominion Tower". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  42. ^ a b "Toronto Dominion Tower". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  43. ^ "Capitol Residences". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2008-12-18.
  44. ^ "The Charleson, Vancouver - SkyscraperPage.com". skyscraperpage.com. Retrieved 2019-09-15.
  45. ^ "The Mark". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2015-05-23.
  46. ^ "Woodward's 43 - The Skyscraper Center". www.skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 2019-12-29.
  47. ^ "Peter Wall Mansion & Residences, Vancouver - SkyscraperPage.com". skyscraperpage.com. Retrieved 2019-09-15.
  48. ^ "Bank of Montreal Tower". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2008-12-18.
  49. ^ "Three Bentall Centre". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  50. ^ "Jameson Tower". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2008-12-18.
  51. ^ "Jameson House". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  52. ^ "The Ritz". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  53. ^ "The Ritz". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2008-12-18.
  54. ^ "West One - The Skyscraper Center". www.skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 2019-09-21.
  55. ^ "Cathedral Place - The Skyscraper Center". www.skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 2019-09-21.
  56. ^ "Marriott Pinnacle Hotel - The Skyscraper Center". www.skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 2019-09-21.
  57. ^ "The Exchange - The Skyscraper Center". www.skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 2019-09-21.
  58. ^ "West Pender Place - The Skyscraper Center". www.skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 2019-09-21.
  59. ^ "Sheraton Wall Centre Hotel West Tower - The Skyscraper Center". www.skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 2019-09-27.
  60. ^ "Fairmont Hotel Vancouver - The Skyscraper Center". www.skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 2019-09-21.
  61. ^ "Venus - The Skyscraper Center". www.skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 2019-09-21.
  62. ^ "Hyatt Regency Vancouver - The Skyscraper Center". www.skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 2019-09-21.
  63. ^ "Residences on Georgia West - The Skyscraper Center". www.skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 2019-09-27.
  64. ^ "Marine Gateway North Residential - The Skyscraper Center". www.skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 2019-09-27.
  65. ^ "The Pinnacle". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  66. ^ "The Pinnacle". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2008-12-18.
  67. ^ "Callisto - The Skyscraper Center". www.skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 2019-09-27.
  68. ^ "Dolce - The Skyscraper Center". www.skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 2019-09-27.
  69. ^ "Landmark 33 - The Skyscraper Center". www.skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 2019-09-27.
  70. ^ "Residences on Georgia East - The Skyscraper Center". www.skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 2019-09-27.
  71. ^ "Two Harbour Green - The Skyscraper Center". www.skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 2019-09-27.
  72. ^ "1177 West Hastings - The Skyscraper Center". www.skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 2019-09-27.
  73. ^ "Oceanic Plaza - The Skyscraper Center". www.skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 2019-09-27.
  74. ^ "1075 West Georgia - The Skyscraper Center". www.skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 2019-09-27.
  75. ^ "QuayWest Tower I". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  76. ^ "Marina Crescent - QuayWest I". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2008-12-18.
  77. ^ "Elan - The Skyscraper Center". www.skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 2019-09-27.
  78. ^ "Fortis BC - The Skyscraper Center". www.skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 2019-09-27.
  79. ^ "Paris Place - The Skyscraper Center". www.skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 2019-09-27.
  80. ^ "HSBC Building - The Skyscraper Center". www.skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 2019-09-27.
  81. ^ "Canaccord Tower - The Skyscraper Center". www.skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 2019-09-27.
  82. ^ "Coast Plaza Hotel & Suites - The Skyscraper Center". www.skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 2019-09-27.
  83. ^ "Carmana Plaza - The Skyscraper Center". www.skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 2019-09-27.
  84. ^ "Guinness Tower - The Skyscraper Center". www.skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 2019-09-27.
  85. ^ "The Butterfly - The Skyscraper Center". www.skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 2019-09-29.
  86. ^ "DailyHive". Retrieved 2019-08-15.
  87. ^ "One Burrard Place - The Skyscraper Center". www.skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 2019-09-29.
  88. ^ "The Stack - The Skyscraper Center". www.skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 2019-09-29.
  89. ^ "Vancouver Centre II". Retrieved 2018-01-17.
  90. ^ "Tate on Howe". Retrieved 2015-05-31.
  91. ^ "601 Beach Crescent - The Skyscraper Center". www.skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 2019-10-09.
  92. ^ "1445 West Georgia - The Skyscraper Center". www.skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 2019-10-09.
  93. ^ "1500 West Georgia - The Skyscraper Center". www.skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 2019-10-09.
  94. ^ "1550 Alberni Street - The Skyscraper Center". www.skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 2019-10-09.
  95. ^ "Empire Landmark Hotel". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  96. ^ "Empire Landmark Hotel". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2008-12-18.
  97. ^ City of Vancouver's plaque on the building, photo visible here
  98. ^ "Sun Tower". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  99. ^ "Marine Building". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  100. ^ "Hotel Vancouver". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2008-12-13.

External links[edit]