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|Native to||India |
(Migrant communities in Pakistan and Nepal)
|7.8 million, partial count (2011 census)|
(additional speakers counted under Hindi)
Marwari (Mārwāṛī; also rendered Marwadi, Marvadi) is a Rajasthani language spoken in the Indian state of Rajasthan. Marwari is also found in the neighboring state of Gujarat and Haryana, Eastern Pakistan and some migrant communities in himalayan country Nepal. With some 7.9 million or so speakers (ce. 2001), it is one of the largest varieties of Rajasthani. Most speakers live in Rajasthan, with a quarter million in Sindh and a tenth that number in Nepal. There are two dozen dialects of Marwari.
Marwari is popularly written in Devanagari script, as is Hindi, Marathi, Nepali and Sanskrit; although it was historically written in Mahajani. Marwari currently has no official status as a language of education and government. The state of Rajasthan recognizes Marwari as an official language.
It is said that Marwari and Gujarati evolved from Gujjar Bhakha or Maru-Gurjar, language of the Gurjars. Formal grammar of Gurjar Apabhraṃśa was written by Jain monk and eminent Gujarati scholar Hemachandra Suri.
Marwari is primarily spoken in the Indian state of Rajasthan. Marwari speakers have dispersed widely throughout India and other countries but are found most notably in the neighboring state of Gujarat and in Eastern Pakistan. Speakers are also found in Bhopal. With around 7.9 million speakers in India according to the 2001 census.
It shares a 50%-65% lexical similarity with Hindi (this is based on a Swadesh 210 word list comparison). Marwari has many cognate words with Hindi. Notable phonetic correspondences include /s/ in Hindi with /h/ in Marwari. For example, /sona/ 'gold' (Hindi) and /hono/ 'gold' (Marwari).
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Marwari language has a structure that is quite similar to Hindi. Its primary word order is subject–object–verb. Most of the pronouns and interrogatives used in Marwari are distinct from those used in Hindi. At least Marwari proper and Harauti have a clusivity distinction.
Marwari Vocabulary is somewhat similar to other Western Indo-Aryan languages, especially Rajasthani and Gujarati, however, elements of grammar and basic terminology differ enough to significantly impede mutual intelligibility. In addition, Marwari uses many words found in Sanskrit (the ancestor of most North Indian languages) which are not found in Hindi.
Marwari is generally written in the Devanagari script, although the Mahajani script is traditionally associated with the language. Traditionally it was written in Mahajani script (which does not have vowels, only consonants). In Pakistan it is written in the Perso-Arabic script with modifications. Historical Marwari orthography for Devanagari uses other characters in place of standard Devanagari letters.
- Lakhan Gusain (2004). Marwari. Munich: Lincom Europa (LW/M 427)
- "Statement 1: Abstract of speakers' strength of languages and mother tongues - 2011". www.censusindia.gov.in. Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 7 July 2018.
- Ernst Kausen, 2006. Die Klassifikation der indogermanischen Sprachen (Microsoft Word, 133 KB)
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Rajasthani". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Ajay Mitra Shastri; R. K. Sharma; Devendra Handa (2005). Revealing India's past: recent trends in art and archaeology. Aryan Books International. p. 227. ISBN 978-81-7305-287-3.
It is an established fact that during 10th-11th century.....Interestingly the language was known as the Gujjar Bhakha..
- "Census of India Website : Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India". censusindia.gov.in.
- Masica, Colin P. (1991). The Indo-Aryan languages. Cambridge language surveys. Cambridge University Press. pp. 12, 444. ISBN 978-0-521-23420-7.
- Pandey, Anshuman. 2010. Proposal to Encode the Marwari Letter DDA for Devanagari
|Marwari language test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator|